The most northeastern region of Azerbaijan, Xaçmaz (or Khachmaz/Khachmas) is sandwiched between the Caucasus Mountains in Quba and Qusar (Gusar), regions to the west, and the Caspian Sea to the east. The southern border greets Devechi and the region stretches north to Russia. Khachmas city is located toward the bottom third of the region. It is about 10 km from the Caspian Sea and the border to Devechi. About half that distance to the Quba border to Khachmaz's west. It is substantially greater distance to the northern border.
The climate is generally moderate to warm, humid temperate and subtropical, and Khachmaz sees an average yearly precipitation of 1300–1350 mm and average temperatures of 25-30 °C in July and 1-2 °C in January.
The Khachmaz region is rich with monuments of history, culture and architecture. Some of the most significant are Sarkartapa, the ancient city-fortress Khudat, a 4th-century Albanian mosque, the 16th-century mosque-madrasa of Shah Abbas of the 15th-16th century in Garaqurtlu, a village in Khachmaz, ancient settlements and the barrows of the Bronze Age, the famous “Iron gate” of Derbent fortress becoming a symbol of its inaccessibility. The fortifications “Baba-al-Abvat” were constructed in 8th-7th centuries B.C and protected from invasion the northern boundaries of Azerbaijan. Today Khachmaz borders with Russia here. In the village of Shykhlar the tourists can see the earliest monument of the mausoleum of the Middle Ages- a mosque of Sheikh Yusif (15th century). At the top of the mountain Galadag the ruins of Gaurgala fortress have been kept.
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Regional Ethnography Museum: this museum is located in the city center. The museum is very rich with over 4,000 archaeological findings from the different periods of Khachmaz's history. Of especial interest are the original scientific works of the orientalist Abuabdullah Mahammad-bin Albukhari contained in the "Aljazaily sani" as well as the "Classification of Koran," authored by the mathematician, philosopher from Chilaqyr Hajaly Efendi.
Veteran's Museum: 8,739 Khachmaz residents fought in WWII for the Red Army and some 2,800 of them perished. This museum also remembers 230 people who died in the ethnic conflict with Armenia during the early 1990s.
Heydar Aliyev Park: contains trees, flowers, fountains, lights, cafes, and tea-houses. The Heydar Aliyev Museum, the Khazar Cinema-Clubare all located in this park.
Park of Culture and Rest: contains statues of different animals, artificial ponds stocked with colorful fish, rivers, and fountains. Khachmaz city library, Carpet Museum, Post Office, and several cafes are located within the park.