Kharif crops (Hindi: ख़रीफ़, Urdu: خريف, Punjabi: ਖ਼ਰੀਫ਼) or monsoon crops are domesticated plants cultivated and harvested during the rainy (monsoon) season in the South Asia, which lasts between April and October depending on the area. Main kharif crops are millet and rice.
Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains in July, during the south-west monsoon season. In Pakistan, the kharif season starts on 16 April and lasts until 15 October. In India, the kharif season varies by crop and state, with kharif starting at the earliest in May and ending at the latest in January, but is popularly considered to start in June and to end in October. Kharif stand in contrast with the Rabi crops, cultivated during the dry season. Both words came with the arrival of Mughals in the Indian subcontinent and are widely used ever-since. Kharif means "autumn" in Arabic. Since this period coincides with the beginning of autumn / winter in the Indian sub-continent, it is called "Kharif period".
Kharif crops are usually sown with the beginning of the first rains towards the end of May in the southern state of Kerala during the advent of south-west monsoon season. As the monsoon rains advance towards the north India, the sowing dates vary accordingly and reach July in north Indian states.
These crops are dependent on the quantity of rain water as well its timing. Too much, too little or at wrong time may lay waste the whole year's efforts.
Common kharif crops
- Rice (paddy and deepwater)
- Maize (corn)
- Mung bean (green gram)
- Urad bean (black gram)
- Peanut (groundnut)
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