K. B. Hedgewar
|Keshav Baliram Hedgewar|
1 April 1889|
Nagpur, British India
|Died||21 June 1940
Nagpur, British India
|Occupation||Physician, Political activist|
|Known for||Founder of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh|
Keshav Baliram Hedgewar (1 April 1889 – 21 June 1940) was the founding Sarsanghachalak (supreme leader) of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS). Hedgewar founded the RSS in Nagpur in 1925, with the intention of promoting the concept of a united India deeply rooted in indigenous ideology. He drew upon influences from social and spiritual Indians such as Swami Vivekananda, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Aurobindo to develop the core philosophy of the RSS.
Hedgewar was born on 1 April 1889 in Nagpur. His parents were Baliram pant Hedgewar and Revati. His father was an orthodox priest and they were a family of modest means. When Keshav was thirteen, both his parents succumbed to the epidemic of plague. He had to suffer great hardships on account of being orphaned but never did he seek any help from others as he had a lot of self-respect. Despite travails, his attention to his studies was never affected. His elder brothers Mahadev pant and Sitaram pant ensured that he was provided with good education.
When he was studying in Neel City High School in Nagpur, he was rusticated for singing "Vande Mataram" in violation of the circular issued by the then British government. As a result he had to pursue his high school studies at the Rashtriya Vidyalaya in Yavatmal and later in Pune. After matriculating, he was sent to Kolkata by B. S. Moonje (National President of Hindu Mahasabha) in 1910 to pursue his medical studies. After passing the L.M.&S. Examination from the National Medical College in June 1914, he completed one year apprenticeship and returned to Nagpur in 1915 as a doctor.
Participation in Indian independence movement
On his return to Nagpur, the financial condition of his family had worsened. They hoped that Hedgewar would open a dispensary and help his elder brothers. Hedgewar did not intend to set up a medical practice and had made up his mind to become a full-time political activist and work for the cause of the Indian Independence. Since his arrival in Nagpur, Hedgewar was busy organising the revolutionaries in Nagpur, under the guidance of Bhaoji Karve. He became involved with social work and also with the Bal Gangadhar Tilak faction of the Congress Party, through which he developed a close association with Moonje who later became his mentor.
In the 1920 session of Indian National Congress held in Nagpur, Hedgewar was appointed as the Deputy Chief of volunteers cadre overseeing the whole function. This volunteer organisation was named as Bharat Swayamsewak Mandal and was headed by Laxman V. Paranjape. He and his colleagues unsuccessfully campaigned for the passage of a resolution declaring 'Poorna Swaraj (complete self-rule) as the goal of the Congress.
He participated actively in the Non-co-operation movement in 1920 and undertook a brisk tour in village after village in the Central Provinces for mass awakening. He was promptly jailed and sentenced to one year rigorous imprisonment. During this time, he was also a member of the Hindustan Republican Association.
He was closely associated with revolutionaries like Nalini Kishor Guha. After his return from Calcutta to Nagpur, he used his contacts to organise revolutionaries with a plan of "armed revolt" which, according to P.L. Joshi was dropped on the advice of Tilak. Hedgewar's revolutionary group was the biggest one and consisted of 150 revolutionaries. G.M. Huddar says Hedgewar's revolutionary group resembled a secret "conspiratorial group" of young men. His plan of armed revolt was not an isolated case of adventurism but it was coincided by his manifesto for Indians Independence which was to be declared from many countries. He postponed his plan on the advise of Dr B. S. Moonje.
In April 1930, Mahatma Gandhi gave a call far 'Satyagraha' against the British Government. Hedgewar participated in the famous 'Jungle Satyagraha' along with others. They were promptly arrested and sentenced to nine months' imprisonment and sent to Akola jail. Hedgewar was elected as National Vice-President of Akhil Bharatiy Mahasabha in 1937 & 1939.
Formation of RSS
Hedgewar founded RSS in 1925 on the day of Vijayadashami with an aim to organise Hindu community for its cultural and spiritual regeneration and make it a tool in getting the country free from foreign domination. Hedgewar created a female wing of the organization in 1936.
Hedgewar actively participated in Indian National Congress in 1920s. But he got disillusioned with their policies and politics. The outbreak of the Hindu-Muslim riot in 1923 made him ponder over an alternate model of nation-building in India. He was deeply influenced by the writings of Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. He considered that the cultural and religious heritage of Hindus should be the basis of Indian nationhood.
His initial followers, among others, included Bhaiyaji Dani, Babasaheb Apte, Balasaheb Deoras, and Madhukar Rao Bhagwat. The Sangh was growing in Nagpur and the surrounding districts. And it soon began to spread to other provinces too. Hedgewar went to a number of places and inspired the youths for taking up the Sangh work. Gradually all his associates had begun to endearingly call him as 'Doctorji.' Upon his urging, Swayamsevaks went to far-off cities like Kashi, Lucknow etc., for their further education and started the Shakhas there too. National leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi and Madan Mohan Malaviya also visited RSS shakas.
Death and Legacy
His health deteriorated in later years of his life. Often he suffered from chronic back pain. He started delegating his responsibilities to M.S.Golwalkar, who later succeeded him as Sarsanghachalak of RSS. In January 1940, he was taken to Rajgir in Bihar for the hot-spring treatment.
He attended the annual Sangh Shiksha Varg in 1940, where he gave his last message to Swayamsevaks, saying: "Today, I am seeing a mini-Bharat before me. Let there be no occasion in the lives of any of you to say that you were once a Sangh Swayamsevak some years ago." He died on the morning of 21 June 1940 in Nagpur. His last rites were performed in the locality of Resham Bagh in Nagpur.
Institutes named after him
- Dr.Hedgewar Institute Of Medical Sciences & Research (Dhimsr) Amravati
- Dr.Hedgewar Shikshan Pratishthan Ahmednagar
- Taneja, S. P. (2009). Society and politics in India. Delhi, India: Swastik Publishers & Distributors. p. 332. ISBN 978-81-89981-29-7.
- N.V.Subramanian (29 August 2012). "All in the Family". Retrieved 31 August 2012.[dead link]
- Kelkar, D. V. (4 February 1950). "The R.S.S.". Economic Weekly. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- Inamdar, N. R. (1983). Political Thought and Leadership of Lokmanya Tilak. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 370.
- Huddar, G.M. (7 October 1979). "RSS and Netaji". The Illustrated Weekly of India (1).
- Sinha, Rakesh (24 June 1996). "Hedgewar's role in freedom struggle". Indian Express.
- Moyser, George (1991). Politics and religion in the modern world. London New York: Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-415-02328-3.
- Jayawardena, Kumari (1996). Embodied violence : communalising women's sexuality in South Asia. London New Jersey: Zed Books. pp. 126–167. ISBN 978-1-85649-448-9.
- "Hindutva's Other Half". Hindustan Times. April 27, 2014.
- Malik, Yogendra (1994). Hindu nationalists in India : the rise of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Boulder: Westview Press. p. 158. ISBN 0-8133-8810-4.
- "Dr.Hedgewar Institute Of Medical Sciences & Research, Amravati".
- "Dr.Hedgewar Shikshan Pratishthan, Ahmednagar.".
- Sinha, Rakesh (2003). Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar (in Hindi). New Delhi: Publication Division, Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India. ASIN B00H1YYO3M.
- Bapu, Prabhu (2013). Hindu Mahasabha in Colonial North India, 1915-1930: Construction Nation and History. Routledge. ISBN 0415671655.
- Basu, Tapan; Sarkar, Tanika (1993). Khaki Shorts and Saffron Flags: A Critique of the Hindu Right. Orient Longman. ISBN 0863113834.
- Bhishikar, C. P. (2014) [First published in 1979]. Keshav: Sangh Nirmata (in Hindi). New Delhi: Suruchi Sahitya Prakashan. ISBN 9381500185.
- Chitkara, M. G. (2004). Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge. APH Publishing. ISBN 8176484652.
- Curran, Jean Alonzo (1951). Militant Hinduism in Indian Politics: A Study of the R.S.S.. International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- Frykenberg, Robert Eric (1996). "Hindu fundamentalism and the structural stability of India". In Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby. Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies and Militance (University of Chicago Press). pp. 233–235. ISBN 0226508846.
- Golwalkar, M. S. (1980). Bunch of thoughts. Bangalore: Jagarana Prakashana.
- Goyal, Des Raj (1979). Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. Delhi: Radha Krishna Prakashan. ISBN 0836405668.
- Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996). The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1850653011.
- Kelkar, Sanjeev (2011). Lost Years of the RSS. SAGE. ISBN 978-81-321-0590-9.
- Sirsikar, V. M. (1988). "My Years in the RSS". In Eleanor Zelliott; Maxine Bernsten. The Experience of Hinduism: Essays on Religion in Maharastra (SUNY Press). pp. 190–203. ISBN 0887066623.