Kharian

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For the villages in Iran, see Kharian, Iran.
Kharian
Kharian is located in Pakistan
Kharian
Kharian
Coordinates: 32°48′40″N 73°51′54″E / 32.811°N 73.865°E / 32.811; 73.865Coordinates: 32°48′40″N 73°51′54″E / 32.811°N 73.865°E / 32.811; 73.865
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
District Gujrat
Elevation 280 m (920 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 30,000
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 0537

Kharian (Urdu: کھاریاں ‎) (Pronunciation: Khariah) is a city of Gujrat District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Kharian is the chief city of Kharian Tehsil, which administrates all of the numerous surrounding villages and towns of Greater Kharian.

Location[edit]

Kharian is located almost midway between the capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad (about 125 km) and the provincial capital of Punjab, Lahore (about 145 km). The most northern parts of Greater Kharian lie in front of the beautiful foothills of the Himalaya mountains of Azad Kashmir.

Kharian is located on the Grand Trunk Road (colloquially known as the GT road). This is the road which connects Kharian, all the way from Bangladesh, through India across Pakistan and to Afghanistan. It was used during British Rule to transport goods across South Asia. The main railway line also passes through Kharian, thus providing good transportation to the northern and southern parts of Pakistan.

The closest cities to Kharian are gulyana (about 10 miles) Jhelum (about 10 miles) Gujrat (around 20 miles) and Sarai Alamgir.

Since Kharian is located in the land fringed by the Jhelum and Chenab rivers, there is no shortage of irrigation water and the land is very fertile.

History[edit]

Kharian is named after the Khari clan of Gurjars, who used to rule this area before the advent of Arabs. The Kharian region was an agricultural region with forests during the Indus Valley Civilization. The Vedic period is characterized by the Indo-Aryan culture, which invaded from Central Asia and settled in the Punjab region. The Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Madras, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus invaded, settled and ruled the ancient Punjab region. After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BCE, Alexander marched into the present-day Punjab region with an army of 50,000. Kharian was ruled by the Maurya Empire, Indo-Greek kingdom, Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, White Huns, Kushano-Hephthalites and Shahi kingdoms.

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin, In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of the northern Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot its landscape.

After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Kharian in 1798. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule. The entire Punjab region was occupied by the British East India Company by 1845.

The predominantly Muslim population supported the Muslim League and the Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in Kharian.

Demography[edit]

The population of Kharian in 2012 is estimated to be over 30,000. The native people of Kharian are usually multilingual, the languages being Punjabi (native language), Urdu (National language of Pakistan) and English (Official language of Pakistan) as well.

Overseas Pakistani citizens of Kharian origin[edit]

Most Overseas Pakistani people of Norway and Denmark originate from villages and towns around Kharian (greater Kharian). These overseas Pakistani families, left Pakistan in the 1960s and 1970s as immigrant workers.

People of Pakistani descent in Norway and Denmark are very well-settled and exhibit a high level of political participation in their new homeland, compared to all other non-western immigrant groups.[1] Also in the educational sector they are doing very well, with almost 10% of the medical students in Oslo of Pakistani heritage.[2] The figure is significant as Pakistani Norwegians only constitute 3.67% of Oslo's population.

List of notable people of Greater Kharian[edit]

The People of Greater Kharian have a rich history of giving rise to many notable personalities of Pakistan and South Asia, which, among others, include:

  • Muhammad Alam Lohar, (1928 - July 3, 1979), (Punjabi, Urdu: محمد عالم لوہار), (Punjabi in Gurmukhi: ਆਲਮ ਲੋਹਾਰ), was one of the most prominent Punjabi folk music singers.
  • Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1928 - September 10, 1965) (Punjabi, Urdu: عزیز بهٹی) , was an Army's Staff officer, who received Pakistan's highest award for valor (Nishan-e-Haider)
  • Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry (Punjabi, Urdu: فضل الہی چودہری;) , (January 1, 1904 - June 2, 1982) was the fifth President of Pakistan from August 14, 1973 until his resignation on September 16, 1978.

Kharian Cantonment[edit]

Kharian Cantonment (Punjabi, Urdu: کھاریاں ﮐﻴﻨٹ) or Kharian Cantt., is one of the largest cantonment (Army Base) of Pakistan. It was built in late 1950s with the support of USA as part of the mutual military alliance, and as an assistance to Pakistan. Its construction was supervised by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and was built according to U.S standards.

During the development of the cantonment, the many villages at the construction site, were relocated by government, and land was given to these in substitute. Mosques and graveyards still remained, and can even be seen today, inside the army area.

In 1956, it was planned and construction was initiated. International companies like Gammon and Caterpillar, participated in building the Garrison. One of the market places inside cantt. area is named after that company, where they stayed during construction.

The cantonment has a lot of facilities, among which are a hospitable services mess/club to provide a location for social activities, an elegant mosque and a beautiful park. There is also a busy shopping area, a well equipped military hospital (CMH Kharian) and two degree colleges, one each for girls and boys.

Kharian Cantt. is also a center for education, both national and international-level schools and colleges are available, within the premises of Garrison.

Welfare organizations[edit]

  • Al Khidmat Foundation
  • Al Madina Welfare Society
  • Anjuman Talba-e-Islam (ATI)

Education[edit]

  • Govt. Degree College for Boys, Kharian City
  • City Public School. G.T Road Kharian
  • Govt. Asghar Ali degree College for Women, Kharian City
  • Army Public School & College, Kharian Cantt
  • Garrison Academy, Kharian Cantt (GAK)
  • Garrison Academy College, Kharian Cantt.
  • Oriental Institute of Technology, Akram Tower G.T. Road, Kharian City.[3]
  • Rosebelt College of Management Sciences & Information Technology, Kharian
  • F.G. College Kharian Cantt. (for men)
  • F.G. College Kharian Cantt. (for women)
  • Govt. Institute of Commerce, THQ Hospital, G.T. Road, Kharian
  • Govt. Vocational Training Institute for Women, Main Bazaar, Kharian
  • Islamic Asian College Of Commerce Kharian
  • Kharain College of Commerce, Kharian
  • Govt. Taleem-Ul-Islam High School, Kharian city
  • Beaconhouse School System (Pakistan), Kharian Cantt.
  • Govt. High School, Kharian City (for boys)
  • Govt. High school # 01, Kharian City (for girls)
  • Govt. High school # 02, Kharian City (for girls)
  • Pakistan Overseas Higher Secondary school
  • Dukhtaran e Millat Higher Secondary school
  • Dar-e-Arqam School, Kharian
  • Sufah Public School, Kharian
  • Dar-us-salam High School Kharian
  • Ayesha Public High School Kharian
  • Iqra Public School Kharian
  • Cambridge Standard School kharian
  • Bloomfield hall school, kharian cantt
  • Nisa Girls College G.T.Road Kharian
  • Punjab College G.T.Road Kharian

Nearby villages and towns[edit]

View of a typical village in Kharian
Fields at a local village

Malka

References[edit]

  1. ^ Goli & Rezaei 2005, p. 24
  2. ^ Dagens Medisin: - Studenter med holdninger
  3. ^ http://www.pbte.edu.pk/affiliation/affiliation_view.asp