AS-10 Karen

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(NATO reporting name: AS-10 'Karen')
Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler')
Type tactical air-to-surface missile
anti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service 1975-current
Used by Russia
Production history
Designed 1971-1975
Manufacturer Zvezda-Strela
Weight Kh-25ML :299 kg (659 lb)[1]
Kh-25MP :315 kg (694 lb)[2]
Length Kh-25ML :370.5 cm (12 ft 2 in)[1]
Kh-25MP 1VP :425.5 cm (167.5 in)[2]
Kh-25MP 2VP :435.5 cm (171.5 in)[2]
Diameter 27.5 cm (10.8 in)[1]
Warhead High explosive, shell-forming
Warhead weight Kh-25MP :89.6 kg (198 lb),[2] Kh-25MR :140 kg (309 lb)[3]

Wingspan 75.5 cm (29.7 in)[1]
Kh-25ML :11 km (5.9 nmi)[3]
Kh-25MP :up to 60 km (32 nmi)[3]
Kh-25MTP : 20 km (11 nmi)[3]
Speed Kh-25ML :1,370–2,410 km/h (850–1,500 mph)[1]
Kh-25MP :1,080–1,620 km/h (670–1,000 mph)[2]
Laser, passive radar, TV, IIR, satnav, active radar depending on variant
MiG-21,[4] MiG-23/27,[4] MiG-29,[4] Su-17/20/22,[4] Su-24,[4] Su-25,[4] Su-27,[4] Yakovlev Yak-130
Kh-25MP : MiG-23/27,[5] Su-17/22,[5] Su-24,[5] Su-25[5]

The Kh-25/Kh-25M (Russian: Х-25; NATO:AS-10 'Karen') is a family of Soviet lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km.[1] The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' and has a range up to 40 km.[2] Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of their Kh-23 (AS-7 'Kerry'). It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.


Based on an air-to-air missile, the beam-riding Kh-66 had been the Soviet Union's first air-to-ground missile for tactical aircraft, entering service in 1968.[6] However it proved difficult to use in practice as the launch aircraft had to dive towards the target. A version with radio-command guidance, the Kh-23, was first tested in 1968 but problems with the guidance system meant that it would not enter service for another five years.[7] So in 1971 work began on a version with a semi-active laser seeker, which became the Kh-25.[6] This was initially known in the West as the Kh-23L.[8] State testing began on 24 November 1974, and the Kh-25 entered production in 1975.[6]

Work began on an anti-radar missile derived from the Kh-66[5] in 1972, using a passive radar seeker and SUR-73 autopilot.[6] The long-range Kh-31 anti-radar missile came out of the same project.[6] The Kh-27 began state testing on a Mig-27 on 8 August 1975[6] but did not enter service until 2 September 1980.[6] It was assigned the NATO reporting name AS-12 'Kegler' and in effect it replaced the much heavier Kh-28 (AS-9 'Kyle').[5]

In 1973 Victor Bugaiskii was appointed head engineer of the bureau and he started work on combining the Kh-23M, Kh-25 and Kh-27 into a single modular system to reduce costs and improve tactical flexibility.[6] This was completed by the end of 1978,[6] resulting in the Kh-25MP (anti-radar), Kh-25ML (laser-guided) and Kh-25MR (radio-guided) family. NATO continued to refer to these as the AS-12 and AS-10 respectively, even though they could now be switched by a simple change of seeker head.


The Kh-25 is very similar to the later version of the Kh-23, with cruciform canards and fins.

The Kh-25MP has two versions of its homing head, 1VP and 2VP, sensitive to different frequencies.[2]

Operational history[edit]

The original Kh-25 entered service with the Soviet Air Force between 1973-5, equipping the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23, MiG-27 and Sukhoi Su-17M.[4] Since then it has been cleared for use on the MiG-21, MiG-29, Sukhoi Su-17/20/22 family, Sukhoi Su-24, Su-25 and Su-27.[4] It can also be carried by attack helicopters such as the Kamov Ka-50.

The Kh-25MP can be fitted to the MiG-23/27, Su-17/22, Su-24 and Su-25.[5]


NATO refers to all of the Kh-25 family as AS-10 'Karen' apart from the anti-radar variants. An "M" designation stands for "Modulnaya" - modular (seeker head).

  • Kh-25 (Izdeliye 71, Kh-23L) - original laser-guided variant
  • Kh-25ML - semi-active laser guidance with tandem warhead that can penetrate 1 metre (39 in) of concrete[9]
  • Kh-25MA - active radar guidance, first offered for export in 1999[4]
  • Kh-25MAE - Kh-25MA update announced for export in August 2005 with Ka-band seeker, probably Phazotron's PSM which can detect a tank at 4,000 m (4,370 yd) and which can also be used on the Kh-25MA[9]
  • Kh-25MS - satellite navigation (GPS or GLONASS)[4]
  • Kh-25MSE - export version of Kh-25MS, announced August 2005[9]
  • Kh-25MT - TV guidance[4]
  • Kh-25MTP - infra-red guidance variant of Kh-25MT[3][4]
  • Kh-25R/Kh-25MR - Radio-command guidance variant,[4] it has a bigger 140 kg (309 lb) warhead.[3]
  • Kh-27 (Kh-27/M, AS-12 'Kegler') - original anti-radiation missile
  • Kh-25MP (AS-12 'Kegler') - modular anti-radiation variant[5]
  • Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler') - Updated Kh-25MP[5]

Training rounds have "U" designations, so e.g. for the Kh-25ML there is :

  • Kh-25MUL - combat training Kh-25ML[1]
  • Kh-25ML-UD - functional training missile[1]
  • Kh-25ML-UR - sectional training missile[1]


Similar weapons[edit]

  • Kh-23M (AS-7 'Kerry') - predecessor to the Kh-25 had some technology "backported" from the Kh-25
  • Kh-29 (AS-14 'Kedge') - 320 kg warhead; semi-active laser, IIR, passive radar and TV guidance with 10-30 km range
  • Kh-59 (AS-13 'Kingbolt') - longer range Kh-25, with heavier warhead and TV guidance
  • Kh-38 - successor to the Kh-25
  • AGM-65 Maverick - similar lightweight missile in US service which has seen numerous guidance and warhead variants
  • AGM-45 Shrike - US equivalent to the Kh-25MP anti-radar missile

External links[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Kh-25ML". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Kh-25MP". Tactical Missiles Corporation. 2004. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f [1]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Kh-25 (AS-10 'Karen'), Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07 [dead link]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kh-25MP, Kh-25MPU (AS-12 'Kegler'), Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i History of JSC Tactical Missile Corporation (Word 97 DOC), pp. 4–6, retrieved 2009-02-26 
  7. ^ Friedman, Norman (1997), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapons Systems, Naval Institute Press, p. 235, ISBN 978-1-55750-268-1 
  8. ^ Kh-23, Kh-66 Grom (AS-7 'Kerry'), Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, 2008-08-01, retrieved 2009-02-07 [dead link]
  9. ^ a b c Friedman, Norman (2006), The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems (5 ed.), Naval Institute Press, p. 838, ISBN 978-1-55750-262-9 
  10. ^
  11. ^