Khatun

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For the village in Iran, see Khatun, Iran.

Khatun (Mongolian: Хатан, Khatan, Persian: خاتون‎ – Khātūn, Urdu: خاتون‎ – Khatoon, Turkish: Hatun) is a female title of nobility and alternative to male "khan" prominently used in the First Turkic Empire and in the subsequent Mongol Empire. It is equivalent to "queen" or "empress" approximately. Before the advent of Islam in Central Asia, Khatun was the title of the Queen of Bukhara.

Etymology[edit]

There are several explanations for the name:

  1. According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam "Khatun [is] a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the T'u-chüeh and subsequent Turkish rulers".[1]
  1. Pokrovsкaja, having traced the historical development of the word in the Turkic languages, points out that "Khadum/khatun" is known to the majority of modern Turkic languages. It also occurs in many manuscripts: "qatun" 'lady (princess)'; "xsatun" 'a wife of the noble man'. Thus, in old Turkic manuscripts two phonetic variations of the word {qatun and xsatun) have been recorded. The word "Khātūn/Hatun" is differentiated little in its meaning throughout all Turkic languages — 'woman, wife'. In the Yakut language the word "khotun", apart from the range of focal meanings — 'mistress, wife, lady'.[2]
  1. Сlauson considers "xa:tun" as borrowed from Sogdian "xwat'yn" (xwateen), in Sogdian xwat'y ('landlord, sovereign') and "xwat'yn" ('a landlord's or a sovereign's wife'); it is the precise wife'; it is the precise meaning of "xat:un" in the early period; cf. Pers. "khatun" with the same meaning and the Mong. "khatun" ('lady, noble woman, princess'); Bur. "khatan" 'lady, princess, tsarina'. On the Mongolian maps of the 18th century the following place-names are recorded: Qatun ajula (mountain), Qatun bula-y (river). Qatun car/ an (mountain), Qatun ohm (ford). Qatun/ (river), Qatun qorxryan, Qatun tayiga.[3]
  1. Murzaev, pointing to the widespread use of the word Katun' in Siberian place-names, comes to the conclusion that "'the second, now-vanished, meaning of the old Turkic word katyn-khatan is 'a river'.[4]

The Khatun (Katyn) in the Kazakh language, usually refers the married women, still many Kazakh people commonly call their wife as katyn or katun in this modern time. This word not only used in Kazakh language, but also one of the common word in all other Turkic speaking nations such as Turkish, Uzbek, Uighur, Tatar and Kirghiz etc.[citation needed]

British Orientalist Gerard Clauson (1891–1974) considers "xa:tun" as borrowed from Sogdian "xwat'yn" (xwateen), in Sogdian xwat'y ('landlord, sovereign') and "xwat'yn" ('a landlord's or a sovereign's wife'); it is the precise wife'; it is the precise meaning of "xat:un" in the early period; cf. Pers.[5]

Notable Khatuns[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mernissi, Fatima (1993). The Forgotten Queens of Islam. University of Minnesota Press. p. 21.  "... Khatun 'is a title of Sogdian origin borne by the wives and female relatives of the Tu-chueh and subsequent Turkish Rulers ..."
  2. ^ Pokrovskaja in: Институт языкознания (Академия наук СССР), Е. И Убрятова, Историческое развитие лексики тюркских языков, Изд-во Академии наук СССР, 1961, p.58
  3. ^ G. Clauson, An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish, Oxford. Ai the Clarendon Press, 1972, p.602
  4. ^ E. M. Murzajev, Tsentralnoasiatskie toponimia e skie miniatjury, in: Toponimika Vostoka. Novye isslcdovanija. Moskva 1964, p.10
  5. ^ Clauson, Gerard (1972). An Etymological Dictionary of Pre-Thirteenth-Century Turkish. Oxford: Ai the Clarendon Press. p. 602.