Kfar Kama Adyghe dialect

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kfar Kama dialect
Native to Israel
Native speakers
3,000  (date missing)[citation needed]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Kfar Kama dialect (Adyghe: Кфар Камэм ишапсыгъэбзэ) is a subdialect of the Shapsugh dialect of Adyghe spoken by the villagers of the village Kfar Kama in Israel.

Phonology[edit]

Labial Alveolar Post­alveolar Alveolo-
palatal
Retro­flex Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal
plain plain lat. plain lab. plain lab. plain lab. pal. plain lab. plain lab.
Plosive voiceless p t q ʔ ʔʷ
voiced b d ɡʷ ɡʲ
ejective kʲʼ
Affricate voiceless t͡s t͡ʃ tʃʷ
voiced d͡z d͡ʒ
ejective t͡sʼ t͡ʃʼ
Fricative voiceless f s ɬ ʃ ʃʷ ɕ ʂ ʂʷ x χ χʷ ħ h
voiced z ʒ ʒʷ ʑ ʐ ɣ ʁ ʁʷ
ejective ɬʼ ʃʼ
Nasal m n
Approximant l j w
Trill r

The consonant [sʼ][edit]

For example:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
name сӏэ sˤa цӏэ t͡sʼa
lie псӏы psˤə пцӏы pʼt͡sʼə
black шӏусӏэ ʂʷəsˤa шӏуцӏэ ʃʷʼət͡sʼa
naked псӏанэ psˤaːna пцӏанэ pt͡sʼaːna
wet сӏынэ sˤəna цӏынэ t͡sʼəna
sharp папсӏэ paːpsˤa папцӏэ paːpt͡sʼa
to want something very badly енэсӏын janasˤən енэцӏын janat͡sʼən
barefoot лъапсӏэ ɬaːpsˤa лъапцӏэ ɬaːpt͡sʼa

There are some words with the consonant [t͡sˤ]:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect
Cyrillic IPA
slip or flat цӏашъутэ t͡sˤaːʂʷta
person цӏыфы t͡sˤəfə
mean цӏапӏэ t͡sˤaːpˤa

The consonant [ɡʲ] and [kʲ][edit]

For examples

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
shirt гьанэ ɡʲaːna джанэ dʒaːna
to study, to read егьэн jaɡʲan еджэн jadʒan
to play гьэгун ɡʲagʷən джэгун d͡ʒagʷən
game гьэгу ɡʲagʷ джэгу d͡ʒagʷ
toy гьэгуалъэ ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa джэгуалъэ d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬa
bitter дыгьы dəɡʲə дыджы dəd͡ʒə
pants гъошэгь ʁʷaʃaɡʲ гъончэдж ʁʷant͡ʃad͡ʒ
unripe мыгьыр məɡʲər мыджыр məd͡ʒər
spider багьэ baːgʲa бэджы bad͡ʒə
mirror гъургьэ ʁʷərɡʲa гъурджэ ʁʷərd͡ʒa
sick сымагьэ səmaːɡʲa сымаджэ səmaːd͡ʒa
bold шъхьэгьашъу ʂħaɡʲaːʃʷ шъхьэджашъу ʂħad͡ʒaːʃʷ
forearm ӏэлгьанэ ʔalɡʲaːna ӏэлджанэ ʔald͡ʒaːna
evil бзагьэ bzaːɡʲa бзаджэ bzaːd͡ʒa
valley къолагьэ qʷalaːɡʲa къоладжэ qʷalaːd͡ʒa
that's it гьары ɡʲaːrə джары d͡ʒaːrə
noon щэгьагъо ɕaɡʲaːʁʷa щэджагъо ɕad͡ʒaːʁʷa
infidel гьаур ɡʲaːwər джаур d͡ʒaːwər
to tickle гъэлыгьын ʁaləɡʲən гъэлыджын ʁaləd͡ʒən
to stitch епыгьын japəɡʲən епыджын japəd͡ʒən
criminal мэхъагьэ maχaːɡʲa мэхъаджэ maχaːd͡ʒa
to stand up тэгьын taɡʲən тэджын tad͡ʒən
dance угь wəɡʲ удж wəd͡ʒ
to stub хэпыгьэн xapəɡʲan хэпыджэн xapəd͡ʒan
Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
egg кьакьэ kʲaːkʲa чэнчэ t͡ʃant͡ʃa
went out дэкьэгъ dakʲaʁ дэчэгъ dat͡ʃaʁ
gun кьэрахъо kʲaraːχʷa чэрахъо t͡ʃaraːχʷa
long кьэхьы kʲaħə кӏыхьэ t͡ʃəħa
short кьако kʲaːkʷa кӏако t͡ʃaːkʷa
chicken кьэт kʲat чэт t͡ʃat
cat кьэту kʲatəw чэту t͡ʃatəw
to kill укьын wkʲən учын wt͡ʃən
rope кьапсэ kʲaːpsa чапсэ t͡ʃaːpsa
to move away Iукьын ʔʷəkʲən Ӏучын ʔʷət͡ʃən
key Iукьыбзэ ʔʷəkʲəbza Ӏунчыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza
glass апкь ʔaːpkʲ апч ʔaːpt͡ʃ
to spin around мэкьрэзын makʲrazən мэкӏрэзын mat͡ʃrazən
to wink енэкьэон janakʲawan енэкӏэон janat͡ʃawan
to bump into еутэкьын jawtakʲən еутэкӏын jawtat͡ʃən
beard жакьэ ʒaːkʲa жакӏэ ʒaːt͡ʃa
to change зэхъокьын zaχʷakʲən зэхъокӏын zaχʷat͡ʃən
poor тхьамышкь tħaːməʃkʲ тхьамышкӏ tħaːməʃt͡ʃ
to be ashamed укьытэн wəkʲətan укьытэн wət͡ʃətan
to feel pain хэузыкьын xawzəkʲən хэузыкьын xawzət͡ʃən

This dialect also have the consonants [], For example :

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
spoon джэмыщх d͡ʒaməɕx джэмыщх d͡ʒaməɕx
fox баджэ baːd͡ʒa баджэ baːd͡ʒa
knee лъэгуаджэ ɬaɡʷaːd͡ʒa лъэгуанджэ ɬaɡʷaːnd͡ʒa
navel мбыдж mbəd͡ʒ мбыдж mbəd͡ʒ

The ejective consonants[edit]

  • пӀ /p'/ → /pˤ/
  • тӀ /t'/ → /tˤ/
  • сӀ /s'/ → /sˤ/
  • лӀ /ɬ'/ → /ɬˤ/
  • цӀ /t͡s'/ → /t͡sˤ/
  • шӀ /ʃ'/ → /ʂ/ or /ʃˤ/
  • шӀу /ʃʷ'/ → /ʂʷ/
  • пӀу /pʷ'/ → /pˤ/
  • тӀу /tʷ'/ → /tˤ/
Meaning Kfar Kama dialect
Cyrillic IPA
name сӀэ sˤa
husband лӀы ɬˤə
four плӀы pɬˤə
dead лӀагъэ ɬˤaːʁa
forehead натӀэ naːtˤa
ten пшӀы pʂə
to do шӀэн ʂan
well шӀу ʂʷə

The consonant [tʃʷ][edit]

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
footwear чъуакъо tʃʷaːqʷa цуакъо t͡sʷaːqʷa
ox чъу tʃʷə цу t͡sʷə
strawberry чъумпэ tʃʷəmpa цумпэ t͡sʷəmpa

The consonant [h][edit]

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
now həgʲ ħəd͡ʒ
right now hədadam d͡ʒədadam
still daha daħa
again, one more time dahazə daħazə

Disappearance of the consonant [n][edit]

  • In some standard Adyghe words with the consonant [n] in the middle, the [n] is not pronounced in the Kfar Kama dialect.
Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
egg кьакьэ kʲaːkʲa чэнчэ t͡ʃant͡ʃa
pants гъошэгь ʁʷaʃaɡʲ гъончэдж ʁʷant͡ʃad͡ʒ
fast псыкӏэ psət͡ʃa псынкӏэ psənt͡ʃa
shovel хьацэ ħaːt͡sa хьанцэ ħant͡sa
blue шъухъуатӏэ ʃʷəχʷaːtʼa шхъуантӏэ ʃχʷaːntʼa
key ӏукьыбзэ ʔʷəkʲəbza ӏунчыбзэ ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza
vein лъытфэ ɬətfa лъынтфэ ɬəntfa
heavy отэгъу wataʁʷ онтэгъу wantaʁʷ
knee лъэгуаджэ ɬaɡʷaːd͡ʒa лъэгуанджэ ɬaɡʷaːnd͡ʒa
butterfly хьэтӏрэпӏый ħatˈrapˈəj хьэнтӏэрэпӏый ħantˈarapˈəj
chair пхъэтӏэкӏу pχatʼakʷʼ пхъэнтӏэкӏу pχantʼakʷʼ

The consonant [fʼ ~ fˤ][edit]

  • The standard Adyghe's suffix -шхо /-ʃxʷa/ which means big or mighty is -фӏэ /-fˤa/ in Kfar Kama dialect.
Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
mighty God тхьэфӏэ tħafˤa тхьэшхо tħaʃxʷa
large sun тыгъэфӏэ təʁafˤa тыгъэшхо təʁaʃxʷa

Grammar differences[edit]

Nouns[edit]

In the instrumental case the noun has the suffix -мгьэ (-mɡʲa) or -гьэ (-gʲa) unlike other dialects that has the suffix -мкIэ (-mt͡ʃa) or -кIэ (-t͡ʃa).

For example:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
(using) Adyghe language адыгэбзэгьэ aːdəɣabzagʲa адыгэбзэкӀэ aːdəɣabzat͡ʃa
(using) the leg лъакъомгьэ ɬaːqʷamgʲa лъакъомкIэ ɬaːqʷamt͡ʃa
with (using) the pencil къэлэмгьэ qalamgʲa къэлэмкIэ qalamt͡ʃa

Future tense[edit]

In this dialect the verb has the suffix ~эт (~at) and in some cases ~ыт (~ət) unlike other dialects such as Chemguy that has the Suffix ~щт (~ɕt).

For example:

Meaning Kfar Kama dialect Chemguy dialect
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
he will go мэкIот makʷʼat мэкIощт makʷʼaɕt
he will say иIот jəʔʷat иIощт jəʔʷaɕt

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]