|Nickname(s): The First Capital of Ukrainian SSR,[a] Smart City|
Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted
|Municipality||Kharkiv City Municipality|
|• Mayor||Gennady Kernes|
|• City||350 km2 (140 sq mi)|
|Elevation||152 m (499 ft)|
|• City||1,430,885 |
|• Density||4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Licence plate||ХА, 21 (old)|
|Sister cities||Belgorod, Bologna, Cincinnati, Kaunas, Lille, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Nuremberg, Poznań, St. Petersburg, Tianjin, Jinan, Kutaisi, Varna, Rishon LeZion, Brno, Daugavpils|
Kharkiv (Ukrainian: Харків, pronounced [ˈxɑrkʲiw]), or Kharkov (Russian: Ха́рьков; IPA: [ˈxarʲkəf]), is the second-largest city of Ukraine. Located in the north-east of the country, it is the largest city of the Slobozhanshchyna historical region.
The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv was the first city in Ukraine to acknowledge Soviet power in December 1917 and became the first capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic until January 1935, after which the capital was relocated to Kiev. Kharkiv is the administrative centre of Kharkiv Oblast and the surrounding Kharkiv district.
Kharkiv is a major cultural, scientific, educational, transport and industrial centre of Ukraine, with 60 scientific institutes, 30 establishments of higher education, 6 museums, 7 theatres and 80 libraries. Its industry specialises primarily in machinery and electronics. There are hundreds of industrial companies in the city. Among them are globally important giants like the Morozov Design Bureau and the Malyshev Tank Factory (leaders in world tank production in the 1930s through 1980s); Khartron (aerospace and nuclear electronics); and the Turboatom turbines producer.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Government and administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Science and education
- 7 Culture
- 8 International relations
- 9 Notable people
- 10 Transport
- 11 Gallery
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Kharkiv is located in the northeastern region of Ukraine. Historically, Kharkiv lies in the Sloboda Ukraine region (Slobozhanshchyna also known as Slobidshchyna), in which it is considered the main city. The city rests at the confluence of the Kharkiv, Lopan, and Udy rivers, where they flow into the Seversky Donets watershed.
Kharkiv's climate is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb), with cold and snowy winters, and hot summers. The seasonal average temperatures are not too cold in winter, not too hot in summer: −4.6 °C (23.7 °F) in January, and +21.3 °C (70.3 °F) in July. The average rainfall totals 513 mm (20 in) per year, with the most in June and July.
|Climate data for Kharkiv, Ukraine (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−35.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||36
|Snowfall cm (inches)||8
|Avg. rainy days||10||8||10||13||14||15||13||10||12||13||13||12||143|
|Avg. snowy days||14||12||8||1||0||0||0||0||0||1||6||11||80|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||49.6||65.0||108.5||162.0||238.7||264.0||272.8||248.0||186.0||124.0||48.0||31.0||1,797.6|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory. (sun only 1961-1990)|
Archeological evidence discovered in the area of present-day Kharkiv indicates that a local population has existed in that area since the second millennium BC. Cultural artifacts date back to the Bronze Age, as well as those of later Scythian and Sarmatian settlers. There is also evidence that the Chernyakhov culture flourished in the area from the second to the sixth century.
The city was founded by re-settlers who were running away from the war that engulfed Right-bank Ukraine in 1654 (see Khmelnytsky Uprising). The years before the region was a sparsely populated part of the Cossack Hetmanate. The group of people came onto the banks of Lopan and Kharkiv rivers where stood an abandoned settlement. Some sources indicate that the city may have been named after the Ukrainian name for 'swan': kharka. Other sources offer that the city was named after its near-legendary founder, Kharko (a diminutive form of the name Kharyton, Ukrainian: Харитон). According to archive documents, the leader of the re-settlers was otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk.
At first the settlement was self-governed under the jurisdiction of a voivode from Chuhuiv that is located 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the east. The first appointed voivode from Moscow was Voyin Selifontov in 1656 who started to build a local ostrog (fort). At that time the population of Kharkiv was just over 1000, half of which were local cossacks, while Selifontov brought along a Moscow garrison of another 70 servicemen. The first Kharkiv voivode was replaced in two years after constantly complaining that locals refused to cooperate in building the fort. Kharkiv also became the centre of the local Sloboda cossack regiment as the area surrounding the Belgorod fortress was being heavily militarized. With the resettlement of the area by Ukrainians it came to be known as Sloboda Ukraine, most of which was included under the jurisdiction of the Razryad Prikaz (Military Appointment) headed by a district official from Belgorod. By 1657 the Kharkiv settlement already had a fortress with underground passageways.
In 1658 Ivan Ofrosimov was appointed as the new voivode, who worked on forcing locals to kiss the cross to show loyalty to the Moscow Tsar. The locals led by their otaman Ivan Kryvoshlyk refused it. However with the election of the new otaman Tymish Lavrynov the community (hromada) sent a request to the Tsar to establish a local Assumption market, signed by deans of Kharkiv churches (the Assumption Cathedral and parish churches of Annunciation and Trinity). Relationships with the neighboring Chuhuiv sometimes were non-friendly and often their arguments were pacified by force. With the appointment of the third voivode Vasiliy Sukhotin was completely finished the construction of the city fort.
The Kharkiv Fortress was erected around the Assumption Cathedral and its castle was located at University Hill. It was situated between today's streets: vulytsia Kvitky-Osnovianenko, Constitution Square, Rose Luxemburg Square, Proletarian Square, and Cathedral Descent. The fortress had 10 towers: Chuhuivska Tower, Moskovska Tower, Vestovska Tower, Tainytska Tower, Lopanska Corner Tower, Kharkivska Corner Tower and others. The tallest tower was Vestovska some 16 metres (52 ft) tall, while the shortest one was Tainytska which, however, had a secret well 35 metres (115 ft) deep. The fortress had the Lopanski Gates. In 1689 the fortress was expanded and included the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral and Monastery which was baptized and became the center of local eparchy. Coincidentally in the same year in the vicinity of Kharkiv in Kolomak, Ivan Mazepa was announced the Hetman of Ukraine. Next to the Saint-Pokrov Cathedral was located the Kharkiv Collegiate that was transferred from Belgorod to Kharkiv in 1726.
Within the Russian Empire
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Kiev Governorate. Kharkov is specifically mentioned as one of the towns making a part of the governorate. In 1727, Belgorod Governorate was split off, and Kharkiv moved to Belgoro Governorate. It was the center of a separate administrative unit, Kharkiv Sloboda Cossack regiment. The regiment at some point was detached from Belgorod Governorate, then attached to it again, until in 1765, Slobodsko-Ukrainian Governorate was established with the seat in Kharkiv.
Kharkiv University was established in 1805 in the Palace of Governorate-General. Alexander Mikolajewicz Mickiewicz, brother of Adam Mickiewicz was a professor of law in the university, another celebrity Goethe searched for instructorial staff for the school. In 1906 Ivan Franko received here a doctorate in Russian linguistics.
The streets were first cobbled in the city centre in 1830. In 1844 the 90 metres (300 ft) tall Alexander Bell Tower was built next to the first Assumption Cathedral, which on November 16, 1924 was transformed into a radio tower. A system of running water was established in 1870. The Cathedral Descent at one time carried the name of another local trader Vasyl Ivanovych Pashchenko-Tryapkin as Pashchenko Descent. Pashchenko even leased a space to the city council (duma) and was the owner of the city "Old Passage", the city's biggest trade center. After his death in 1894 Pashchenko donated all his possessions to the city. In 1912 the first sewer system was built. Gas lighting was installed in 1890 and electric lighting in 1898. In 1869 the first railway station was constructed, and the first tram lines in 1906.
From 1800 to 1917 the population increased by 30 fold.
Kharkiv became a major industrial centre and with it a centre of Ukrainian culture. In 1812 the first Ukrainian newspaper was published there. One of the first Prosvitas in Eastern Ukraine was also established in Kharkiv. A powerful nationally aware political movement was also established there and the concept of an Independent Ukraine was first declared there by the lawyer Mykola Mikhnovsky in 1900.
When the Tsentralna Rada announced the establishment of the Ukrainian People's Republic in November 1917 it envisioned the Slobodsko-Ukrainian Governorate to be part of it. In December 1917 Ukrainian Bolshevik made Kharkiv their stronghold and formed their its own Rada on 13 December 1917. By February 1918 Bolshevik forces had captured much of Ukraine. In February 1918 Kharkiv became the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic; but this entity was disbanded six weeks later. In April 1918 the German army occupied Kharkiv. And according to the February 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk between the Ukrainian People's Republic and the Central Powers it became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Early January 1919 Bolshevik forces captured Kharkiv. Mid-June 1919 Anton Denikin's White movement Volunteer Army captured the city. In December 1919 the Bolshevik Red Army recaptured Kharkiv.
Prior to the formation of the Soviet Union, Bolsheviks established Kharkiv as the capital of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (from 1919 to 1934) in opposition to the Ukrainian People's Republic with its capital of Kiev.
According to linguist George Shevelov in the early 1920s the share of secondary schools teaching in the Ukrainian language was lower than the share of the Kharkiv Oblasts ethnic Ukrainian population. Even though the Soviet Union had ordered that all schools in the Ukrainian SSR should be Ukrainian speaking (as part of its Ukrainization policy).
As the country's capital, it underwent intense expansion with the construction of buildings to house the newly established Ukrainian Soviet government and administration. Derzhprom was the second tallest building in Europe and the tallest in the Soviet Union at the time with a height of 63 metres (207 ft). In the 1920s, a 150 metres (490 ft) wooden radio tower was built on top of the building. During the interwar period the city saw the spread of architectural constructivism. One of the best representatives of it was the already mentioned Derzhprom, the Building of the Red Army, the Ukrainian Polytechnic Institute of Distance Learning (UZPI), the City Council building, with its massive asymmetric tower, the central department store that was opened on the 15th Anniversary of the October Revolution. The same year on November 7, 1932 the building of Noblemen Assembly was transformed into the building of All-Ukrainian Central Executive Committee.
In 1928, the SVU (Union for the Freedom of Ukraine) process was initiated and court sessions were staged in the Kharkiv Opera (now the Philharmonia) building. Hundreds of Ukrainian intellectuals were arrested and deported.
In the early 1930s, the Holodomor famine drove many people off the land into the cities, and to Kharkiv in particular, in search of food. Many people died and were secretly buried in mass graves in the cemeteries surrounding the city.
In 1934 hundreds of Ukrainian writers, intellectuals and cultural workers were arrested and executed in the attempt to eradicate all vestiges of Ukrainian nationalism in Art. The purges continued into 1938. Blind Ukrainian street musicians were also gathered in Kharkiv and murdered by the NKVD. In January 1935 the capital of the Ukrainian SSR was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev.
During April and May 1940 about 3,900 Polish prisoners of Starobelsk camp were executed in the Kharkiv NKVD building, later secretly buried on the grounds of an NKVD pansionat in Pyatykhatky forest (part of the Katyn massacre) on the outskirts of Kharkiv. The site also contains the numerous bodies of Ukrainian cultural workers who were arrested and shot in the 1937–38 Stalinist purges.
During World War II, Kharkiv was the site of several military engagements (see below). The city was captured and recaptured by Nazi Germany on 24 October 1941; there was a disastrous Red Army offensive that failed to capture the city in May 1942; the city was successfully retaken by the Soviets on 16 February 1943, captured for a second time by the Germans on 15 March 1943 and then finally liberated on 23 August 1943. Seventy percent of the city was destroyed and tens of thousands of the inhabitants were killed. Kharkiv, the third largest city in the Soviet Union, was the most populous city in the Soviet Union captured by the Germans, since in the years preceding World War II, Kiev was by population the smaller of the two.
The significant Jewish population of Kharkiv (Kharkiv's Jewish community prided itself with the second largest synagogue in Europe) suffered greatly during the war. Between December 1941 and January 1942, an estimated 30,000 people (slightly more than half Jewish) were killed and buried in a mass grave by the Germans in a ravine outside of town named Drobitsky Yar.
During World War II, four battles took place for control of the city:
- First Battle of Kharkov
- Second Battle of Kharkov
- Third Battle of Kharkov
- Fourth Battle of Kharkov (See also Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev)
Before the occupation, Kharkiv's tank industries were evacuated to the Urals with all their equipment, and became the heart of Red Army's tank programs (particularly, producing the T-34 tank earlier designed in Kharkiv). These enterprises returned to Kharkiv after the war, and continue to produce tanks.
Of the population of 700,000 that Kharkiv had before the start of World War II 120,000 became Ost-Arbeiter (slave worker) in Germany, 30,000 were executed and 80,000 starved to death during the war.
Gas lines were installed for heating in government and later private homes. An airport was built in 1954. Following the war Kharkiv was the third largest scientific-industrial centre in the former USSR (after Moscow and Leningrad).
In independent Ukraine
By its territorial expansion on September 6, 2012 the city increased its area from about 310 to 350 square kilometres (120 to 140 sq mi).
There is an underground rapid-transit system (metro) with about 38.1 km (24 mi) of track and 29 stations. A well-known landmark of Kharkiv is the Freedom Square (Ploshcha Svobody formerly known as Dzerzhinsky Square), which is the sixth largest city square in Europe, and the 12th largest square in the world.
2014 pro-Russian unrest in Kharkiv
The 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine affected Kharkiv but to a lesser extent than in neighbouring Donbass, where tensions would lead to the War in Donbass. On 2 March 2014, a Russian tourist from Moscow replaced the Ukrainian flag with a Russian flag on the Kharkiv regional state administration building. Five days later, pro-Russian protestors occupied the building and unilaterally declared independence from Ukraine as the "Kharkov People's Republic". The next day, the building was retaken by Ukrainian special forces. On 13 April, some pro-Russian protesters again made it inside the Kharkiv regional state administration building. Later on 13 April the building returned permanently to full Ukrainian control. Violent clashes resulted in the severe beating of at least 50 pro-Ukrainian protesters in attacks by pro-Russian protesters.
Kharkiv returned to relative calm by 30 April. Relatively peaceful demonstrations continued to be held, with "pro-Russian" rallies gradually diminishing and "pro-Ukrainian unity" demonstrations growing in numbers. On 28 September, activists dismantled Ukraine's largest monument to Lenin at a pro-Ukrainian rally in the central square. Polls conducted from September to December 2014 found little support in Kharkiv for joining Russia.
From early November until mid-December, Kharkiv was struck by seven non-lethal bomb blasts. Targets of these attacks included a rock pub known for raising money for Ukrainian forces, a hospital for Ukrainian forces, a military recruiting centre, and a National Guard base. According to SBU investigator Vasyliy Vovk, Russian covert forces were behind the attacks, and had intended to destabilize the otherwise calm city of Kharkiv.
On 8 January 2015 five men wearing Balaklavas broke into an office of (the volunteer group aiding refugees from Donbass) Station Kharkiv. Simultaneously with physical threats the men demanded to hear the political position of Station Kharkiv. After being given an answer the men apologized and left.
Government and administrative divisions
- Leninsky (Ukrainian: Ленінський район); namesake Vladimir Lenin
- Dzerzhynsky (Ukrainian: Дзержинський район); namesake Felix Dzerzhinsky
- Kyivsky (Ukrainian: Київський район); namesake Kiev
- Moskovsky (Ukrainian: Московський район); namesake Moscow
- Frunzensky (Ukrainian: Фрунзенський район); namesake Mikhail Frunze
- Ordzhonikidzevsky (Ukrainian: Орджонікідзевський район); namesake Grigol Ordzhonikidze
- Kominternіvsky (Ukrainian: Комінтернівський район); namesake Communist International
- Chervonozavodsky (Ukrainian: Червонозаводський район); namesake "red factory"
- Zhovtnevy (Ukrainian: Жовтневий район); namesake October Revolution
According to the 1989 Soviet Union Census, the population of the city was 1,593,970. In 1991, the population decreased to 1,510,200, including 1,494,200 permanent city residents. Kharkiv is the second-largest city in Ukraine after the capital, Kiev.
The nationality structure of Kharkiv as of the 1989 census is: Ukrainians 50.38%, Russians 43.63%, Jews 3%, Belarusians 0.75%, and all others (more than 25 minorities) 2.24%. According to the Soviet census of 1959 there were Ukrainians (48.4%), Russians (40.4%), Jews (8.7%) and other nationalities (2.5%).
- 1660 year – approximated estimation
- 1788 year – without the account of children
- 1920 year – times of the Russian Civil War
- 1941 year – estimation on May 1, right before the World War II
- 1941 year – next estimation in September varies between 1,400,000 and 1,450,000
- 1941 year – another estimation in December during the occupation without the account of children
- 1943 year – August 23, liberation of the city; estimation varied 170,000 and 220,000
- 1976 year – estimation on June 1
- 1982 year – estimation in March
During the Soviet era Kharkiv was the capital of industrial production in Ukraine and the third largest centre of industry and commerce in the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union the largely defence-systems-oriented industrial production of the city decreased significantly. In the early 2000s the industry started to recover and adapt to market economy needs. Now there are more than 380 industrial enterprises concentrated in the city, which have a total number of 150,000 employees. The enterprises form machine-building, electro-technologic, instrument-making, and energy conglomerates.
State-owned industrial giants, such as Turboatom and Elektrotyazhmash occupy 17% of the heavy power equipment construction (e.g., turbines) market worldwide. Multipurpose aircraft are produced by the Antonov aircraft manufacturing plant. The Malyshev factory produces not only armoured fighting vehicles, but also harvesters. Khartron is the leading designer of space and commercial control systems in Ukraine and the former CIS.
- Barabashovo market is the largest market in Ukraine and one of the largest markets in Europe.
- Konniy (Horse Market).
- Raiskiy (commonly Book gully).
Science and education
Kharkiv is one of the most prolific centres of higher education and research of Eastern Europe. The city has 13 national universities and numerous professional, technical and private higher education institutions, offering its students a wide range of disciplines. Kharkiv National University (12,000 students), National Technical University “KhPI” (20,000 students), Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics (12,000 students), Kharkiv National Aerospace University "KhAI" are the leading universities in Ukraine. A total number of 150,000 students attend the universities and other institutions of higher education in Kharkiv. About 9,000 foreign students from 96 countries study in the city. More than 17,000 faculty and research staff are employed in the institutions of higher education in Kharkiv.
The city has a high concentration of research institutions, which are independent or loosely connected with the universities. Among them are three national science centres: Kharkіv Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Metrology, Institute for Experimental and Clinical Veterinary Medicine and 20 national research institutions of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, such as the B Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, State Scientific Institution “Institute for Single Crystals”, Usikov Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics (IRE), Institute of Radio Astronomy (IRA), and others. A total number of 26,000 scientists are working in research and development. A number of world renowned scientific schools appeared in Kharkiv, such as the theoretical physics school and the mathematical school.
In addition to the libraries affiliated with the various universities and research institutions, the Kharkiv State Scientific V. Korolenko-library is a major research library. Kharkiv has 212 (secondary education) schools, including 10 lyceums and 20 gymnasiums.
Kharkiv is one of the main cultural centres in Ukraine. It is home of 20 museums, over 10 theaters and a number of picture galleries. Large music and cinema festivals are hosted in Kharkiv almost every year.
In the 1930s Kharkiv was referred to as a Literary Klondike. It was the centre for the work of literary luminaries such as: Les Kurbas, Mykola Kulish, Mykola Khvylovy, Mykola Zerov, Valerian Pidmohylny, Pavlo Filipovych, Marko Voronny, Oleksa Slisarenko. Over 100 of these writers were repressed during the Stalinist purges of the 1930s. This tragic event in Ukrainian history is called the "Executed Renaissance" (Rozstrilene vidrodzhennia). Today a literary museum located on Frunze Street marks their work and achievements.
Today, Kharkiv is often referred to as the "capital city" of Ukrainian Science fiction and Fantasy. It is the home to a number of popular writers, such as H. L. Oldie, Alexander Zorich, Andrey Dashkov, Yuri Nikitin and Andrey Valentinov; most of them write in Russian and are popular in both Russia and Ukraine. Annual science fiction convention "Star Bridge" (Звёздный мост) is held in Kharkiv since 1999.
Kharkiv sponsors the prestigious Hnat Khotkevych International Music Competition of Performers of Ukrainian Folk Instruments which takes place every three years. Since 1997 four tri-annual competitions have taken place. The 2010 competition was cancelled by the Ukrainian Ministry of Culture two days before its opening. The Kharkiv Conservatory is in the city.
Of the many attractions of the Kharkiv city are the: Derzhprom building, Memorial Complex, Freedom Square, Taras Shevchenko Monument, Mirror Stream, Dormition Cathedral, Historical Museum, Choral Synagogue, Annunciation Cathedral, T. Shevchenko Gardens, Zoo, Children's narrow-gauge railroad, World War I Tank Mk V and many more.
Kharkiv is Ukraine's second-largest city, and as in the whole country sports are taken seriously. The most popular sport is football. The city has several football clubs playing in the Ukrainian National competitions. The most successful is Metalist that also participated in international competitions on numerous occasions.
- Metalist Kharkiv, which plays at the Metalist Stadium
- FC Kharkiv, which plays at the Dynamo Stadium
- FC Helios, which plays at the Helios Arena
- FC Arsenal Kharkiv, which plays at the Arsenal-Spartak Stadium (participates in regional competitions)
There is also a female football club WFC Zhytlobud-1 Kharkiv, which represented Ukraine in the European competitions and constantly is the main contender for the national title.
There is a men volleyball team Lokomotiv Kharkiv which performs in Ukraine and in the European competitions.
Twin towns – sister cities
- Belgorod, Russia (2001)
- Bologna, Italy (1966)
- Brno, Czech Republic (2005)
- Cetinje, Montenegro (2011)
- Cincinnati, United States (1989)
- Daugavpils, Latvia (2006)
- Gaziantep, Turkey (2011)
- Jinan, PR China (2004)
- Kaunas, Lithuania (2001)
- Kutaisi, Georgia (2005)
- Lille, France (1978)
- Moscow, Russia (2001)
- Nizhny Novgorod, Russia (2001)
- Nuremberg, Germany (1990)
- Poznań, Poland (1998)
- Rishon LeZion, Israel (2008)
- Saint Petersburg, Russia (2003)
- Tianjin, PR China (1993)
- Varna, Bulgaria (1995)
- Warsaw, Poland (2011)
||This list has no precise inclusion criteria as described in the Manual of Style for standalone lists. (May 2012)|
Nobel and Fields prize winners
- Vladimir Drinfeld (mathematics)
- Simon Kuznets (economics)
- Lev Landau – (originally from Baku) a head of the department of theoretical physics at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, a head of the department of experimental physics and a lecturer at the department of theoretical physics at the Kharkiv State University, a head of the department of theoretical physics at the at Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute 1932-37, Nobel Prize for Physics 1962
- Ilya Mechnikov (medicine)
The city of Kharkiv is one of the largest transportation centres in Ukraine, which is connected to numerous cities of the world by air, rail and road traffic. The city has many transportation methods, including: public transport, taxis, railways, and air traffic. There are about 250 thousand cars in the city.
Being an important transportation centre of Ukraine, Kharkiv itself contains many different transportation methods. Kharkiv's Metro is the city's rapid transit system, operating since 1975, it includes three different lines with 29 stations in total. The Kharkiv buses carry about 12 million passengers annually, trolleybuses, tramways (which celebrated 100 years of service in 2006), and marshrutkas (private minibuses).
The first railway connection of Kharkiv was opened in 1869. The first train to arrive in Kharkiv came from the north on 22 May 1869, and on 6 June 1869, traffic was opened on the Kursk–Kharkiv–Azov line. Kharkiv's passenger railway station was reconstructed and expanded in 1901, to be later destroyed in the Second World War. A new railway station was built in 1952.
Kharkiv is connected with all main cities in Ukraine and abroad by regular railway trains. Regional trains known as elektrichkas connect Kharkiv with nearby towns and villages.
Kharkiv is served by an international airport which used to have about 200 flights a day, almost all of them being passenger flights. The Kharkiv International Airport has been granted international status. The airport is not large and is situated within the city boundaries, south from the city centre. Flights to Kiev and Moscow are scheduled daily. There are regular flights to Vienna and Istanbul, and several other destinations. Charter flights are also available. The former largest carrier of the Kharkiv Airport — Aeromost-Kharkiv — is not serving any regular destinations as of 2007. The Kharkiv North Airport is a factory airfield and was a major production facility for Antonov aircraft company.
Mirror Stream fountain
View of Assumption Cathedral at night
Main building of University of Kharkiv
Lord Ganesha in Kharkiv Zoo
Monument Yaroslav the Wise
Chapel of Saint Tatiana
Painting by Henryk Siemiradzki, Fine Arts Museum, Kharkiv
Ilya Repin's Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks painting stored at the Kharkiv Art Museum
Family entertainment area of the Park
National holiday's fireworks on Freedom Square
Historical building of Kharkiv Airport
- Kharkiv was a capital of the Soviet Ukraine for some 25 years in 1919-1934.
- Первая столица. АТН, 19 декабря 2002 г. (Russian)
- What Makes Kharkiv Ukrainian, The Ukrainian Week (23 November 2014)
- Kharkiv mayor declares over Hr 6 million income for 2011, Kyiv Post (10 April 2012)
FC Metalist President Kurchenko to invest in Kharkiv’s preparations for EuroBasket 2015, Interfax-Ukraine (8 April 2013)
- "Major Cities in Ukraine by Population (2014)". World Population Review. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- Ukraine's second Winter Olympics: one medal, some good performances, The Ukrainian Weekly (1 March 1998)
- "Kharkiv on Encyclopædia Britannica - current edition". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
- "Weather and Climate - The Climate of Kharkiv" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 3. Check date values in:
- Climatological Information for Har'kov, Ukraine, Hong Kong Observatory accessed 6 April 2012.
- Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 6)
- (Ukrainian) Живий Харків. Нічна екскурсія містом-господарем (Living Kharkiv. Nightly excursion through the host-city) Ukrayinska Pravda. June 9, 2012
- Etymology of the name: Kharkiv
- Ukraine: A History 4th Edition by Orest Subtelny, University of Toronto Press, 2009, ISBN 1442609915
- Указ об учреждении губерний и о росписании к ним городов (Russian)
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- Borderlands into Bordered Lands: Geopolitics of Identity in Post-Soviet Ukraine (Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society, Vol. 98) (Volume 98), Ibidem Verlag, 2010, ISBN 383820042X (page 24)
- The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, 858 pages, ISBN 0-674-07608-7, page 97
- The A to Z of the Russo-Japanese War. Scarecrow Press Inc. ISBN 978-0-8108-6841-0 (page 101)
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- Citynet UA — Official website of Kharkiv City Information Centre (English)/(Ukrainian)
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