|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (November 2013)|
|• Total||22,122 km2 (8,541 sq mi)|
|Population (2006 (est.))|
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
Khartoum is one of the 15 states of Sudan. It has an area of 22,122 km2 and an estimated population of approximately 7,152,102 (2008). Khartoum, the national capital of Sudan, is the capital of the Khartoum State.
Views vary about the origin of the name of Khartoum, and perhaps the most correct of these origins is the one attributed to the original Arabic denomination, as the site of the city at the confluence of the two Niles is like elephant trunk which denotes a land reach extending into the water. However, there is a historical story says that when the Romans launched their invasion of Egypt had sent a campaign to Sudan and arrived to the current site of Khartoum where it found the sunflower plant whose seeds were called gurtoum. So, the Roman soldiers took those seeds and pressed them to get their oil and use it in the treatment of wounds of the soldiers. So, through time, the word gurtoum was corrupted to become Khartoum... There is also another historically baseless story says that the origin of Khartoum was derived from the word khor al-Tom. As for Khartoum’s location and borders, the city is located in the heart of Sudan at the confluence of the White and Blue Niles where both rivers form the River Nile. However, the confluence of the two rivers constitutes a unique, peerless scene. At their confluence, the two rivers embrace each other where each preserves its own colour: the White Nile with its loud whiteness and the Blue Nile with its alluvial brown colour. They are much more so in the flood season. As is well known, Khartoum is the political capital of the Sudan where offices of the state, governmental institutions, ministries, embassies and international and regional organizations are located. There is also the main airport (Khartoum International Airport) in addition to museums and hotels.
The state lies between longitudes 31.5 -34 east and latitude 15-16 north in an area About 28.165 square kilometers. It is bordered to the north and the east side on the River Nile State, to North Western on the Northern State, and to the east and south-eastern on states of Kassala, Gedaref and Gezira.
Climate (rainfall - temperature)
Most of the Khartoum state lies in the climatic semi-desert region, while northern areas lie in desert zones. The climate of the state is ranging from hot to very hot. The weather is rainy in summers, cold and dry in winters. Average rainfall reaches 100–200 mm in the north-eastern areas and 300–200 mm in the North Western areas.
Temperature ranges in summer between 25-40 degrees in the months from April to June, and 20-35 in the months from July to October. In winter, however, temperatures continue to decline between November to March from 25–15 degrees. Geographically, Khartoum divides into three blocks: -
A / first block
it starts from the Mugran, i.e. the confluence of the two rivers (the blue and white Niles). Being confined between them, this block extends southwards to the boundaries of the Gezira state. Administratively, it is divided into two localities, Khartoum and Gabal Owlia localities. The block is characterized by Sundus and Soba agricultural schemes in both Gabal Owlia and Khartoum localities respectively, along with a number of livestock, poultry, fishing projects, besides farms of vegetables and fruits and fodder production projects.
B/ second bloc
it is the Northern block, which is limited between the Blue Nile and the River Nile. It includes the localities of Khartoum North and East of the Nile, where the town of Khartoum North represents a largest one of the towns of this block. In this block, there are many agricultural projects such as the Soba East and Seleit agricultural project. It also includes the largest dairy projects in the state, namely Kuku village project. The block has also the largest industrial areas of Sudan.
C / third block
namely, the one located west of the White Nile and the River Nile and includes three localities, which are: Omdurman, Um Badda and Karari localities. However, the city of Omdurman is the largest one among them, as it is known as the historical capital of the Sudan whose history going back to the pre- Mahdia revolution era. found In this block a number of archaeological, historical, religious areas, besides popular markets. the area west to Omdurman is characterized by the natural hunting in the state.
Population and their activities
According to 2008 population census, the population of Khartoum state is estimated to be about five million people who are a mixture of tribes of the Sudan. If we want to define the tribes living in Khartoum state in some details and specificity, we find that the peripheries of the cities and rural areas inhabited by distinguished: in the areas of Omdurman and the rural South, we find the tribe of Gamowia as we find the Kordofani tribes displaced to these areas as the drought and desertification that hit their areas in the past years (early and mid-eighties) where you will find in these areas tribes of Kababish and the Kawahla. In the northern countryside of Karari province, we find the tribe of Shiheinat, in Khartoum North there are the tribes of Abdallab and Batahin. In the East Nile, there are the tribes of Abu Dileig, Batahin, and Kawahla with the tribe of Iseilat in Um-Dowan. As to the activity of the population of Khartoum state, it can be said that most of the population are workers and personnel in the State chambers, the private sector and banks. Also, there is a large segment of capitalists dealing in trade and another segment represented by migrants and displaced people working in marginal activities. As to countrymen, they are engaged in agriculture, grazing and thus supply the capital, Khartoum, with vegetables, fruits, dairy. there are also some residents who live on the banks of the river engaged in the river-related works such as pottery, brick and fishing.
Museums and archeological sites
Khartoum state is rich in archaeological sites dating back to different periods of civilization beginning from pre-history ages up to the historical times. the museums also contains a number of specialized museums, such as the National Museum, which includes all antiquities of the eras of civilization since pre-history time until the age of Fung. Also, there are Museums of Natural History, Folklore and people heritage museum. There is center for study of the folklore of the National Authority for Arts and the Omdurman Museum of Ibrahim Hijazi. Here we will give the recipient an idea about the history of museums:
Sudan National Museum
Located in the province of Khartoum, was inaugurated in 1971 and consists of two parts: the first one includes the museum's garden, which is an open museum, where commends and temples that have been rescued from areas flooded after commending of the High Dam, were re-installed. It also includes a number of antiquities dating back to historical periods of civilization extended from the Paleolithic period until the end of Fung in 1821, and the museum is located on Nile Street at the Mugran.
Khalifa House Museum
Located in the province of Omdurman and it can be said that this museum was a house of Caliph Abdullah Ibn Mohammed (Torshin), which had been built in two phases, first phase was achieved in the period from 1887 to 1888 AD and work completed on its second phase (second floor) in 1891. The construction process had been tested by Hamid Abdel Nour, under the supervision of the Italian architect Pietro. 
The state of Khartoum is divided into seven localities:
- al-Kharṭoum Locality (محلية الخرطوم)
- al-Kharṭoum Baḥrī Locality (محلية الخرطوم بحري)
- Umdurmān Locality (محلية أمدرمان)
- Jabal Awliyā' Locality (محلية جبل أولياء)
- Sharq an-Nīl Locality (محلية شرق النيل)
- Ombadda Locality (محلية أمبدة)
- Kararī Locality (محلية كرري)