Khara-Khoto

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Coordinates: 41°46′N 101°09′E / 41.767°N 101.150°E / 41.767; 101.150

The walls of Khara-Khoto

Eji Nai City (Tangut language, transcribed into Chinese as 亦集乃 Yijinai), paraphrased to (Modern) Mongolian as Khar khot (Middle Mongolian:ᠬᠠᠷᠠ
ᠬᠣᠲᠠ
Khara Khoto, "black city") and to Chinese as Heishui City (Chinese: 黑城 Hēichéng "black city"[1] or 黑水城 Hēishuǐchéng, "black water city"), was a Tangut city in the Ejin khoshuu of Alxa League, in western Inner Mongolia, near the former Gashun Lake. It has been identified as the city of Etzina, which appears in The Travels of Marco Polo.

The present banner Ejin Banner is named after this city.

History[edit]

The city was founded in 1032 and became a thriving center of Tangut Empire trade in the 11th century. There are remains of 30-foot (9.1 m)-high ramparts and 12-foot (3.7 m)-thick outer walls.[2] The outer walls ran for some 421 m (1,381 ft) east-west by 374 m (1,227 ft) north-south.[3]

The walled fortress was first taken by Genghis Khan in 1226,[4] but—contrary to a widely circulated misunderstanding—the city continued to flourish under Mongol overlordship. During Kublai Khan's time, the city was expanded, reaching a size three times bigger than during the Tangut Empire. Togoontemur Khan concentrated his preparation for reconquest of China at Khara-Khoto. The city was located on the crossroads connecting Karakorum, Xanadu and Kumul.

In The Travels of Marco Polo, Marco Polo describes a visit to a city called Etzina or Edzina,[4] which has been identified with Khara-Khoto.[5][6]

When you leave the city of Campichu you ride for twelve days, and then reach a city called Etzina, which is towards the north on the verge of the Sandy Desert; it belongs to the Province of Tangut. The people are Idolaters, and possess plenty of camels and cattle, and the country produces a number of good falcons, both Sakers and Lanners. The inhabitants live by their cultivation and their cattle, for they have no trade. At this city you must needs lay in victuals for forty days, because when you quit Etzina, you enter on a desert which extends forty days' journey to the north, and on which you meet with no habitation nor baiting-place.

— Marco Polo, The Travels of Marco Polo, translated by Henry Yule, 1920

According to a legend by the local Torghut population, in 1372 a Mongol military general named Khara Bator[2] (Mongolian: Black hero) was surrounded with his troops by the armies of China's Ming dynasty. Diverting the Ejin River, the city's water source that flowed just outside the fortress, the Chinese denied Khara-Khoto water for its gardens and wells. As time passed and Khara Bator realised his fate, he murdered his family and then himself. After his suicide, Khara Bator's soldiers waited within the fortress until the Ming finally attacked and killed the remaining inhabitants. Another version of the legend holds that Khara Bator made a breach in the northwestern corner of the city wall and escaped through it. The remains of the city has a breach through which a rider can pass.

After the defeat, and additionally possibly for real water shortage,[4] the city was abandoned and left in ruins. Its exceedingly remote location preserved it from looters.

Exploration[edit]

Plan of Khara-Khoto

Russian explorers Grigory Potanin and Vladimir Obruchev heard rumours that somewhere downstream Ejin River an ancient city was waiting. This knowledge gave impetus to the Asian Museum, St. Petersburg, to launch a new Mongol-Sichuan expedition under the command of Pyotr Kuzmich Kozlov.[7]

During the 1907-1909 expedition to Central Asia, in 1908, Kozlov made the historical discovery of Khara-Khoto. With a dinner and gift of a grammophone to a local Torghut lord Dashi Beile, Kozlov obtained a permission to dig in the site, arriving on May 1, 1908 to Khara-Khoto ruins.[7] Over 2,000 books, scrolls and manuscripts in the Tangut language were uncovered.[8] Kozlov initially sent ten chests of manuscripts and Buddhist objects to St. Petersburg, returning again in May 1909 for more objects. The books and woodcuts were found in June, while excavating a stupa outside city walls some 400 m (1,300 ft) westward.[7]

Sir Aurel Stein excavated Khara-Khoto during his third Central Asian expedition[6] in 1917, surveying Khara-Khoto for eight days. The findings from this research was incorporated in chapter 13 of Stein's first volume of Innermost Asia.[9][10]

Langdon Warner visited Khara-Khoto in 1925.[4]

Folke Bergman first travelled to Khara-Khoto in 1927, returning in 1929 and staying for a year and a half in the area. He made maps of Khara-Khoto and the Ejin River area, surveyed watchtowers and fortresses, finding a large number of xylographs. Bergman noted that Kozlov's and Stein's visits were cursory and some of their published documentation was partially incorrect.[11]

Sven Hedin and Xu Bingchang led the Sino-Swedish Expedition on archaeological excavations of the site between 1927–31.[4] After Hedin, John DeFrancis visited in 1935.

Further Chinese excavations between 1983 and 1984 by Li Yiyou, Inner Mongolian Institute of Archaeology, have produced some 3,000 more manuscripts.[1][4][12] In addition to books, these excavations unearthed building materials, daily items, production instruments and religious art.[13] Satellite photos show that the site is currently being preserved.

Findings[edit]

A silk painting from Khara-Khoto, now located in Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Kozlov's findings, some 3,500 paintings and other objects, are in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, while the books and xylographs are at the Institute of Oriental Studies.[4] These fortunately survived the Siege of Leningrad and some of them were even lost until their rediscovery in 1991,[14] forming the basis for research of the Tangut language, written in Tangut script in subsequent years. The books and manuscripts sent back to St. Petersburg by Kozlov were studied by Aleksei Ivanovich Ivanov, who identified several Tangut dictionaries, including a Chinese-Tangut glossary titled Fanhan Heshi Zhangzhongzhu (番汉合时掌中珠), compiled in 1190.[13]

In addition to written artifacts, batik-dyed silk fragments have also been found.[15] A small mud wall painting fragment confirms use of cobalt as a pigment in the form of smalt.[16]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1997). Liao Architecture. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawai'i Press. p. 432. ISBN 978-0-8248-1843-2. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  2. ^ a b Webster, Donovan (February 2002). "Alashan Plateau—China's Unknown Gobi". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  3. ^ Steinhardt, Nancy Shatzman (1999). Chinese Imperial City Planning. University of Hawai'i Press. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-8248-2196-8. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "IDP News Issue No. 2". IDP Newsletter (2): 2–3. January 1995. ISSN 1354-5914. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  5. ^ The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo , translated by Henry Yule. Book 1, Chapter 45.
  6. ^ a b Wang, Helen (ed.); Perkins, John (ed.) (2008). Handbook to the Collections of Sir Aurel Stein in the UK. British Museum. pp. 42–44. ISBN 978-0-86159-977-6. ISSN 1747-3640. Retrieved 2009-07-04. 
  7. ^ a b c Kychanov, E. (1995). "Wen-Hai Bao-Yun: The book and its fate". Manuscripta Orientalia 1 (1): 39–44. ISSN 1238-5018. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  8. ^ Kozlow, P.K. (1955). Die Mongolei, Amdo und die tote Stadt Chara-choto. Leipzig: Brockhaus. p. 383. 
  9. ^ Stein, Aurel (1928). Innermost Asia: Detailed Report of Explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. 
  10. ^ Digital Silk Road Project. "Ethnic Consciousness Seen Through the Letters: Khara-Khoto and Western Xia Characters". National Institute of Informatics, Japan. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  11. ^ Schlanger, Nathan; Nordbladh, Jarl (1 June 2008). Archives, Ancestors, Practices: Archaeology in the Lights of Its History. Berghahn Books. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-84545-066-3. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  12. ^ Wilkinson, Endymion (25 April 2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series (2nd Revised ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4. 
  13. ^ a b Nie Hongyin (2003-05-26). "Tangutology During the Past Decades". Bureau of International Cooperation, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Retrieved 05-08-2009. 
  14. ^ van Driem, George (1993). "Ancient Tangut manuscripts rediscovered" (PDF). Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area (La Trobe University, Australia) 16 (1): 137–155. ISSN 0731-3500. Retrieved 2009-08-05. 
  15. ^ Sheares, Constance (18 August 2008). "Summary History of Asian Textile Materials, and Their Patterning Techniques (Batik, Bandhana and Ikat) Based on Literary and Pictorial Evidence and Actual Remains" (PDF). The Heritage Journal (Online) 3: 52–53. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 
  16. ^ Watt, J. C .Y. (1979). "Notes on the Use of Cobalt in Later Chinese Ceramics". Ars Orientalis (Freer Gallery of Art, The Smithsonian Institution and Department of the History of Art, University of Michigan) 11: 63–85. ISSN 0571-1371. JSTOR 4629297. 

Further reading[edit]

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