|-||1290–1296||Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji|
|-||1316||Shihab ad-Din Umar|
|-||1316–1320||Qutb ad-Din Mubarak|
The Khilji dynasty (Persian: سلسله خلجی; Hindi: सलतनत ख़िलजी) or Khalji was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin who ruled large parts of South Asia between 1290 and 1320. It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India. Under Ala-ud-din Khilji, the Khiljis became known for having repeatedly defended South Asia against the Mongol invasions of India.
History of the Turkic peoples
|Turkic Khaganate 552–744|
|Khazar Khaganate 618–1048|
|Turgesh Khaganate 699–766|
|Uyghur Khaganate 744–840|
|Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212|
|Oghuz Yabgu State
|Shatuo Dynasties 923–979|
|Later Tang Dynasty|
|Later Jin Dynasty|
|Later Han Dynasty (Northern Han)|
|Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186|
|Seljuq Empire 1037–1194|
|Khwarezmian Empire 1077–1231|
|Seljuq Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307|
|Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526|
|Cairo Sultanate 1250–1517|
The Khilji rulers trace their roots to Central Asia and were of Turkic origin. They settled in what is now Qalat, Afghanistan before proceeding to Delhi in India. The name "Khilji" refers to an Afghan village or town known as Qalat-e Khilji (Fort of Khilji). They were treated by others as ethnic Afghans due to their adoption of some Afghan habits and customs. As a result of this, the dynasty is referred to as a Turko-Afghan. The three sultans of the Khalji dynasty were noted by historians for their faithlessness and ferocity.
Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji was a servant of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, who was an ex-slave of the Ghurids with a Turkic background. Mohammad Khilji was an Indo-Ghurid Shah (king) and founder of the Delhi Sultanate, which conquered Bihar and Bengal in the late 12th century. From this time, the Khiljis became servants and vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. From 1266 until his death in 1290, the Sultan of Delhi was called Ghiyas ud din Balban, another servant of Qutab-ud-din Aybak. Balban's immediate successors, however, were unable to manage either the administration or the factional conflicts between the old Turkic nobility and the new forces led by the Khaljis. After a struggle between the two factions, Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji was installed as sultan by a noble faction of Turkic, Persian, Arabic and Indian-Muslim aristocrats at the collapse of the last Mumluk sultan, Kay-Qubadh. Their rise to power was aided by outsiders (some of them Indian-born Muslims) who might enhance their positions if the hold of the followers of Balban and the "Forty" (the members of the royal Loya Jirga) were broken. Jalal-ud-din was old, and for a time he was so unpopular that he dared not enter the capital because his tribe was thought to be close to the nomadic Afghans. During his short reign (1290–96), some of Balban's officers revolted due to this assumption of power; Jalal-ud-din suppressed them, led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor and defeated a Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central India.
Alauddin Khilji, his nephew and son-in-law, was ordered by his father to lead an expedition of between 4,000 and 7,000 men into the Hindu Deccan (where many rulers had refused to submit) and capture Ellichpur and its treasure. Upon his return in 1296 (having gained status and power) he killed his uncle.
Alauddin reigned for 20 years and is considered the greatest member of the dynasty. He captured Ranthambhor (1301) and Chittorgarh (1303), conquered Māndu (1305) and captured the wealthy Hindu state of Devagiri, also repelling two Mongol raids. Alauddin's lieutenant, Malik Kafur (a Muslim Indian), was sent on an expedition to the south in 1308 which led to the capture of Warangal, the overthrow of the Hoysala Empire south of the Krishna River and the occupation of Madura in the south. Malik Kafur returned to Delhi in 1311. The empire fell into political decadence, and the sultan died in early 1316; Malik Kafur’s attempted usurpation ended in his death. The last Khalji (Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah) was murdered in 1320 by a former Indian slave who had risen to become his chief minister and friend, Khusraw Khan. Power was then assumed by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first ruler of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty. A remnant of the ruling house of the Khaljis ruled in Malwa from 1436 to 1530 (or 1531), until the Sultan of Gujarat purged the nobility.
To some extent, the Khilji usurpation was a move toward the recognition of a shifting balance of power attributable to the developments outside the territory of the Delhi Sultanate (in Central Asia and Iran) and to the changes which followed the establishment of Turkic rule in northern India. In large measure, the dislocation in the regions beyond the northwest assured the establishment of an independent Delhi Sultanate and its subsequent consolidation. The eastern steppe tribes' movements to the west not only ended the threat to Delhi from the rivals in Ghazni and Ghor, but also forced a number of Central Asian Muslims to migrate to northern India. This phenomenon also led to the destabilization of the core of the Turkic Mamluks. During the Mongol plunder of Central Asia and eastern Persia (now parts of modern-day Iran, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan), many more members of the political and religious elite of these regions were thrown into northern India, where they were admitted into the military and administrative cadre by the early Delhi sultans.
Position in Turkic Indian society
The Khilji Turks were not recognized by the older nobility as coming from a pure Turkic stock, even in Singam and Kuselan (since they had intermarried with non-Turks: Indians, Afghans (Pashtun) and Arab Bedouins); their customs and manners were seen as different from those of other Turks. Although they had played a role in the success of the Turkic armies in India, they had always been looked down upon by the leading Turks (the dominant group during the Slave dynasty). This tension between the Khiljis and other Turks (kept in check by Balban) surfaced in the following reign, and ended in the displacement of the Ilbari Turks.
Before their expansion into India, the Khalji people were mainly concentrated in Turkestan. In the writings of Al-Biruni, Ibn-Batuta, Ibn-Khaldun, Al-Khwarezmi, Masudi, Varahamihira and in Hudud al-'alam, they are presented as a group of Turkic origin which formed one of the older members of the Hephthalite confederation, and included many nomads near Bactria (in Turfan) and east of modern Ghazni. Many migrated to various parts of Persia, including to parts of what are now Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India, then under the control of the Ghaznavids. In Iran they migrated mainly to Pars, where they settled an isolated region which is called today Khaljistan ("land of Khaljis"). However, Persian-speakers in Iran also use the term Khalji to describe nomads of Turkic background in their country. The Khaljis began to become Pashtunized (Afghanized) since the 8th century and later known as Ghilzais, part of the Pashtun ethnic group.
Propagation of Islam
According to the 14th century scholar Ibn Batuta, the Khilji dynasty encouraged conversion to Islam by making it customary to have the convert presented to the sultan (who would place a robe on him and reward him with gold bracelets). During Ikhtiyar Uddin Bakhtiyar Khilji's control of Bengal, Muslim missionaries in India achieved their greatest success in the number of converts to Islam.
List of Khilji rulers of Delhi (1290–1320)
|Titular Name||Personal Name||Reign||Notes|
ملک فیروز خلجی
|1290–1296||He usurped the throne from Kayumars the last Sultan of the Mamluk Dynasty of Delhi. He re-organized the administration of the government placing his confidants and family members in important positions. He crushed the rebellions of Malik Chhajū Kishli and Raja Bairam Dev. He also managed to arrange a peace treaty with an invading Mongol army in 1292 in which a great grandson of Genghis Khan named Alghu embraced Islam. By 1296 Jalal-ud-din had invaded and brought into his control many Indian territories. His nephew and son-in-law Alauddin, had recently invaded Deogiri and obtained tremendous treasure without permission. Although Jalal-ud-din was warned several times about the possibility of Alauddin's intentions to overthrow him, he deflected such accusations as mere jealousy of his protege. The Sultan was tricked into visiting his nephew with a small disarmed cortege near Karra-Manikpur where his nephew held a banquet for him. He was assassinated when they shook hands by men waiting for signal to attack. He was beheaded and the head placed on a spear and paraded in several cities.|
|Juna Khan Khilji
علی گرشاسپ خلجی
|1296–1316||Considered one of the greatest of the Sultans of Delhi, he came to power in a bloody coup. He was a brilliant strategist and an outstanding military commander who was known for his ruthlessness. He repeatedly defeated the invading Mongols. He prefixed the title of Sikandar Sani which means the Second Alexander.|
|Umar Khan Khilji
عمر خان خلجی
|1316||As a minor he briefly ascended the throne when his father died with the help of Malik Naib who failed to garner support and was assassinated. Shihab-ud-din was moved to Gwalior where he died the same year. His reign was 3 months and a few days.|
|Mubarak Khan Khilji
مبارک خان خلجی
|1316–1320||Qutb-ud-din was 18 years old when he became Sultan. He mismanaged state affairs, assassinated and replaced many nobleman and appointed one person who would change the fate of the Khilji dynasty namely, Khusro Khan. He invaded Deogiri in 1318 CE and flayed Harpal Dev. Gradually he indulged in alcohol and debauchery, ignoring state affairs. Khusro Khan gradually took over the government and appointed his Bawariya clansmen. Eventually, he hatched a plot to assassinate the Sultan, which he did.|
|Khusro Khan ended the Khilji dynasty in 1320.|
Khalji Sultans of Malwa (1436–1531)
- Mahmud Khilji (1436–1469)
- Ghiyas ud din Khilji (1469–1500)
- Persianate society
- Khalaj people
- Turkic people
- History of India
- Ikhtiyar Uddin Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khalji
- List of Sunni Muslim dynasties
References and footnotes
- "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - Archaeological Survey of India". Asi.nic.in. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Dynastic Chart The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2, p. 368.
- Barua, Pradeep (2005). The state at war in South Asia. U of Nebraska Press. p. 437. ISBN 0-8032-1344-1. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- "Khalji Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "this dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkic origin, though the Khiljī tribe had long been settled in what is now Afghanistan..."
- Thorpe, Showick Thorpe Edgar (2009). The Pearson General Studies Manual 2009, 1/e. Pearson Education India. p. 1900. ISBN 81-317-2133-7. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The Khilji dynasty was named after a village in Afghanistan. Some historians believe that they were Afghans, but Bharani and Wolse Haig explain in their accounts that the rulers from this dynasty who came to India, though they had temporarily settled in Afghanistan, were originally Turkic."
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 337. ISBN 81-269-0123-3. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The Khiljis were a Central Asian Turkic dynasty but having been long domiciled in Afghanistan, and adopted some Afghan habits and customs. They were treated as Afghans in Delhi Court."
- Cavendish, Marshall (2006). World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. Marshall Cavendish. p. 320. ISBN 0-7614-7571-0. Retrieved 2010-08-23. "The sultans of the Slave Dynasty were Turkic Central Asians, but the members of the new dynasty, although they were also Turkic, had settled in Afghanistan and brought a new set of customs and culture to Delhi."
- Yunus, Mohammad; Aradhana Parmar (2003). South Asia: a historical narrative. Oxford University Press. p. 97. ISBN 0-1957-9711-6. Retrieved 2010-08-23.
- Farooqui, Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: From Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. India: Pearson Education India. p. 114. ISBN 81-317-3202-9. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Kumar Mandal, Asim (2003). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: Indus Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 81-738-7143-4. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Singh, D. (1998). The Sundarbans of India: A Development Analysis. India: APH Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 81-702-4992-9. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Slave Dynasty: 1206-1290". Thenagain.info. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- "Ghiyas-ud-din Balban [1200-1287]". Storyofpakistan.com. 2003-06-01. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Sastri (1955), pp 206–208
- Frances Pritchett. "V. Expansion in the South: The Khaljis and the Tughluqs". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, p. 326
- Eran, Land zwischen Tigris und Indus, 1879, p. 268
- The Pathans: 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957, by Olaf Kirkpatrick Caroe
- The Cambridge History of Iran, 1968, p.217 by William Bayne Fisher, Ehsan Yarshater, Ilya Gershevitch and Richard Nelson
- "Ghilzay". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2012-12-03. "They are reputed to be descended at least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th century..."
- The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 212
- The preaching of Islam: a history of the propagation of the Muslim faith By Sir Thomas Walker Arnold, pg. 227-228
- Al-Badāoni (16th century historian). "Sultan Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji". The Muntakhabu-’rūkh. Packard Humanities Institute. Retrieved 2012-12-03. "Whose name was Malik Fīroz and his title Shāyista Khān..."
- The Oxford History of India, Clarendon Press, 1958.
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