Khasan (urban-type settlement)

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For other uses, see Khasan.
Khasan (English)
Хасан (Russian)
-  Urban-type settlement  -
Khasan sign.jpg
A sign at the entrance to Khasan
Khasan is located in Primorsky Krai
Khasan
Khasan
Location of Khasan in Primorsky Krai
Coordinates: 42°25′42″N 130°38′44″E / 42.42833°N 130.64556°E / 42.42833; 130.64556Coordinates: 42°25′42″N 130°38′44″E / 42.42833°N 130.64556°E / 42.42833; 130.64556
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Primorsky Krai
Administrative district Khasansky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Leader[citation needed] Ivan Stepanov[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 742 inhabitants[1]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+11:00)[2]
Founded 1959[citation needed]
Urban-type settlement status since 1983[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[3] 692700
Khasan on WikiCommons

Khasan (Russian: Хаса́н) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Khasansky District of Primorsky Krai, Russia. Population: 742 (2010 Census);[1] 795 (2002 Census);[4] 1,187 (1989 Census).[5]

Geography[edit]

Khasan is the only Russian inhabited locality on the border with North Korea. It lies near Lake Khasan and the Tumen River. The border between Russia and North Korea is formed by the course of the river, but the Tumen's riverbed sometimes changes during floods, effectively diminishing the territory of Russia and threatening to flood the settlement of Khasan and the Peschanaya border station. Since 2003, works have been in progress to reinforce the area with rocky soil for protection against the pressure of the water. There is an unobtrusive Russian outpost off to the side of the border with a fairly large radar array.[6] On the North Korean side of the border lies Tumangang and in the closest Chinese town is Fangchuancun.

Transportation[edit]

Rail[edit]

Khasan has a railway station on the Far Eastern Railway line from Vladivostok to Rason in North Korea. It is the link between Russia and North Korea, by a rail bridge over the Tumen River called the Korean-Russian Friendship Bridge (Korean: 조러친선교). The North Korean station in Tumangang Workers' District, Sonbong County, is directly across the river.

Construction began on the railway line from Baranovsky railway station to a point 190 km away in the direction opposite of Kraskino, and was completed in 1941. After World War II, the Baranovski-Kraskino line was continued to the border with North Korea, resulting in a total length of 238 kilometers (148 mi). The end of the line was the Khasan station, located near Lake Khasan. The Khasan station opened for operation on September 28, 1951. It has long remained a dead-end: across the Tumen River, which forms the state border, a temporary wooden bridge was built, which carried its first working train into Korea in 1952. Exchange of goods between the Soviet Union and North Korea by rail through the Khasan station began in 1954. 65 cars or 1,300 tons of cargo were exported from North Korea, with 153 cars or 3,123 tons of cargo being imported. In 1955, 530 cars or 7,200 tons were exported from North Korea, while 295 cars or 4,800 tons of cargo were imported. Two years later the export of goods through the Khasan station grew fourteen times and imports sixteen times. The temporary wooden bridge was inadequate for the increasing traffic, so in 1959 it was decided to build, jointly by the two countries, a bridge with metal spans on stone abutments, called the "Friendship Bridge". It was commissioned on August 9, 1959.[7][8] There is a break in gauge between the two railroads since the Russian railroad system is 1,520 millimeters (60 in) and the North Korean railroad system is 1,435 millimeters (56.5 in).

This line is currently little used, with only 10,000 passengers being carried in 2005.[9] In 1988, the two-way cargo traffic exceeded 5 million tons annually, but by 2001 the total volume had dropped to only 144,000 tons. In 1989, 830,000 tons of freight passed through the border from Russia (Khasan) to North Korea (Tumangang). By 1998 this number stood at 150,000 tons, and by 2001, only 92,000 tons of freight crossed the border, according to the Far East customs office. The Korean portion from Tumangang to the port of Rajin was destroyed in the 1950s.

Throughout the 1990s, the state of the railroad deteriorated sharply due to the economic crisis in Russia. By 1996, North Korea owed $20 million to the Russian railway operator, Russian Railways. This debt had accumulated over the previous 5 years as North Korea seized and used Russian train cars that were in North Korea. The situation led to the Ministry of Railways of Russia issuing a directive forbidding the passage of trains from Khasan to North Korea, effectively isolating North Korea from the Russian market. The crisis was resolved in September 1996, when North Korea agreed to pay $26 million of the debt.[10]

Reconstruction[edit]

At the beginning of the 21st century the situation improved, and capital investments were made to improve and modernize the railway system in the area. The rail station got a new roof in 2002, and the railroad bed was raised, using crushed stones, in 2002/3.[11] On 2001 Russian Railways laid a fiber optic link from Ussuriysk to Khasan railway station, which made it possible to connect Khasan to the unified data system of the trains in the Far East.[12]

On April 2008, Russia and North Korea signed a long-awaited deal to rebuild the railway line to North Korea. Under the deal, the two countries will renovate the rail line from Russia's border town of Khasan to the North Korean port of Rajin, where sea cargo to and from South Korea could be unloaded. To implement the project, the Russian Railways Trading House and the Port of Rajin set up a joint venture. It will ensure investments in the project, as well as employing contractors for design and construction work. The joint venture is to last 49 years, with 70 percent of the shares belonging to Russia and 30 percent to North Korea.[13] On Saturday, October 4, 2008 Russian railwaymen began renovating the Khasan-Rajin railway section.[14] In October 2011, a demonstration train ran on the Rajin-Khasan route. By February 2012 a new dual gauge with the length of 32 kilometres has been laid at the Rajin-Khasan section, complete overhaul of 20 kilometres of the tracks has been made, railroad switches and tracks were installed, a number of stations reconstructed, the work in the tunnels was started, trunk telecommunication lines and electrical interlocking lines were stretched and drainage structures restored.[15]

Road[edit]

The reconstructed Khasan-Razdolnoye Road connecting Khasan, the ports of Zarubino and Posyet, and the settlement of Razdolnoye, Nadezhdinsky District was completed in November 2007.[16]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Khasan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −2.9
(26.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
5.4
(41.7)
11.6
(52.9)
15.6
(60.1)
19.7
(67.5)
22.4
(72.3)
25.4
(77.7)
22.1
(71.8)
15.8
(60.4)
6.8
(44.2)
−0.7
(30.7)
11.76
(53.16)
Average low °C (°F) −11.5
(11.3)
−9.4
(15.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
2.2
(36)
8.1
(46.6)
13.6
(56.5)
17.8
(64)
18.7
(65.7)
12.9
(55.2)
5.6
(42.1)
−2.3
(27.9)
−8.5
(16.7)
3.6
(38.49)
Precipitation mm (inches) 6.2
(0.244)
7.3
(0.287)
12.7
(0.5)
39.3
(1.547)
74.9
(2.949)
98.3
(3.87)
159.0
(6.26)
125.4
(4.937)
73.9
(2.909)
33.4
(1.315)
9.7
(0.382)
5.8
(0.228)
645.9
(25.428)
Source #1: Storm247.com[17]
Source #2: Worldweatheronline.com[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  2. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  4. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  5. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  6. ^ Wikileaks about Khasan
  7. ^ Communist Logistics in the Korean War, 1995
  8. ^ Железнодорожные переговоры
  9. ^ Blagov, Sergei (September 11, 2006). [tt_news=32026 "Russia, China, Japan and South Korea to launch new sea route linking China and Japan"]. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved April 10, 2009. 
  10. ^ James Moltz, The North Korean Nuclear Program: Security, Strategy and New Perspectives from Russia, 1999
  11. ^ Vladivostok News, Khasan station dreams of revival, October 25, 2002
  12. ^ Russian Telecom Newslatter, by Hui Pan, September 2001
  13. ^ Reuters, 24/04/2008
  14. ^ Itar Tass, october 4, 2008
  15. ^ "34 DPRK specialists to be trained in centres of Far East Railway", ITAR Tass, February 21, 2012.
  16. ^ Vladivostok Times- Primorye: Construction of the International Transport Corridor Continues
  17. ^ "Storm247". Retrieved February 19, 2013. 
  18. ^ "Worldweatheronline". Retrieved February 19, 2013.