Kho kho

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Kho kho
Kho Kho game at a Government school in Haryana, India.jpg
Boys in a Government School in Haryana, India playing kho-kho
Characteristics
Team members 12 players per side. 9 in the field

Kho kho is a tag sport played by teams of twelve players who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team, only 9 players of the team enter the field.[1] It is one of the two most popular traditional tag games of the Indian subcontinent, the other being kabbadi.[2] Apart from the Subcontinent, it is also played in South Africa.[3]

Rules[edit]

  • Each team consists of 12 players, but only 9 players take the field.
  • A match consists of two innings. An inning consists of chasing and running turns of 9 minutes each.
  • Then, 1 team sits/kneels in the middle of the court, in a row, with adjacent members facing opposite directions.
  • The chasers end in the shortest time possible.
  • The team that takes the shortest time to tag/tap all the opponents in the field, wins.
  • Then players can take off the field.
  • They must sit in a zig zag manner.
  • There is a pole on each end. The runner can go between two players who are sitting in zig zag manner, but the chaser is not allowed to turn back while running and go between the players. But chaser can go to pole and touch it and can go back or go to other side.

History[edit]

[4] History of Kho-Kho in India goes back a long way, as it was first started in the state of Maharashtra. The game has been very popular in the Marathi speaking people. This game, for many years, was played in an informal ways! In order to make the game very popular, the Deccan Gymkhana club of Poona tried to formalize the game! The first edition of the rules, of Aryapatya Kho-Kho and Hu-Tu-Tu, was published in 1935, by the newly founded Akhil Maharashtra Shareerika Shikshan Mandal. In order to suite the playing condition some amendments have been made.

One of the main points of a successful animal life is "Active Chase" which is a fundamental principle of the Indian game called Kho Kho, synonymous with the phrase "Game of Chase". It will not be a mistake to say that Kho Kho was a recognized sport in the ancient times even earlier to the oldest mythological writings of classics- Mahabharata. The game of chase was then also regarded as legend, as it used in phraseology as "putting Kho to someone's active chase meaning putting an effective block and stopping the progress". The current adaptation of the game was actually an adaptation about the time of World War I in 1914, but at the same time lacked exacting rules and regulation that govern the games in the modern times. There were neither any dimension to the playground nor the poles which demarcate the central line, and the factor was also missing!

The Deccan Gymkhana of Pune so named and opened by the great Indian leader Lokmanya Tilak formulated the first ever rule and regulation, that, in a way, symbolized the rules to follow in the future. The initial stage actually marked the restrain of the playground and yet sadly lacked the poles demarking the central line in the field. Instead, two less talented players were posted squatting at the place and chasers to run around them to return to the midfield.

It helped to capture the imagination of experts and they did not waste much time to realize that the game demanded high degree of quick reflexes, agile movement, good nerve reflexes and tremendous stamina, that all amount to a supreme athlete. The year 1919 saw the game of Kho Kho delimit an elliptical field with 44 yards long midline and 17 yards width of ellipse!

The 1923-24 saw the foundation of Inter School Sports Organization and Kho Kho was introduced to promote at the grass roots and consequently popularize the sports. The certainly conveyed the results and the game of Kho Kho mainly owe it to the efforts taken by Deccan Gymkhana and Hind Vijay Gmykhana. To develop expertise and skill in Kho Kho the then prevalent games of Langdi and Atya-Patya were the supporting factor. The latter needs special mention which was well-known because if its scuffle skills of defending.

Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal (Physical Education Institute) was set up in the year 1928 when Dr. Abasahib Natu of Pune, Shri. Mahabal Guruji of Nasik, Shri. Karmarkar Vaidya of Miraj and Dr. Mirajkar of Mumbai spared no efforts to negotiate with Kho-Kho experts and formulated the rules and regulations of the game which differed just a little from the existing rules of the Federation today. Hind Vijay Gymkhana, Baroda and Deccan Gymkhana, Pune had their own codes of rules which were in variance with each other. The experts from around sixty Gymkhanas, in 1933, came together and evolved a joint code of rules under the banner of Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal which was circulated all over and with a few suggestions and alterations. A "new code" was taken on in 1935

Kho KhoOver the years the rules have also undergone a major change. The initial system in 1914 offered 10 points for every opponent getting out and each innings lasted for nine months. It was made to 5 points in 1919 and match lasted for eight minutes. In case the entire team scored out before time, then the chasers were allotted a bonus of 5 points for every spare minute left not played. Further changes took place with the shape of the playing ground as it became rectangular from elliptical. The distance between two poles shortened to 27 yards and the free zone beyond each pole a rectangle 27 yards x 5 yards also known as 'D' zone. The free zone had no barriers for the chaser who could move to any direction irrespective of change of direction.

The first All India Kho-Kho Championships were arranged at Vijay Wada in 1959 - 60 under Kho-Kho Federation of India. The championship was won by the then Mumbai province under the leadership of Rajabhau Jeste who was a champion player, expert commentator and redoubtable coach made in one. 1960-61 featured Women's Championships for the first time.

In the year 1982, the game was included as part of Indian Olympic Association and few years later in 1989 saw the game as a 'demonstration' in 'Asian Games' Festival. Some new reforms in the game have taken place that has been incorporated by the Asian Federation. The poles have been put a little close distance at 23.50 meters and the play ground also increased in the width of 16 meters. The duration of the innings will last to nine minutes. The year 1998 saw the first ever International Championship organized in the Indian cityof Kolkata. Sponsors, who come from different fields, have also been associated with the game, and Bank of Maharashtra has developed their first ever team of Professional players when others like Indian Railways are about to follow the suit.

Field[edit]

Schematic representation of a kho-kho pitch (field). White lines are the markers, black circles are wooden poles (~ 4 feet tall), yellow arrows are chasing team members (facing as the arrow-heads are), blue smiley faces are the defenders (arrive in batches of 3).

A kho kho playground (or pitch) is rectangular.[5] It is 29 meters in length and 16 metres in width. There are two rectangles at the end. Length of the rectangle is 16 metre and the width is 2.75 meters. In the middle of these two rectangles, there are two wooden poles. The central lane is 23.5 meters long and 30 cm width. There are eight cross lanes which lie across central lane, length of the cross lanes, are 16  meters and width 30  cm. It makes the small rectangles and each of it is 16  meters in length and 2.3 meters in breadth,(the two rectangles of near by the wooden poles are 2.5   meters width) at right angles to the central lane and divided equally into two parts of 7.85 meters each by central lane. At the end of central lane, n the free zone tangent to the post-line, two smooth wooden posts are fixed, 120 cm height from the ground and their circumference is not less than 30 cm and not more than 40 cm.

Equipment[edit]

The equipment used in kho kho are poles/post, strings, metallic measuring tape, lime powder, wire nails, two watches, types of rings having inner circumference of 30 cm and 40 cm, score shots (like a whistle, for instance), and stationery to write results. [6]

Strategy[edit]

Kho kho is an complicated and tactical sport.[citation needed] It teaches how to craft strategies and it prepare players for intense physical activity and stamina.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tripura KHO KHO Association @ Tripura4u". Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  2. ^ Peter A. Hastie (1 July 2010). Student-Designed Games: Strategies for Promoting Creativity, Cooperation, and Skill Development. Human Kinetics. pp. 52–. ISBN 978-0-7360-8590-8. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 
  3. ^ A trip through SA's indigenous games. sowetanlive.co.za 14 March 2012.
  4. ^ KHO KHO , ancient game of undivide INDIA, probably was derived from the different strategy and tactics of "Kurukshetra" war in Mahabharta. The chariot fight during the war and zigzag pathways followed by the retreating soldiers indicates the formation of Chain Play -Defense Skill in the game of KHO KHO. On the 11th day of the war, the Chief of Kaurav Army, Guru Dronacharya drew a typical strategic formation- CHAKRAVYUH(Circular formation) keeping Jayadratha at the main entrance with seven soldiers to draw in and kill the enemy. Veer Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, entered into the trap but could not get his way out and in the process got killed. He fought gallantly alone against seven soldiers. The method adopted by Abhimanyu resembles the idea of “Ring Play” – a Defense tactics in Kho Kho game.
    In the year 1936, during the event of BERLIN OLYMPICS, one Kho Kho Team from Pune exhibited the salient features of the game of KhoKho at Berlin. Which was highly appreciated by Hitler.
    Asian Kho Kho Federation (A.K.K.F.) was established in the year 1987 during 3rd SAF Games, held at Kolkota, India. The member country was India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives
    Kho Kho made its entry into INTERNATIONAL SPORTS Arena via 1st ASIAN KHOKHO CHAMPIONSHIP held at Kolkata, India in 1996, organized by West Bengal KhoKho Association under the auspices of KhoKho Federation of India and SIAN KhoKho Federation on “Tera Flex” Court at Netaji Subhash Indoor Stadium, Kolkota, West Bengal, India in a most beautiful manner. India and Bangladesh were Winner and Runnerup respectively. The participants were Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and host India. 2nd Asian KhoKho Championship was held in Bangladesh in the year 2000 at Mirapur Indoor Stadium, Dhaka, Bangladesh has strengthened the approach of the game KhoKho in the International Arena. India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Japan, Thailand and host Bangladesh were participants of the Championship.
  5. ^ "Kho Kho Field". WebIndia123. 
  6. ^ "Equipment". Sports.Indiapress.org. 
  7. ^ "Indian Olympic Association: Kho Kho rules". Retrieved 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

History of Kho-Kho in India goes back a long way, as it was first started in the state of Maharashtra. The game has been very popular in the Marathi speaking people. This game, for many years, was played in an informal ways! In order to make the game very popular, the Deccan Gymkhana club of Poona tried to formalize the game! The first edition of the rules, of Aryapatya Kho-Kho and Hu-Tu-Tu, was published in 1935, by the newly founded Akhil Maharashtra Shareerika Shikshan Mandal. In order to suite the playing condition some amendments have been made.

One of the main points of a successful animal life is "Active Chase" which is a fundamental principle of the Indian game called Kho Kho, synonymous with the phrase "Game of Chase". It will not be a mistake to say that Kho Kho was a recognized sport in the ancient times even earlier to the oldest mythological writings of classics- Mahabharata. The game of chase was then also regarded as legend, as it used in phraseology as "putting Kho to someone's active chase meaning putting an effective block and stopping the progress". The current adaptation of the game was actually an adaptation about the time of World War I in 1914, but at the same time lacked exacting rules and regulation that govern the games in the modern times. There were neither any dimension to the playground nor the poles which demarcate the central line, and the factor was also missing!

The Deccan Gymkhana of Pune so named and opened by the great Indian leader Lokmanya Tilak formulated the first ever rule and regulation, that, in a way, symbolized the rules to follow in the future. The initial stage actually marked the restrain of the playground and yet sadly lacked the poles demarking the central line in the field. Instead, two less talented players were posted squatting at the place and chasers to run around them to return to the midfield.

It helped to capture the imagination of experts and they did not waste much time to realize that the game demanded high degree of quick reflexes, agile movement, good nerve reflexes and tremendous stamina, that all amount to a supreme athlete. The year 1919 saw the game of Kho Kho delimit an elliptical field with 44 yards long midline and 17 yards width of ellipse!

The 1923-24 saw the foundation of Inter School Sports Organization and Kho Kho was introduced to promote at the grass roots and consequently popularize the sports. The certainly conveyed the results and the game of Kho Kho mainly owe it to the efforts taken by Deccan Gymkhana and Hind Vijay Gmykhana. To develop expertise and skill in Kho Kho the then prevalent games of Langdi and Atya-Patya were the supporting factor. The latter needs special mention which was well-known because if its scuffle skills of defending.

Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal (Physical Education Institute) was set up in the year 1928 when Dr. Abasahib Natu of Pune, Shri. Mahabal Guruji of Nasik, Shri. Karmarkar Vaidya of Miraj and Dr. Mirajkar of Mumbai spared no efforts to negotiate with Kho-Kho experts and formulated the rules and regulations of the game which differed just a little from the existing rules of the Federation today. Hind Vijay Gymkhana, Baroda and Deccan Gymkhana, Pune had their own codes of rules which were in variance with each other. The experts from around sixty Gymkhanas, in 1933, came together and evolved a joint code of rules under the banner of Akhil Maharashtra Sharirik Shikshan Mandal which was circulated all over and with a few suggestions and alterations. A "new code" was taken on in 1935

Kho KhoOver the years the rules have also undergone a major change. The initial system in 1914 offered 10 points for every opponent getting out and each innings lasted for nine months. It was made to 5 points in 1919 and match lasted for eight minutes. In case the entire team scored out before time, then the chasers were allotted a bonus of 5 points for every spare minute left not played. Further changes took place with the shape of the playing ground as it became rectangular from elliptical. The distance between two poles shortened to 27 yards and the free zone beyond each pole a rectangle 27 yards x 5 yards also known as 'D' zone. The free zone had no barriers for the chaser who could move to any direction irrespective of change of direction.

The first All India Kho-Kho Championships were arranged at Vijay Wada in 1959 - 60 under Kho-Kho Federation of India. The championship was won by the then Mumbai province under the leadership of Rajabhau Jeste who was a champion player, expert commentator and redoubtable coach made in one. 1960-61 featured Women's Championships for the first time.

In the year 1982, the game was included as part of Indian Olympic Association and few years later in 1989 saw the game as a 'demonstration' in 'Asian Games' Festival. Some new reforms in the game have taken place that has been incorporated by the Asian Federation. The poles have been put a little close distance at 23.50 meters and the play ground also increased in the width of 16 meters. The duration of the innings will last to nine minutes. The year 1998 saw the first ever International Championship organized in the Indian cityof Kolkata. Sponsors, who come from different fields, have also been associated with the game, and Bank of Maharashtra has developed their first ever team of Professional players when others like Indian Railways are about to follow the suit.

External links[edit]