Khadija bint Khuwaylid
|Wives of Muhammad|
||This article may contain wording that promotes the subject in a subjective manner without imparting real information. (March 2012)|
Kahdijah or Khadīja bint Khuwaylid (Arabic: خديجة بنت خويلد) or Khadīja al-Kubra (Khadija the great)  (circa 555–619 CE) was the first wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. She was the daughter of Khuwaylid ibn Asad and Fatimah bint Za'idah and belonged to the clan of Banu Quraish. She is important in Islam as Muhammad's first wife, and is commonly regarded as the "mother of Islam". Three of her daughters would go on to marry Caliphs: Ruqayyah and Umm Kulthum married Uthman, and Fatimah married Ali.
Khadija's father, Khuwaylid ibn Asad, who died around 585, was a merchant, a businessman whose wealth and business talents were inherited by Khadija, who successfully managed her father's business interests and preserved the family's fortune. It is said that when the Quraysh's trade caravans gathered to embark upon their lengthy and arduous journey either to Syria during the summer or to Yemen during the winter, Khadija's caravan equalled the caravans of all other traders of the Quraish put together. Fatimah bint Za'idah – Khadija's mother – died around 575, a member of the Banu 'Amir ibn Luayy ibn Ghalib tribe and a distant relative of Muhammad.
Khadija earned many titles, the most common three were: Ameerat-Quraish (Princess of Quraish) and al-Tahira (The Pure One), and Khadija Al-Kubra (Khadija the Great) and was said to have had an impeccable character. She used to feed and clothe the poor, assist her relatives financially, and provide for the marriage of those of her kin who could not otherwise have had the means to marry.
Her renown for business dealings caused many Arabian men to seek her hand in marriage. Prior to marrying Muhammad, Khadijah was married twice before, and had children from both prior marriages. The actual order of the marriages of Khadijah’s prior to marriage to Muhammad is still debated but the commonly agreed upon order is Abu Halah Malak bin Nabash bin Zarrarah bin at-Tamimi and then 'Atique bin 'Aith bin 'Abdullah Al-Makhzumi. To her first husband she bore two sons, both who were named with what were commonly known female names, Halan and Hind. Due to her status of being a successful business woman Khadija wished to see her husband prosper, and help aid him in his business endeavors. However, Abu Halah Malak died before his business would become a success. Upon being widowed from her first marriage Khadijah would marry again to a man named 'Atique bin 'Aith bin 'Abdullah Al-Makhzumi. During this marriage Khadijah would bear a daughter named Hindah. This marriage also left Khadijah as a widowed mother, when 'Atique died an early death.
Khadija did not travel with her trade caravans; she relied on others to trade on her behalf, whom she compensated with commissions. In 595, Khadija needed an agent for a transaction in Syria. Several agents whom she trusted (notably including Abu Talib ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib) and some relatives of hers recommended her distant cousin Muhammad ibn Abdullah. The experience that Muhammad held working with caravans in his uncle Abu Talib's family business had earned him the honorific titles Al-Sadiq (the truthful) and Al-Amin (the trustworthy, the honest).
Muhammad had accompanied Abu Talib on trade trips and had keenly observed how Talib traded, bartered, bought, sold, and conducted business. Khadijah hired Muhammad, who was then 25 years old. Khadijah sent Muhammad word through Khazimah ibn Hakim, one of her relatives, offering him double the commission she usually paid. She sent one of her servants, Maysarah, to assist him. Upon returning, Maysarah gave accounts of Muhammad's performance and described the honorable way that Muhammad conducted his business. The profit that Muhammad returned to Khadija was the double of what she had anticipated. Khadijah was impressed by hearing this good news, and considered offering this man a marriage proposal based on his known honesty. Khadijah knew that this proposal would be seen as strange as many wealthy men from families of the Quraysh had already asked for her hand in marriage.
Maysarah relayed a story to Khadijah regarding a strange event that had happened during the trip. On the travels back to Mecca from Syria, Muhammad stopped to take rest under a tree. A passing Monk, named Nestora, informed Maysarah that the man who lay under the tree would one day be brought into Prophethood. Nestora is known to have said to Maysarah, "None but a prophet ever sat beneath this tree." Additionally, it is rumored that Maysarah stood near Muhammad while he slept and witnessed two angels standing above Muhammad creating a cloud to protect him from the heat and glare of the sun.
Upon hearing the story of the mystery near the tree from Maysarah, Khadijah became more interested in Muhammad and sought the wisdom of her cousin Waraqa b. Naufal b. Asad b. 'Abdu'l-'Uzza. Her cousin reported to her that if what her servant Maysarah had seen was true then Muhammad was in fact the prophet of the people, and that a prophet of the people was expected.
Marriage to Muhammad 
Khadija was from a noble family and at the time of Muhammad, she was a widow. Khadija was a very wealthy woman from inheriting the business her father created, and continuing to work to create a successful business. For this reason, many men wanted her hand in marriage. However, Khadijah refused to marry any of them.
After Muhammad returned from Syria, Khadijah's servant told her how well Muhammad had conducted her business in Syria. Khadijah became impressed and it was said that Muhammad was the most honest person she had ever met. It is understood that after hearing all the good news from Maysarah and pondering the idea of offering a marriage proposal to the young Muhammad, Khadijah had a dream that would bring her to her final decision. In this dream Khadijah describes that the sun had come from the heavens into her courtyard, fully illuminating her home. This dream startled Khadijah and again she sought the wisdom of her cousin Waraqa b. Naufal. After listening to her dream Waraqa assured her there was no reason to be alarmed, and that the dream was very promising. He assured her that the sun was an indication of the Prophet, and that he would grace her home ultimately enriching her life with his presences.
Khadija entrusted a friend named Nafisa to approach Muhammad and ask if he would consider marrying Khadijah. Muhammad was generally regarded as a kind and handsome man so it would have been seen as an honor for any woman to marry him. After first hearing the proposed marriage Muhammad was resistant because he was concerned that he would not have the proper means to support a wife. However, Nafisa pursued the topic asking him if he would consider marriage to a woman who had the means to provide for herself. Muhammad agreed to come meet with Khadijah and after the two met they agreed they both should consult with their uncles on the marriage, and would make decisions based on the wisdom of the uncles. On both sides the uncles agreed upon the value of this marriage, and Muhammad's uncles accompanied him to make a formal request to marry Khadijah. It is still argued if only Hamzah bin 'Abdul-Muttalib or only Abu Talib or both uncles accompanied Muhammad in asking for Khadijah's hand in marriage. After receiving a formal proposal from the family of Muhammad Khadijah's uncle accepted the proposal and the plans for the wedding began. The couple would be married monogamously for twenty-five years, and conceive six total children during the marriage. (Sources disagree about number of children had, al-Tabari cites eight children total but most sources only identify six conceived children).
The couple had a son by the name of Qasim, who died before his second birthday (hence one of Muhammad's titles Abu Qasim, which translates to father of Qasim). However, afterwards Khadijah gave birth to their daughters Zainab bint Muhammad, Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Fatimah and last son Abdullah. The second son Abduhllah was known as at-Tayyib (the Good) and at-Tahir (the Pure) because he was born during the Prophethood. Unfortunately, Abdullah much like his brother before him would die very young.
In addition to the children that Khadijah and Muhammad conceived two other children lived in the household with them. The first being Ali bin Abu-Talib, the cousin of Muhammad, who was the son of Abu-Talib, Muhammad's uncle, who raised Muhammad as his own when his mother passed. Abu-Talib was under financial hardship, attempting to meet the needs of his children but found himself unable to do so. In order to help alleviate some of the financial stress that Abu-Talib was under Muhammad and Khadijah offered to take in Ali. The second child to live in the household was Zayd bin Harithah. Zayd came to find a place in the home of Khadijah after being attacked on a journey with his mother to visit family and being sold into slavery. Muhammad became deeply attached to Zayd after the death of al-Qasim, and when Zayd's father came to claim him and return him home Muhammad protested and decided that it should be the decision of Zayd to choose if he wanted to return home with his father or stay with Khadijah and Muhammad. Zayd decided to remain with Khadijah and Muhammad based on the kindness that they had shown him while he lived with him, and after this decision Muhammad took Zayd on as his own son.
The practice of monogamy was highly uncommon for the time period during which the couple were married. However, it can be speculated that Muhammad remained monogamous during his marriage to Khadija because she held an esteemed position in society and could demand loyalty from Muhammad. This monogamous marriage contrasts with Muhammad's later practice of taking multiple wives after Khadijah died at the age of sixty-five. It has been recorded that many wives were envious of the admiration and loyalty Muhammad maintained for Khadijah even after her death, one of the most envious being Muhammad's youngest wife, Aisha.
Becoming the first Muslim 
When her husband received his first revelation from the Angel Gabriel (Jibril), she was the first person (besides Muhammad) to convert to Islam. Upon receiving his revelation Muhammad returned home to Khadijah fearing for his life and pleading for her to cover him with a blanket. After calming down Muhammad explained the encounter to Khadijah, at which point she comforted him saying, "Allah would surely protect him from any danger, and would never allow anyone to revile him as he was a man of peace and reconciliation and always extended the hand of friendship to all." According to some sources, it was Khadija's parental cousin, Waraqah ibn Nawfal, who confirmed Muhammad's prophethood soon after his vision of the angel.
Khadijah did not hesitate to embrace Islam, trusting her husband's teachings. Khadijah was a supporting wife, she always provided him strength, proclaiming his truth to those who did not believe and would belittle any opposition of men to the sayings of her husband.
It was her encouragement that helped Muhammad believe in his mission, and spread the religion of Islam. Her willingness to instantly believe in Islam made her a natural leader in the Pre-Islamic community.
Khadijah's wealth was another contributing factor in spreading Islam. Once Khadijah and Muhammad got married, Muhammad no longer had work, for her wealth is what gave Muhammad the time for his spiritual path. Ronald Bodley in his book The Messenger, the Life of Mohammed, 1946 wrote:
"God is my protection, Oh Abul Kasim !" said Khadija, "Rejoice and be of good cheer. He in Whose hands stands the life of Khadija, is my Witness that thou wilt be the Messenger of His people!" Then she added, "Hast thou not been loving to thy kinsfolk, kind to thy neighbors, charitable to the poor, hospitable to the stranger, faithful to thy word, and ever a defender of the truth?"
After the first encounter with Gabriel, Mohammed came trembling and agitated to Khadija. She saw everything with the eye of faith. "Joyful tidings dost thou bring," exclaimed she, "by Him, in Whose hand is the soul of Khadija, I will henceforth regard thee as the Prophet of our nation. Rejoice," added she, "Allah will not suffer thee to fall to shame. Hast thou not been loving to thy kinsfolk, kind to thy neighbours, charitable to the poor, hospitable to the stranger, faithful to thy word, and ever a defender of the truth?"
Yahya ibn `Afeef is quoted saying that he once came, during the period of Jahiliyyah (before the advent of Islam), to Mecca to be hosted by 'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, one of Muhammad's uncles mentioned above. "When the sun started rising," he said, "I saw a man who came out of a place not far from us, faced the Kaaba and started performing his prayers. He hardly started before being joined by a young boy who stood on his right side, then by a woman who stood behind them. When he bowed down, the young boy and the woman bowed, and when he stood up straight, they, too, did likewise. When he prostrated, they, too, prostrated." He expressed his amazement at that, saying to Abbas: "This is quite strange, O Abbas!". "Is it, really?" retorted al-Abbas. "Do you know who he is?", Abbas asked his guest who answered in the negative. "He is Muhammad ibn Abdullah, my nephew. Do you know who the young boy is?" asked he again. "No, indeed," answered the guest. "He is Ali son of Abu Talib. Do you know who the woman is?" The answer came again in the negative, to which Abbas said, "She is Khadija bint Khuwaylid, my nephew's wife." This incident is included in the books of both Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Al-Tirmidhi, each detailing it in his own Ṣaḥīḥ.
She bore patiently in the face of persecution to which her revered husband and his small band of believers were exposed at the hands of the polytheists and aristocrats of the Quraish, sacrificing her vast wealth helping to promote Islam, helping to free slaves who had embraced Islam, and helping to feed and shelter the community of Muslims that slowly but surely began to grow in numbers and strength, seeking God's rewards. Khadijah proved her dedication to her husband and his followers during the Boycott of 617 CE, in which the Quraysh attacked, imprisoned, and beat any who followed Muhammad and believed in his teachings. The followers of Muhammad would endure days without food or drink bringing some to their death and others would fall very ill. This was an especially important moment for showing how loyal Khadijah was to the sayings of her husband. Khadijah was raised/lived in the lap of luxury never having to fear when her next meal would come or face cruel torture. By remaining by the side of the devoted followers of her husband, Khadijah proved that she believed in the words of her husband and would always fight for the developing ways of Islam.
She remained at his side and supported him throughout his mission to spread Islam.
During the twenty-four years of their marriage, her youthful husband abstained from the right of polygamy, and the pride or tenderness of the venerable matron was never insulted by the society of a rival. After her death he placed her in the rank of the four perfect women, with the sister of Moses, the mother of Jesus, and Fatima, the best beloved of his daughters.
Among all his wives,she was most beloved to Muhammad, as has been stated in books of ahadith.
According to Kazi Ejaz and Ibne Abdul Bir's book Al-Estiab:
Once the Prophet mentioned Khadija near Aisha, Aisha responded: "She was not but a such and such of an old lady, and Allah replaced her with a better one for you." He replied: "Indeed Allah did not grant me better than her; she accepted me when people rejected me, she believed in me when people doubted me, she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me, and Allah granted me children only through her."
Aisha says, after this incident, "I learnt to keep quiet, whenever Khadija's name was mentioned by Muhammad". In another Hadith, Aisha added: "I annoyed Prophet one day and said, 'It is Khadija only who always prevails upon your mind'. Thereupon, Muhammad said, 'Allah Himself had nurtured Her love in my heart'."
Khadijah died in the year of 619 CE which has come to be known as the Year of Sorrow, because of the devastation that it caused him. this would also be the same year in which his uncle and guardian Abu Talib died. Khadijah would be estimated at being roughly around sixty-five years old at the time of her death (having been born in AD 555). Her grave can be found in Jannatul Mualla cemetery, in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Scholars place the events of the Year of Sorrow in 619, three years prior to hijra. This death would bring great tragedy to the life of Muhammad as these were two people who provided him great sources of comfort and strength when faced with persecution. It would be these years immediately following the death of Khadijah and his uncle that Muhammad would face persecution not just from those opposed to his message, but also from some who originally followed him but now turned back. During these years Muhammad would face hostility from tribes, and would be faced with ridicule and stoning. However, Muhammad worked to be sure that Khadijah was remembered in the best light, and honored her even after her death. If a gift was sent to Muhammad he would not hesitate to have the gift sent to a woman who was a friend of Khadijah, showing the kindness and compassion that Khadijah exhibited during her life.
Muslim views 
|Beliefs and practices|
Succession to Muhammad
Imamate of the Family
Mourning of Muharram
Intercession · Ismah
The Occultation · Clergy
|The Qur'an · Sahaba
|Ashura · Arba'een · Mawlid
Eid ul-Fitr · Eid al-Adha
· Ismāʿīlī · Zaidi
The verse of purification
Mubahala · Two things
Khumm · Fatimah's house
First Fitna · Second Fitna
The Battle of Karbala
|Muhammad · Ali · Fatimah
Hasan · Hussein
|List of Shia companions|
|Fatimah · Khadijah · Zaynab bint Ali · Fatimah bint al-Hasan · Sukayna bint Husayn · Rubab · Shahrbanu · Nijmah · Fātimah bint Mūsā · Hakimah Khātūn · Narjis · Fatimah bint Asad · Farwah bint al-Qasim ·|
Khadijah had been the first to publicly accept Muhammad as the Messenger of Allah, and she had never stopped doing all she could to help him. Love and mercy had grown between them, increasing in quality and depth as the years passed by, and not even death could take this love away. Muhammad never stopped loving Khadija, and although he married several more wives in later years and loved them all equally, it is clear that Khadija always had a special place in his heart. Indeed whenever Aisha, his third wife, heard Muhammad speak of Khadija, or saw him sending food to Khadija's old friends and relatives, she could not help feeling jealous of her, because of the love that Muhammad still had for her. Once Aisha asked him if Khadija had been the only woman worthy of his love. Muhammad replied: "She believed in me when no one else did; she accepted Islam when people rejected me; and she helped and comforted me when there was no one else to lend me a helping hand." It had been related by Abu Hurairah that on one occasion, when Khadija was still alive, Jibril came to Muhammad and said, "O Messenger of Allah, Khadija is just coming with a bowl of soup (or food or drink) for you. When she comes to you, give her greetings of peace from her Lord and from me, and give her the good news of a palace of jewels in the Garden, where there will be neither any noise nor any tiredness." After Muhammad's uncle, Abu Talib, and his first wife, Khadija, had both died in the same year, Muhammad and his small community of believers endured a time of great hardship and persecution at the hands of the Quraish. Indeed Muhammad, who was now fifty years old, named this year 'the Year of Sorrow.'
- Qasim ibn Muhammad, died in 605 CE, before his second birthday
- Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad, died in childhood in 615 CE
The daughters attributed to Muhammad are;
- Zainab bint Muhammad, married to her maternal cousin Abu al-Aas ibn al-Rabee before al-Hijra. Zainab would pass away during the lifetime of Muhammad.
- Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, was first married to Utbah ibn Abu Lahab and then to Uthman ibn Affan. Uthman ibn Affan would end up being the third Caliph, following the reign of Umar. Ruqayyah died during the lifetime of Muhammad.
- Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, was first married to Utaybah bin Abu Lahab and then to Uthman ibn Affan after the death of her sister Ruqayyah. During her marriage to Uthman Umm would not bear a son to him. Umm died during the lifetime of Muhammad.
- Fatimah bint Muhammad, was married to Ali ('Ali bin Abi Talib). Fatimah is sometimes referred to as "The mother of her father", as she took over caring for her father and being a support system for her father once her mother died. Fatimah is a special daughter to Muhammad as she was born during the first year of the mission. When she grew up Fatimah married Ali, who would end up being the fourth Caliphate (Although, early debate after the death of Muhammad, some would argue that Ali would be the proper succession to Muhammad.). After marrying, Ali and Fatimah moved to a small village in Ghoba but would move back to Medina to live next door to Muhammad. During his lifetime Muhammad would declare that Ali is only to be married to Fatima because, "What caused pain to his daughter grieved him as well.". Fatimah died a few months after her father died. Fatimah's role in the life of Muhammad was especially important because she did not die pre-maturely or without bearing children. In fact Muhammad was often pleased that Fatimah gave birth to two sons Hasan and Husayn so that they could continue his heritage.
Sunni Muslims believe that all four of Khadija's daughters were born to Muhammad.]] They interpret the following verse as supporting such a view: "O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers...".]]
According to some Shia Muslim sources, Khadijah and Muhammad together had only one biological daughter, Fatimah. The others either belonged to Khadijah's sister or were from a previous marriage and were treated by Muhammad as his own daughters. The Shi'i scholar Abu'l-Qasim al-Kufi writes:
When the Messenger of Allah married Khadijah, then some time thereafter Halah died leaving two daughters, one named Zaynab and the other named Ruqayyah and both of them were brought up by Muhammad and Khadijah and they maintained them, and it was the custom before Islam that a child was assigned to whoever brought him up.
- Wife of the Prophet Muhammad[dead link]
- Early Life
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- "Islams Women".
- "Khadija bint Khuwaylid at the Tree of Faith".
- Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 33–34
- Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 34–35
- Guillaume (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford.
- Lings (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. New York: Inner Traditions Internationalist. p. 83.
- Lings (1983). Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. Inner Traditions Internationalist.
- Martin Lings, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources, p. 37
- Walther, Wiebke (1993). Women in Islam. Markus Wiener Publishing Inc. p. 104.
- Khatijatul Kubra
- Guillaume. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford. p. 111.
- Abbott, Nabia (1942). Women and the State in Early Islam. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 106–109.
- Abbott, Nabia (1943). Women and the State in Early Islam. The University of Chicago Press. p. 106.
- R V. C. Bodley: The Messenger, the Life of Mohammed, 1946
- Washington Irving: Life of Mohammed
- Restatement of History of Islam: The Economic and Social Boycott of the Banu Hashim (A.D. 616-619)
- Restatement of History of Islam: The Deaths of Khadija and Abu Talib - A.D. 619
- Guillaume. The Life of Muhammad. Oxford. p. 143.
- Edward Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
- Kazi Ejadh & Ibne Abdul Bir: Al-Estiab[dead link]
- The Death
- Muhammad, Farkhanda Noor.Islamiat for Students. Revised Edition 2000: pp. 74–75.
- Qasimi, Ja'Far (1987). The Life, Traditions, and Sayings of the Prophet. New York: Crossroad. pp. 77–78.
- Ibn Kathir: Wives of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
- Buhl. "Umm Kulthum".
- Shariati, Ali (1981). Ali Shariati's Fatima Is Fatima. Tehran, Iran: Shariati Foundation.
- Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52–53.
- Shariati, Ali (1981). Ali Shariati's Fatima is Fatima. Tehran, Iran: Shariati Foundation. p. 148.
- Walther, Wiebke (1993). Women in Islam. Markus Wiener Publishing Princeton & New York. p. 108.
- Quran 33:59
- al-Istī`āb fī Ma`rifat al-Aşĥāb Yusuf ibn abd al-Barr, The Comprehensive Compilation of the Names of the Prophet's Companions vol. 1, pp. 50
- al-Istighathah, p. 69