(NATO reporting name: AS-10 'Karen')
Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler')
|Type||tactical air-to-surface missile
anti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Weight||Kh-25ML :299 kg (659 lb)
Kh-25MP :315 kg (694 lb)
|Length||Kh-25ML :370.5 cm (12 ft 2 in)
Kh-25MP 1VP :425.5 cm (167.5 in)
Kh-25MP 2VP :435.5 cm (171.5 in)
|Diameter||27.5 cm (10.8 in)|
|Warhead||High explosive, shell-forming|
|Warhead weight||Kh-25MP :89.6 kg (198 lb), Kh-25MR :140 kg (309 lb)|
|Wingspan||75.5 cm (29.7 in)|
|Kh-25ML :11 km (5.9 nmi)
Kh-25MP :up to 60 km (32 nmi)
Kh-25MTP : 20 km (11 nmi)
|Speed||Kh-25ML :1,370–2,410 km/h (850–1,500 mph)
Kh-25MP :1,080–1,620 km/h (670–1,000 mph)
|Laser, passive radar, TV, IIR, satnav, active radar depending on variant|
|MiG-21, MiG-23/27, MiG-29, Su-17/20/22, Su-24, Su-25, Su-27, Yakovlev Yak-130
Kh-25MP : MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24, Su-25
The Kh-25/Kh-25M (Russian: Х-25; NATO:AS-10 'Karen') is a family of Soviet lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km. The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' and has a range up to 40 km. Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of their Kh-23 (AS-7 'Kerry'). It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.
Based on an air-to-air missile, the beam-riding Kh-66 had been the Soviet Union's first air-to-ground missile for tactical aircraft, entering service in 1968. However it proved difficult to use in practice as the launch aircraft had to dive towards the target. A version with radio-command guidance, the Kh-23, was first tested in 1968 but problems with the guidance system meant that it would not enter service for another five years. So in 1971 work began on a version with a semi-active laser seeker, which became the Kh-25. This was initially known in the West as the Kh-23L. State testing began on 24 November 1974, and the Kh-25 entered production in 1975.
Work began on an anti-radar missile derived from the Kh-66 in 1972, using a passive radar seeker and SUR-73 autopilot. The long-range Kh-31 anti-radar missile came out of the same project. The Kh-27 began state testing on a Mig-27 on 8 August 1975 but did not enter service until 2 September 1980. It was assigned the NATO reporting name AS-12 'Kegler' and in effect it replaced the much heavier Kh-28 (AS-9 'Kyle').
In 1973 Victor Bugaiskii was appointed head engineer of the bureau and he started work on combining the Kh-23M, Kh-25 and Kh-27 into a single modular system to reduce costs and improve tactical flexibility. This was completed by the end of 1978, resulting in the Kh-25MP (anti-radar), Kh-25ML (laser-guided) and Kh-25MR (radio-guided) family. NATO continued to refer to these as the AS-12 and AS-10 respectively, even though they could now be switched by a simple change of seeker head.
The Kh-25 is very similar to the later version of the Kh-23, with cruciform canards and fins.
The Kh-25MP has two versions of its homing head, 1VP and 2VP, sensitive to different frequencies.
The original Kh-25 entered service with the Soviet Air Force between 1973-5, equipping the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, MiG-27 and Sukhoi Su-17M. Since then it has been cleared for use on the MiG-21, MiG-29, Sukhoi Su-17/20/22 family, Sukhoi Su-24, Su-25 and Su-27. It can also be carried by attack helicopters such as the Kamov Ka-50.
The Kh-25MP can be fitted to the MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24 and Su-25.
NATO refers to all of the Kh-25 family as AS-10 'Karen' apart from the anti-radar variants. An "M" designation stands for "Modulnaya" - modular (seeker head).
- Kh-25 (Izdeliye 71, Kh-23L) - original laser-guided variant
- Kh-25ML - semi-active laser guidance with tandem warhead that can penetrate 1 metre (39 in) of concrete
- Kh-25MA - active radar guidance, first offered for export in 1999
- Kh-25MAE - Kh-25MA update announced for export in August 2005 with Ka-band seeker, probably Phazotron's PSM which can detect a tank at 4,000 m (4,370 yd) and which can also be used on the Kh-25MA
- Kh-25MS - satellite navigation (GPS or GLONASS)
- Kh-25MSE - export version of Kh-25MS, announced August 2005
- Kh-25MT - TV guidance
- Kh-25MTP - infra-red guidance variant of Kh-25MT
- Kh-25R/Kh-25MR - Radio-command guidance variant, it has a bigger 140 kg (309 lb) warhead.
- Kh-27 (Kh-27/M, AS-12 'Kegler') - original anti-radiation missile
- Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler') - modular anti-radiation variant
- Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler') - Updated Kh-25MP
Training rounds have "U" designations, so e.g. for the Kh-25ML there is :
- Kh-25MUL - combat training Kh-25ML
- Kh-25ML-UD - functional training missile
- Kh-25ML-UR - sectional training missile
- Kh-23M (AS-7 'Kerry') - predecessor to the Kh-25 had some technology "backported" from the Kh-25
- Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') - 320 kg warhead; semi-active laser, IIR, passive radar and TV guidance with 10-30 km range
- Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt') - longer range Kh-25, with heavier warhead and TV guidance
- Kh-38 - successor to the Kh-25
- AGM-65 Maverick - similar lightweight missile in US service which has seen numerous guidance and warhead variants
- AGM-45 Shrike - US equivalent to the Kh-25MP anti-radar missile
- "Kh-25ML". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004.
- "Kh-25MP". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004.
- "Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07[dead link]
- "Kh-25MP, Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07
- History of JSC Tactical Missile Corporation (Word 97 DOC), pp. 4–6, retrieved 2009-02-26
- Friedman, Norman (1997), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, Naval Institute Press, p. 235, ISBN 978-1-55750-268-1
- "Kh-23, Kh-66 Grom (AS-7 'Kerry')", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07[dead link]
- Friedman, Norman (2006), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems (5 ed.), Naval Institute Press, p. 838, ISBN 978-1-55750-262-9
- Gordon, Yefim (2004), Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two, Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing, ISBN 1-85780-188-1
- http://www.airforce-technology.com/projects/yak_130/ 02. August 2013