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|— Urban agglomeration/City —|
|• Chairman of the Municipality||Ravishanker Pandey (Congress)|
|• Total||127 km2 (49 sq mi)|
|Elevation||61 m (200 ft)|
|• Density||2,900/km2 ( 7,600/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Medinipur|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Kharagpur Sadar|
Kharagpur pronunciation (help·info) is an industrial town in Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Kharagpur has one of the prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology. This town also has one of the largest railway workshops in India, and the 3rd longest railway platform in the world (1072.5 m). Kharagpur has an Air Force base in Kalaikunda, and another in Salua. There have been plans by the IAF to allow civil flights in Kalaikunda.
The name of Kharagpur comes from the name of the old Shiva temple Khargeswar, located at Kharagpur. The Temple was established by King Kharag Singh Pal and was named after him. The land has mythological importance too. As depicted in the ancient epic narrative Mahabharata, this area was ruled by the Demon King Hiramba. Pancha Pandavas spent a part of their repatriation years here. Bhim had fallen in love with Hirimba, sister of Hiramba. This angered Hiramba, who fought with Bhim. It was believed that Hiramba was killed by Bhim at the very place where Khargeswar Temple is located.
Historically, Kharagpur was a part of the Hijli Kingdom and ruled by Hindu Oriya rulers as a feudatory under Gajapati Kings of Orissa. Historians claim that in the 16th century, Kharagpur was still a small village surrounded by dense forests. The village was on high rocky barren land. The only inhabited settlement near Kharagpur was Hijli. Hijli was a small island village on the banks of the Rasulpur River, in the delta of Bay of Bengal. It developed into a port town in 1687. Hijli was also a province and it existed until 1886. It covered parts of Bengal and Orissa. It had important towns like Tamluk, Panskura, and Debra, along with the Kelghai and Haldi rivers on the north, south, and east sides bounded by Bay of Bengal and Kharagpur, Keshiary, Dantan, and Jaleswar on the west.
Hijli was ruled by Taj Khan who was the disciple of Guru Peer Mackdram Sha Chisti. It was also ruled by the Kushan, Gupta, and Pal dynasties, and by the Mughals. It is said that Hijli had excellent business and trade centers with judiciary, prison, and administrative offices during the reign of Hindu Kings and during the Moghul Raj. The capital of Hijli was in Bahiri up to 1628 and was shifted to Hijli afterwards. Hijli Province was at its peak in 1754 and was highly prosperous during this period.
In the 18th century Khejuri, another port town, came into existence. It was established by the British primarily for carrying out trade with European countries. Khejuri was also an island set up on the banks of the Koukhali River in the delta region. Development of this region because of the ports in Khejuri and Hijli can be measured by the establishment of the first Indian Telegraph Office here, in 1852. This connected Khejuri with Calcutta. In the devastating cyclone of 1864, both ports were destroyed. The islands have since merged with the mainland.
Captain Nicolson was the first English colonialist to invade Hijli and captured the port. In 1687 Job Charnock with soldiers and warships captured Hijli, defeating Hindu and Mughal defenders. After the war with the Mughals, a treaty was signed between Job Charnock and the Mughal Emperor. The loss suffered by Job Charnock forced him to leave Hijli and to proceed towards Uluberia, while the Mughal Emperor continued to rule the province. From there, they finally settled at Sutanuti in Kolkata to establish their business in Eastern India. This was the start of the East India Company in India. Hijli as we know it today is only a small part of the Hijli Province, and was created for establishing administrative offices by the British in the 19th century. It is curious that almost the entire Kharagpur division of today has boundaries identical to Hijli Province.
The first railway establishment at Kharagpur started with the commissioning of the rail link between Cuttack – Balasore – Kharagpur and from Sini to Kolaghat via Kharagpur. Kharagpur as a junction station was established in Railway map in December 1898. The public mood and the reaction of society on introduction of rail transport in this region has been nicely depicted by the famous Bengali Novelist Dr Ramapada Choudhury (who was born and raised in Kharagpur) in his novel Prothom Prohor. It is said that the people were initially afraid to travel by train for fear of the bridge collapsing, and for fear of getting outcaste or Dalit status, since there were no separate seating arrangement for different castes and religions. However, things changed due to famines in the early 20th century. The railway company came forward and offered jobs to the local unemployed men, gave them free ride by train, and even offered a blanket for travelling by train. This promotional scheme broke the taboos and made rail transport acceptable to the society.
Midnapur's District Headquarters was connected to the bank of the Kosai River in February 1900. Construction of the bridge over Kosai completed in June 1901. The rail line from Howrah to Kolaghat up to the Eastern bank and from Kharagpur up to Western bank of Rupnarayan River was completed in 1899. However, trains between Howrah and Kharagpur was possible only in April 1900 after the bridge over Rupnarayan river was completed.
Howrah – Amta light Railway (2 ft gauge - 610 mm ) line was completed in 1898 and was operated by M/s Martin & Co. of Calcutta. This link remained operative till 1971. After closure of the light railways, the demand for a broad gauge line between Howrah and Amta gained momentum. The project was completed in four phases. In the first phase, the line between Santragachi and Domjur was completed in 1984. In the 2nd phase under Project Unigauge it got extended up to Bargachia in 1985. Extension up to Munsirhat (Mahendralal Nagar station) was completed in 2000, and the final lap up to Amta got completed in December 2004.
The need for a rail link between Panskura and Tamluk was conceived at the beginning of 20th century, almost at the same time the rail link between Howrah and Kharagpur was opened. The railway company received offers for construction from two Agencies, M/S Martin & Company and M/s Babu Nibaran Chandra Dutta. The former against guaranteed return of 3.5% while the latter without any guarantee. Although the offer of the latter was lucrative, the dilemma of whether to offer the work of construction to a native or not forced the project to be abandoned. After Independence, the requirement of rail link connecting Panskura and Durgachak came up primarily for the purpose of constructing Haldia Port. The rail link between Panskura – Durgachak via Tamluk completed in 1968, which was later extended to Haldia in 1975. Extension of rail link to Digha from Tamluk was sanctioned in 1984; it took 20 years to complete, in two phases. The first phase linked Tamluk and Contai in November 2003, and the tourist destination Digha was connected to Howrah in December 2004.
Geographical location of Kharagpur and its rail links with the rest of the country favored construction of a centralized workshop with facilities to carry out major repairs of all broad gauge stock. The work was sanctioned in 1900; construction of the workshop was completed in 1904.
Kharagpur, the fourth largest city of West Bengal in area after Kolkata, Durgapur and Asansol and fifth most populated city of West Bengal after Kolkata, Asansol, Siliguri, Durgapur - located at  It has an average elevation of 29 metres (95 ft). This sub-division town is formed with Dalma Pahar and alluvial tract of Midnapore. It is intersected by numerous waterways, the important rivers being Subarnarekha, Keleghai and Kangsabati., covering an area of about 127 km2 located in south-western Midnapore.
Urban structure 
Nimpura is a place for housing of thousands of Railway Employees. There is a long winding road from Nimpura to Hijli which goes through Tangrahut (Arambati), Talbagicha and another one from Kalaikunda to Gopali through Hiradihi,Talbagicha. The south of Kharagpur is a planned area belonging to the Indian Railways which was established by Britishers as residential area. Nearby is the Kharagpur Municipality and the fire station. Kharagpur Railway Colony is the biggest railway settlement in India having about 13,000 quarters. There are several railway residential areas namely Chhotta Ayma, Bara Ayma, Old Settlement, New Settlement, Mathurakati, Nimpura, South Side, Traffic etc. The BNR ground is a very large playground which can be developed and properly maintained.
Kharagpur has a tropical wet and dry climate. Summers start in March and are hot and humid, with average temperatures close to 30 °C (86 °F). They are followed by the monsoon season that sees about 1140 mm (45 inches) of rain. Winters are brief but chilly, lasting from December to mid February, with average temperatures around 22 °C (72 °F). Total annual rainfall is around 1400mm (55 in).
|Climate chart (explanation)|
In the 2011 census, Kharagpur Urban Agglomeration had a population of 372339, out of which 190141 were males and 182896 were females. The 0–6 years population was 25,130. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 85.61.
As of 2001[update] India census, Kharagpur had a population of 207,984 (municipality area) and 88,339 (railway sattlement area), the fourth largest in West Bengal. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Kharagpur has an average literacy rate of 64%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 75%, and female literacy is 52%. In Kharagpur, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kharagpur acquires its unique place in India as a town of mixed ethnicity and linguistic diversity.
Civic administration and utility services 
Kharagpur Municipality looks after civic affairs in the city. There is a proposal to upgrade it to a Municipal Corporation after including railway area under its jurisdiction. As of now responsibility of civic amenities in railway area lies with the Divisional Railway Manager, Kharagpur Division who is also the head of railway establishment in Kharagpur.
State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, and Tata DoCoMo, are the leading telephone, cell phone and internet service providers in the city.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
It is the busiest junction station in South Eastern Railway Zone after Howrah. Hence, it is often termed as Gateway to South Eastern Railway.kharagpur is having the longest platform of the world, which is 1072.50 mts. Everyday approximately 275 trains pass through this station which includes freight. So, in a bid to decongest Kharagpur station and speed up locomotives, South Eastern Railway has decided to develop Hijli (where IIT is located) as an alternative station for Kharagpur. In future, trains coming from Balasore side and going towards Adra or Tatanagar will stop at Hijli and bypass Kharagpur. The Howrah-Kharagpur section has been identified as one of the high density Automatic Block Section routes on Indian Railways. Thus plans are to deploy TPWS (Train Protection and Warning System) on this section to mitigate the risk of Signal Passing At Danger (SPAD) by train drivers leading to accidents. It has also been identified as one of Dedicated Freight Corridors (DFC) - on the East-West (Howrah-Mumbai), on the East-Coast (Kharagpur-Vijayawada). These routes would be operational well before 2020. This would create adequate capacity to meet the freight demand and also elevate the quality of service to global standards. Kharagpur has more stations in it like "Giri Maidan", "Hijli", "Nimpura" and "Kalaikunda".
Road Transport 
Kharagpur also well connected with various places by road. There are many buses going to different places from Kharagpur Central Bustand situated beside Kharagpur Railway station. Different routes are Kharagpur-Jhargram, Kharagpur-Digha, Kharagpur-Tata, Kharagpur-Dhumsai, Kharagpur-Gopiballavpur, Kharagpur-Kolkata, Kharagpur-Haldia, Kharagpur-Siliguri, Kharagpur-Bankura, Kharagpur-Asansol,Kharagpur-Durgapur, Kharagpur-Baripada, Kharagpur-Keshiyari,Kharagpur-Rohini, Kharagpur-Tarakeswar (via Kamarpukur and Arambagh), etc. Many local mini buses provide service between Kharagpur-Midnapore. The town itself is connected with various local places by auto-rickshaws and rickshaws.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2009)|
The need for a centralized Hospital at Khargpur was also felt in late 19th century and the Hospital with complete medical facilities was established in 1897. Dr Arthur Martin Leake, Victorian Cross winner was appointed as Chief Medical Officer of Kharagpur Hospital in 1904.
On 16 September 1931, freedom fighters in Hijli Jail celebrated the killing of Sessions Judge Mr Garley, who had passed death penalty to famous Freedom fighter Shri Dinesh Gupta. The Jail authorities could not tolerate this and killed the freedom fighters in their cell. Today the infamous Hijli Jail is located inside the IIT campus area. Now, the name of Kharagpur is synonymous with IIT. The railway establishment bears testimony of its (IIT Kharagpur’s) development in the initial years. The Father of Nation Mahatma Gandhi served his term in the Hijli Jail as did Khudiram Bose, an eminent Freedom fighter of Bengal.
Today Railway Main Hospital and Kharagpur Sub-divisional Hospital (Chandmari Hospital) are main public sector hospitals in Kharagpur. A number of private clinics and nursing homes also operate. However, overall quality of health care facilities is at best modest and people mostly go to Midnapur or Kolkata for better health care.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2009)|
Development in the area is stimulated by the presence of the IIT campus, the proximity to Kolkata, and the excellent rail connections. Kharagpur is also developing in the field of real estate, hospitality, and retail. A new Big Bazaar opened in Kharagpur and a shopping complex will be opened by The Regent Heritage as a part of its project. A proposed INOX Leisure multiplex is opening soon in the Puja Complex mall. There are marketplaces called Puratan Bazaar, Gole Bazaar, and Gate Bazaar, a super market at co-operative Golebazar and one at Malancha.
Kharagpur is fast developing as an industrial township with several existing and new industries coming up. The major industries present in Kharagpur are:
Existing Industrial Units:
- Bansal Cement Private Limited (Grinding Unit)
- Telecom Factory (taken over by BSNL since 2000)
- Aso Cement Ltd. (Slag Cement)
- Essen Fabricators Private Limited (Heavy Engineering Division)
- Siemens Pvt Ltd (Industrial Gears)
- Humboldt Wedag (I) Ltd. (Slurry Pumps)
- SE Railway Workshop (Carriage, Wagon, Steel and Diesel Locomotive Maintenance)
- Tata Bearings Ltd. (Bearings and its Castings)
- Tata Constructions & Projects Limited formerly Tata Davy Ltd. (Heavy Engineering) (This factory has been closed since 2003)
- Bengal Energy Limited (Pig & Sponge Iron)
- Tata Metaliks Ltd. (Pig Iron Plant)
- Kalimati Steel Pvt. Ltd. (Manufacturers and Processors of Low Ash Metallurgical Coke)
- Wellman Wacoma Ltd. (Coke Oven/Metallurgical Coke)
- Rashmi Metaliks (PIG Iron Manufacturing Unit)
- Ramswarup Lohh Udyog(Finished Steel)
- Sai Fertilizer Pvt Ltd (SSP manufacturer)
- KE Technical Textiles Pvt. Ltd. (Technical Textiles, Gauntlets, Fiber Glass Fabric)
- TELCON off the road vehicle plant.
- Avtec Limited
- Century Extrusions Ltd.
- Tata Kubata
- Keshar Tea & Co.
- Inox Air Products Ltd.
Upcoming Major Units:
- Aso Cement Ltd. (Cement (expansion))
- Century Iron & Steel
- Mittal Ferro Cast Pvt. Ltd
Other upcoming projects in Kharagpur
- A Biotech Park on 300 acres of land is proposed in Kharagpur, with the assistance of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Other projects such as the proposed Iron and Steel Parks at Kharagpur and Guptamani as well as the auto components and IT SEZs will add significantly to the industrial prominence of this region.
- WBIDC has initiated steps to set up Iron & Steel Parks at Kharagpur and Guptamoni in West Midnapur district. WBIDC has identified 300 acres of land at Kharagpur and is in the process of acquiring it. It has also identifi ed 2,500 acres of land at Guptamoni to set up a Mega Iron and Steel Park. The site is adjacent to NH-6.
- JSW Steel plans to set up a 10 million tonne steel plant at Guptamuni near Kharagpur over an area of 5,000 acres with an investment of $2.2 billion. In the first phase, it would install a 4 million tonne plant along with a 1,000 MW thermal power unit. The capacity of the steel plant would be raised to 10 million tonnes in the second phase.
Kharagpur is the largest integrated workshop on IR with facilities to service all types of rolling stock and locomotives. The workshop is spread over an area of 610,000 square meters, 260,000 of which are covered, the workshop handles POH for Diesel-Electric and Electric locomotives, EMU trailer and Motor coaches, freight wagons, coaches and even Diesel cranes. Besides this, it carries out rewinding of traction motors and traction generators and a lot of other related work. The massive workshop underwent massive modernization in 1979 and again in 1985 with a combined outlay of around 400 million rupees.
First wagon prototyping center will be set up at Kharagpur which will develop new designs of wagons. The Indian Railways will set up IIT-Kharagpur's (IIT-KGP) largest research and development (R&D) center. The investment may exceed ₨.120 crore. IIT-KGP is expected to carry out research on behalf of the Indian Railways on areas like equipment, manufacturing and technology upgradation for building a modern rail eco-system. The railways are also considering sponsored research and staff training in collaboration with IIT-Kharagpur. IIT-Kharagpur would be the first to partner for a dedicated R&D center.
Kharagpur is home to people from every religion and caste, from all over the country. At the same time, Kharagpur retains its small-town charm. Movie theaters include "Bombay Talkies," "Aurora," "Sitala," and "South Cinema." Bombay Cimema is now equipped with digital projection and surround sound system.
Places of worship include a "Durga Mandir" at Gole Bazar,Sitala Mandir at Puratan Bazar, "Jagannath Mandir" near Gate Bazar, "Church" at Golebazar, "Gurudwara" at Subhaspally and at Nimpura, "Masjid" near Gole Bazar, and several temples and churches. The most famous festivals here are Durga Puja, Ganesh Puja, Saraswati Puja, Kali Puja, Ammavaari Puja, and others. Also Raas, and Mata Puja is conducted in a year by locals in the whole railway colony. Rath Mela celebrated near the premises of Jagannath Temple. The biggest festival of all is the Dussehra or Ravan Pora.
Kharagpur has a Book Fair ("Kharagpur-er Boimela" in Bengali) which started in 2000 and happens every January. A Flower Fair ("Ful Mela" in Bengali) is also organized every year.
- see also http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-09-30/kolkata/30229574_1_iaf-aircraft-forest-land-cultivable-land
- Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kharagpur
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-21.
- "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
- "Annual report 2010–11" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- "The Indian telecom services performance indicators October — December 2011" (PDF). Telecom Regulatory Authority of India. 13 April 2012. pp. 122–126. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
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