Kevin A. Lynch
- See Kevin Lynch for other people with this name.
Kevin Andrew Lynch (1918 Chicago, Illinois - 1984 Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts) was an American urban planner and author. His most influential books include The Image of the City (1960) and What Time is This Place? (1972).
Lynch studied at Yale University, Taliesin (studio) under Frank Lloyd Wright, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, and received a Bachelor's degree in city planning from MIT in 1947. He worked in Greensboro, NC as an urban planner but was recruited to teach at MIT by Lloyd Rodwin. He began lecturing at MIT the following year, became an assistant professor in 1949, was tenured as an associate professor in 1955, and became a full professor in 1963.
After receiving a grant from the Ford Foundation to study urban form in Italy, Lynch and his MIT teaching colleague Gyorgy Kepes were awarded a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to study perceptions of the urban environment and urban form. Awarded in 1954, the Rockefeller Foundation grant was the first in a series of awards made to researchers including Jane Jacobs, Ian McHarg, and Edmund Bacon for studies in urban design in the 1950s and early 1960s. Lynch and Kepes' research was published in 1960 as Lynch's book The Image of the City.
Lynch provided seminal contributions to the field of city planning through empirical research on how individuals perceive and navigate the urban landscape. His books explore the presence of time and history in the urban environment, how urban environments affect children, and how to harness human perception of the physical form of cities and regions as the conceptual basis for good urban design.
Parallel to his academic work, Lynch practiced planning and urban design in partnership with Stephen Carr, with whom he founded Carr Lynch Associates in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Lynch died at his summer home in Martha's Vineyard in 1984.
The Image of the City
Lynch's most famous work, The Image of the City published in 1960, is the result of a five-year study on how observers take in information of the city. Using three disparate cities as examples (Boston, Jersey City, and Los Angeles), Lynch reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with five elements:
- paths, the streets, sidewalks, trails, and other channels in which people travel;
- edges, perceived boundaries such as walls, buildings, and shorelines;
- districts, relatively large sections of the city distinguished by some identity or character;
- nodes, focal points, intersections or loci;
- landmarks, readily identifiable objects which serve as external reference points.
- Lynch, Kevin (1960). The Image of the City. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. OL 5795447M.
- Lynch, Kevin, and Hack, Gary, Site Planning, MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London 1962; 2nd edition 1971; 3rd edition 1984; ISBN 0-262-12106-9
- Appleyard, Donald, Lynch, Kevin, and Myer, John R. The View from the Road, MIT Press, Cambridge MA 1964
- Lynch, Kevin, What Time is this Place?, MIT Press, Cambridge MA 1972; ISBN 0-262-12061-5
- Lynch, Kevin, Managing the Sense of a Region, MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London 1976, 1980; ISBN 0-262-12072-0
- Lynch, Kevin, Good City Form, MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London 1981; 2nd ed. 1984; ISBN 0-262-12085-2;
- Lynch, Kevin, Wasting Away (with contributions by Michael Southworth, editor), Sierra Club Books, San Francisco 1990; ISBN 0-87156-675-3
- Lynch, Kevin, City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch (Tridib Banerjee and Michael Southworth, editors), MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London 1990; ISBN 0-262-12143-3
- MIT: Preliminary Inventory to the Papers of Kevin Lynch, retrieved 13 March 2012
- Laurence, Peter (2006). ""The Death and Life of Urban Design: Jane Jacobs, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the New Research in Urbanism, 1955-1965"". Journal of Urban Design 11 (2): 145–172.