Khalid bin Sultan

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Khalid bin Sultan
DA-ST-92-08034-C.jpg
Prince Khalid during the Gulf War
Deputy Minister of Defense
In office
5 November 2011 – 20 April 2013
Monarch King Abdullah
Minister Salman bin Abdulaziz
Preceded by Abdul Rahman bin Abdulaziz
Succeeded by Fahd bin Abdullah bin Mohammed Al Saud
Assistant Minister of Defense and Aviation and General Inspector for the Military Affairs
In office
17 January 2001 – 5 November 2011
Monarch King Abdullah
Minister Sultan bin Abdulaziz
Personal details
Born (1949-09-24) 24 September 1949 (age 64)
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Nationality Saudi Arabian
Alma mater Royal Military Academy Sandhurst
CGSC
Air War College
Auburn University
Religion Islam
Military service
Allegiance  Saudi Arabia
Service/branch  Royal Saudi Air Force
Years of service 1968-1991
Rank فريق أول.pngGeneral
Battles/wars Gulf War

Shia insurgency in Yemen

Khaled bin Sultan (Arabic: خالد بن سلطان بن عبد العزيز آل سعود) (born 24 September 1949) is the former deputy minister of defense and a member of House of Saud.

Early life and education[edit]

Prince Khalid was born on 24 September 1949.[1] He is the eldest son of the late Prince Sultan[2] and full brother of Fahd bin Sultan, Faisal bin Sultan and late Turki bin Sultan. Their mother is Munira bint Abdulaziz bin Musaed bin Jalawi.[3] She died in Paris on 24 August 2011.[4] Moneera bint Abdulaziz was sister of Alanoud, spouse of King Fahd. She was also cousin of King Khalid and Prince Muhammed.[1]

Khalid bin Sultan is a graduate of King Saud University. He then attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and graduated in 1968.[5][6] He also studied at the US Army's Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in Kansas.[5] He graduated from the Air War College at Maxwell Air Force Base in Alabama.[5][6] He also holds a master's degree in political science, which he received from Auburn University in 1980.[7]

Career[edit]

In the first years as a soldier, despite his choice to be selected for special forces personnel, Khalid bin Sultan was given a command of an artillery platoon in Tabuk province. Later, his position advanced as he was given a task for conducting contract and purchasing of Saudi Arabia's first guided missile with People's Republic of China. For this prominent role, he was given an honorary title "Father of Saudi Arabia's Missile".

After years in the army, thinking that air defense should be given more important role in the national defense, he established the Saudi air defense force, and became its first commander. Shortly after occupation of Iraq to Kuwait in the first Persian Gulf War, he was chosen as the commander of the joint Arab forces,[8] and shared an equal position and responsibility with general Norman Schwarzkopf of US Army.[citation needed] King Fahd promoted Prince Khalid to field marshal afterward. In 1991, he retired from the military to focus on business. In January 2001, he was brought back into the military as assistant defense minister for military affairs.[9][10]

In early 2011, he announced that “more than 70 percent of military equipment can be produced locally" and the future creation of a government branch for domestic military growth.[11] He was regarded as a likely candidate to replace his deceased father as defense minister in 2011.[12] However, he was appointed deputy defense minister in November 2011.[13] His term lasted until 20 April 2013 when he was replaced by Fahd bin Abdullah, another member of the royal family.[13] Traditionally, the decision follows exemption "based on his request," but the royal order issued exempting Khalid bin Sultan from office, did not include this phrase.[14][15]

2009 Yemen bombing[edit]

In November 2009, Khalid bin Sultan led a Saudi military intervention in Yemen. The campaign had various tactical mistakes[according to whom?] and Khalid was heavily criticized. The Saudis had 130 casualties and Yemen lost over 1000.[12]

In December 2009, Khalid gave a 48-hour ultimatum for Houthi withdrawal from Al Jabri. Soon, he declared that the campaign had ended after the Houthi promised through Al-Quds Al-Arabi they would withdraw from the border in exchange for a cease fire. The Houthi also stated that the Yemen government had used Saudi territory to bomb targets.[16]

In February 2010, Ambassador Smith met with Khalid. Smith brought attention to Saudi air strikes on Yemeni hospitals. Khalid admitted that the event occurred because Yemen had designated the area as a Houthi military base. He also stated that this event occurred because of inaccurate military equipment and the U.S. refusal to provide Predators. He went on to state that Saudi strategy was to force the Houthis to reconcile with the Yemeni government by a strong show of military force.[17] He complained that it was difficult to avoid civilian casualties. The Saudi-Yemeni joint committee granted clearances to Khalid bin Sultan for attacks to be conducted.[18] He complained that Yemeni intelligence was unreliable and politically motivated. Yemen data claimed terrorist positions in a place when in actuality the place was the office of General Ali Mohsen Al Ahmar, a political adversary to President Saleh.[17][19]

Controversy[edit]

King Abdullah was not pleased by Khalid's leadership when Saudi troops could not quickly push back al Houthis Yemeni rebels, who had seized Saudi territory in late 2009.[15] King Abdullah specifically expressed his concerns over the long duration of the conflict, large number of casualties, and Saudi incompetence. Therefore, this situation led to decrease in his potential succession of his father as defense minister.[16] Joseph A. Kéchichian, a Middle East analyst, argued after Khalid's removal from office on 20 April 2013 that there are three potential reasons for his dismissal, one of which is about his activity in 2009 mentioned above.[20] The others were related to his involvement in procurement of arms in 2010 and 2013.[20]

Other positions[edit]

Khalid Bin Sultan in Jizan After War Against Houthis Militia, December 2009

At the end of the 1990s, Prince Khalid had business contacts with French electronics group Thomson-CSF.[21] In September 2000, Khalid founded The Living Oceans Foundation in the USA.[22] He was named as the Perseus winner of 2012.[23] The award is given to the yacht owners who make efforts and contributions toward marine wildlife conservation.[23]

Khalid is the chairman for the committee of the Prince Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz International Prize for Water.[24] He is chair of board of trustees of Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Foundation.[25] He is also a member of the board of trustees of the Arab Thought Foundation that is a Saudi think-tank group, attempting to improve the relations between Arab nations and the Western nations.[26]

He owns the newspaper Al-Hayat. It is said that he does not interfere in its articles as long as no royal criticism is published.[27]

Views[edit]

Turkish-Arab relations[edit]

In the late 1990s, Khalid expressed an opinion concerning the Turkish-Arab relations. According to him, Arabs should ask themselves what brought about this crisis. After criticizing Arab politics for an inability to "cope with rapid changes on the ground," he states how they "assumed Turkey would be on their side forever, even if it gained no benefit thereby." The Arab side, on the other hand, "did not comprehend the complexities of the internal situation in Turkey, or that country's regional and international considerations. This created a climate that could push Turkey ever further into the camp of unfriendly countries." Finally, he proposed improving Turkish-Arab ties "[s]olely by granting supreme importance to mutual economic interests. It is vital to find a form of economic integration between the Arabs and Turks, even if it is a gradual process." And he proposes Turkish-Arab cultural collaboration, calling on Arabs and Turks to "start purging history books and textbooks of mutual insults." He also encouraged military cooperation between Turkey, Pakistan, and the Gulf states.[28]

Ethiopia[edit]

In February 2013, Khalid made a statement about Ethiopia's right to use the Nile waters, which was officially denounced by the Saudi government. His remarks were as follows: "The Ethiopian Renaissance dam….is for political plotting rather than for economic gain and constitutes a threat to Egyptian and Sudanese national security."[29]

Personal life[edit]

Khalid firstly married to King Fahd's daughter, Lulua. They divorced in 1978.[1] They have three children. Their first child, Reema died when she was four months old. His other children from his first marriage are Faisal (born 1973) and Sara (born 1976).[1] Later, he married to another full uncle's daughter, Abeer bint Turki bin Abdulaziz.[1] They have five children: Hala, Fahd, Salman, Mishail and Abdullah.[30]

One of his daughters, Princess Hala, married to King Abdullah's son, Turki bin Abdullah, who was a pilot in the Royal Saudi Air Force, on 13 January 2010.[31]

He published a memoir about his life, entitled Desert Warrior, that revealed many secrets about the first Gulf War—such as the fact that Israel alerted its nuclear-armed missile forces after Iraq started firing Scuds at Tel Aviv both to warn the Iraqis not to use chemical warheads and to press Washington to do more to hunt Scuds in western Iraq.[32]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Sabri, Sharaf (2001). The House of Saud in commerce: A study of royal entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. New Delhi: I.S. Publications. ISBN 81-901254-0-0. 
  2. ^ "New Saudi deputy defense minister a decorated marine officer". Al Arabiya. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  3. ^ "Princess Munira passes away". Arab News. 24 August 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  4. ^ "Wife of Saudi crown prince dies in Paris hospital". The Daily Star. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c Bidwell (12 October 2012). Dictionary Of Modern Arab History. Routledge. p. 372. ISBN 978-1-136-16298-5. Retrieved 8 April 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Moubayed, Sami (26 October 2011). "A Saudi Game of Musical Chairs". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  7. ^ "A gift for a prince". Herald Journal. 18 December 1991. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  8. ^ "The Saudi Question". PBS. 7 October 2004. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  9. ^ Blanche, Ed (30 March 2002). "‘Coup-proof’ Arab regimes must tread carefully in changing world". Lebanon Wire. Retrieved 6 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Anthony H. Cordesman (1 April 2003). Saudi Arabia Enters the Twenty-First Century: The Political, Foreign Policy, Economic, and Energy Dimensions. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-275-97998-0. Retrieved 29 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Carey, Glen (19 January 2011). "Saudi Arabia Plans More Military Hardware Output, Arab News Says". Bloomberg. 
  12. ^ a b Henderson, Simon. "Foreign Policy: A Prince's Mysterious Disappearance". NPR. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  13. ^ a b "Saudi deputy defence minister Prince Khalid Bin Sultan replaced". Gulf News. Reuters. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013. 
  14. ^ "الخلافات تطيح بنجل "سلطان الخير" .. وابن الطيران يتحول لـ"الدفاع"". moheet. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Allam, Abeer (21 April 2013). "Saudi king sacks deputy defence minister". Financial Times (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "Sitrep on Saudi military operations against the Houthis". Wikileaks. 30 December 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  17. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia: Renewed assurances on satellite imagery". Wikileaks. 7 February 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  18. ^ "Saudi jets bomb Yemeni Houthis". Al Jazeera. 5 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  19. ^ Aly, Mohammed (6 November 2009). "Saudi Forces Bomb Yemeni Rebels on Southern Border". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  20. ^ a b Kéchichian, Joseph A. (21 April 2013). "No possible change seen in Saudi succession line". Gulf News. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "The Political Leadership - King Fahd". APS Review Gas Market Trends. 29 November 1999. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  22. ^ "Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation". Living Oceans Foundation. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  23. ^ a b "HRH Prince Khaled bin Sultan Honored with 2012 Perseus Award". The Sacramento Bee. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2012. 
  24. ^ "About the Prize" psipw.org. Retrieved 31 December 2008.
  25. ^ "Who we are?". Sultan bin Abdulaziz al Saud Foundation. Retrieved 7 April 2012. 
  26. ^ "Board of Trustees". Arab Thought. Retrieved 2 May 2012. 
  27. ^ "Ideological and ownership trends in the Saudi media". Wikileaks. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  28. ^ Nachmani, Amikam (June 1998). "The Remarkable Turkish-Israeli Tie". The Middle East Quarterly: 19–29. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  29. ^ "Saudi King sacks anti-Ethopian Prince from cabinet". Daily Ethopia. 21 April 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. 
  30. ^ "Family Tree of Khalid bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud". datarabia.com. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  31. ^ Kapoor, Talal (13 February 2010). "A Princely Rivalry: Clash Of The Titans?". Datarabia. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  32. ^ Riedel, Bruce (1 November 2011). "What to Expect from the New Saudi Crown Prince". The Nationalist Interest. Retrieved 13 April 2012.