Khmu people

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Khmu
Woman in Laos 1.jpg
A Khmu woman from Laos
Total population
568,000 (est.)
Regions with significant populations
 Laos (~88%)
 Vietnam 72,929 (2009)[1]
 Thailand 10,000,
China, USA, Burma
Languages
Khmu, others
Religion
Satsana Phi, Theravada Buddhism, Christianity
Khmu people in Bokeo Province, Laos
Khmu people in Bokeo Province, Laos

The Khmu (/kəˈm/; Khmu: /kʰmuʔ/; Lao: ຂະມຸ [kʰámūʔ]; Thai: ขมุ; Khơ Mú in Vietnam) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The majority (88%) live in northern Laos where they constitute one of the largest minority ethnic groups, comprising eleven percent of the total population.[2] Alternative historical English spellings include Khamu, Kemu and Khammu, among others.[2] The Khmu can also be found in southwest China (in the Sipsong Panna in Yunnan province), and in recent centuries have migrated to areas of Burma, Thailand and Vietnam (where they are an officially recognized ethnic group). In the People's Republic of China, however, they are not given official recognition as a separate ethnic group, and are instead placed under the broad category undistinguished ethnic groups.

The endonym "Khmu" is suspected to stem from their word kymhmuʔ[3] meaning "people". Khmu also often refer to their ethnicity as pruʔ.[4]

Geographic distribution[edit]

The Khmu were the indigenous inhabitants of northern Laos. It is generally believed the Khmu once inhabited a much larger area but after the influx of Thai/Lao peoples into the lowlands of Southeast Asia, the Khmu were forced to higher ground (Lao Theung), above the rice-growing lowland Lao but below the Hmong/Mien groups (Lao Sung) that inhabit the highest regions, where they practiced swidden agriculture.[4] There are more than 568,000 Khmu around the world, with populations of 500,000 in Laos, 73,000 in Vietnam, 10,000 in Thailand, 10,000 in China, and an estimated 8,000-10,000 in the United States.[2]

The Khmu of Laos reside mainly in the North, ranging across 10 provinces. The Khmu form the largest ethnic group, outnumbering even the Lao, in five Northern provinces (Luang Prabang, Phongsaly, Oudomxay, Bokeo and Lungnamtha Provinces). The Khmu of Thailand are clustered in Nan Province near the Thailand-Laos border.[5] Most Khmu villages are isolated, and only slowly receiving electricity. In many areas the Khmu live alongside the Hmong and other regional minority ethnic groups. The Khmu in the United States originated as refugees from the Vietnam War. Most of these refugees settled in California, which is home to both the Khmu National Federation, Inc., and the Khmu Catholic National Center.[6][7] Many of the Khmu in Thailand have arrived recently from Laos and Vietnam, also as refugees from the Vietnam War and subsequent communist governments, although cross-border migrations into Thailand's Nan, Phayao and Chiang Rai provinces for new farm land and work in the teak industry began as much as 200 years ago.[4]

Subgroups[edit]

In their mountain refuges, the various Khmu settlements became isolated, surrounded and partially influenced by the dominant groups of their respective areas. Accordingly, the Khmu now recognize subdivisions among themselves which are differentiated primarily by dialect. These subgroups are called tmowy (tmɔːj) in Khmu. Some of the larger tmowy are the Tmowy Mee, Tmowy Ksak, Tmowy Roek (Lao: kha hok).[4][2] The Khmu north of the Tha River (nam tha), who often live in close contact with the lowland Tai Lü and Thai Yuan peoples, distinguish groups including the Tmowy Khmu Lue, Tmowy Khmu Yuan and Tmowy Khmu Khuen (Khuen is often a synonym for "Khmu" in general).[2]

Aside from their geographical separation, the subgroups' primary differences are in dialect. However there are slight variations in customs and cultural practices among the various tmowy. The Khmu refer to others within their own tmowy as tay-haem ("older siblings-younger siblings"), expressing solidarity and shared ritual/common ancestral worship while referring to other Khmu by the name of their respective groups. The Khmu groups north of the Tha River in particular, whose names reflect their partial identification with the Buddhist Tai cultures, have acculturated to the dominant ethnic groups of the region. They are often contrasted with the Khmu Roek who live higher up in the hills and retain some older customs that other groups have abandoned. While the Khmu Roek are often respected as the center of the Khmu "socio-economic ritual complex", "Roek" is also used by more assimilated Khmu as an appellation for "backwood" Khmu regardless of their tmowy.[2]

Language[edit]

Main article: Khmu language

The Khmu language belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family, in which several closely related languages including Puoc, O’du and Kniang, among others, are grouped together forming the Khmuic branch. The many dialects of Khmu differ primarily in consonant inventory, existence of register, and the degree to which the language has been influenced by the surrounding national language(s). Dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; however communication can be difficult between speakers of geographically distant dialects.

The dialects of Khmu can be broadly categorized into two groups, Western Khmu and Eastern Khmu. Western Khmu dialects have fewer consonant phonemes and instead use phonemic register contrast of "lax" breathy register and "tense" modal register. In at least one dialect of Western Khmu, Khmu Roek, tonogenesis is evident as the register contrast has developed into a system of two phonetic tones with six phonemic realizations.[8] Eastern Khmu dialects show the opposite tendency. Completely lacking either register or tone distinction, these dialects utilize a three-way distinction of stops (voiced, voiceless and aspirated voiceless) and nasals (voiced, voiceless, and pre-glottalized) in the syllable-initial position for phonemic contrast.[9]

Although Khmu language use among peers is currently fairly vigorous, most, if not all, Khmu are also fluent in the language of the culturally dominant group of the area and many regularly use three or even four different languages. The Khmu of Laos, for example, speak Lao when dealing with government officials, engaging in commerce with the lowland Lao, or if attending school. Trade with other highland groups may necessitate knowledge of additional languages, such as Hmong, unless Lao can be used a lingua franca by both groups. The Khmu of Thailand are more assimilated, often living in villages among the Thai and preferring to speak Kham Meuang even at home in households with two Khmu parents.[4]

Origin[edit]

Khmuic peoples refers to a group of ethnicities of mainland Southeast Asia that speak closely related languages and follow similar customs and traditions. It is believed, based on linguistic, cultural and historical evidence, that these now-disparate groups are descended from a homogeneous ethnicity that may have been among the first populations to settle northern Indochina. This historical Khmuic people inhabited areas far larger than at present,[4] including northern lowland areas of at least present day Thailand and Laos, until absorbed or pushed into mountainous refuges by successive Mon and Khmer empires and the later arrival of various Tai peoples.[10]

Society[edit]

The Khmu are an agricultural society, although gathering, hunting, trapping and fishing are parts of the Khmu lifestyle. Khmu crops include rice(especially white and black sticky rice), corn, bananas, sugar cane, cucumbers, beans, sesame and a variety of vegetables.[5] Most of the agricultural work in Khmu villages is done communally, so as to combine the strength and finish the work quickly. Harvesting of wild rice is generally performed by the village women.[11] Rice is stored outside the village in elevated structures to protect from mice and rats.[12] Khmu elders are traditionally the most important people of the village, and are responsible for resolving all village disputes.[13] Village leaders included the shaman (knowledgeable in spiritual medicine), the medicine man (knowledgeable in herbal medicine), the priest (based on family lineage of priesthood), and the village headman (in modern times chosen by the Laotian government).[13] Laotian Khmu communities generally have localized justice systems administered by the village elders.[13]

Culture[edit]

Khmu culture is traditionally passed down by the recital of stories around evening fires.[11] The story-telling sessions involve the sharing of silver pipes (originally opium, but now predominantly tobacco).[11][12] Some Khmu are heavily tattooed for both decorative and religious reasons.[11][12] In Laos, Khmu are reputed for practicing magic, and some families still engage in the casting of spells and telling of fortunes.[11] According to the animistic practices of the Khmu, reverence is offered to the house spirit Hroi gang.[11] Villagers believe that a Khmu house, village, and its surroundings are integrated with the spirits of the land, and so houses and villages are considered holy or ritualized spaces. Typically, entire Khmu villages are enclosed in fences with three or four gates which separate the Khmu from their granaries and barns.[13] Altars are placed outside the perimeter to ward off fires and storms.[13] In the past, each Khmu family was believed to be under the protection of a totem such as a boar or an eagle who had originally helped an ancestor and would continue to protect the family. In the ancient time Khmuic people celebrated 4 festivals namely: crop planting, harvesting, new year, and wash or get rid of sin festivals. In ancient time Khmuic people celebrated new year festival on the first waxing moon day of the first lunar month. At present day the new year festival is mostly not practice or if it is done, it is integrated with the harvesting festival. An ancient Khmuic house must be laid long along the direction from east to west and never intersected the direction of the sun, however there are least Khmuic people built their houses intersecting the sun direction. Each house must have a door in the east and another one facing to the north or south, this depends on the situation of the area where the house was built and never build a door in the west side of the house. A house with strait leans must have a large outside balcony(attached with a 5 or 7 step stair) connected from the east door and a lean room with east or north door(attached with a 5 or 7 step stair). A house with bent leans must have a large outside balcony(attached with a large 5 or 7 step stair) connected from a small and short lean room connected from the north or south site of the house, and an inside balcony(attached with a 5 or 7 step stair) connected from the east door. Ancient Khmuic people believed and worshiped the sun spirit for safety and healthy. In the early morning whichever day the sky is clear and when the sun starting to rise, Khmuic people opened the east doors of their houses to let the sun shine into their houses. There are three beliefs of this practice: 1. to expel devils, ghosts and bad spirits out of the houses (ancient Khmuic people believed that devils, ghosts or bad spirits are fear of sunlight); 2. to expel and wash out bacteria and any kinds of small insects dangerous to body and health; 3. Khmuic people also believe that the early morning sunlight is pure and fresh so, exposing ones own body to the early morning sunlight makes ones own mind fresh, good temper, healthy and active at work. Nowadays, most Khmuic people forget the beliefs and rules, and don't practice this way of building their houses.[13] Roofs of houses covered with wooden tiles or thatch.[12] Khmu cemeteries are traditionally divided into four sections; one for natural deaths, one for accidental deaths, one for children, and one for those who died away from home.[13] The Khmu do not generally believe in rebirth.[13] Traditional Khmu animism puts emphasis on the concept of taboo, as villagers believe that violations of taboo result in vengeance of spirits. Forbidden activities include touching the altars or the amulets representing the house's spirit, birth ceremonies for children born feet-first, and entering a house without permission.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census: Completed Results". General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee. June 2010. p. 134. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Michaud, Jean (2006). Historical Dictionary of The Peoples of the Southeast Asian Massif. Maryland, USA: Scarecrow Press, Inc. (The Rowan and Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc). ISBN 9780810854666. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  3. ^ Smalley, W.A. (June 1964). "The Khmu". In LeBar, F.M.; Hickey, Gerald C.; Musgrave, John K. Ethnic Groups of Mainland Southeast Asia (1st ed.). New Haven, Connecticut, USA: Human Relations Area Files. pp. 112–117. ISBN 0875364012. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f LeBar, Frank M. (1967). "OBSERVATIONS ON THE MOVEMENT OF KHMUʔ INTO NORTH THAILAND". Journal of the Siam Society (53): 61–79. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  5. ^ a b Khmu Profile
  6. ^ Khmu National Federation, Inc.
  7. ^ Kmhmu Catholic National Center
  8. ^ SUWILAI Premsrirat, author. 2001. "Tonogenesis in Khmu dialects of SEA." Mon-Khmer Studies: a Journal of Southeast Asian Linguistics and Languages 31: 47-56.
  9. ^ Suwilai, Premsrirat, et al. Mahidol University. Dictionary of Khmu in Laos.
  10. ^ Evrard, Olivier (2007). "Interethnic systems and localized identities: The Khmu subgroups (tmoy) in North-West Laos". In Robinne, Francois; Sadan, Mandy. Social Dynamics in the Highlands of Southeast Asia. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. p. 127-160. ISBN 9789004160347. Retrieved 17 June 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f The Khmu Rok People of Laos by John Walsh, Shinawatra International University, March 2005
  12. ^ a b c d e Facts about the Khmu people
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Community Portrait: Khmu, Miriam Gross

External links[edit]