Khorchin Mongols

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Khorchin Mongols
Regions with significant populations
 China 1,347,000 (1987)[1]
Languages
Khorchin dialect of Mongolian
Religion
Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Mongols, Mongols in China

The Khorchin (Хорчин, ᠬᠤᠷᠴᠢᠨ Qorčin) is a subgroup of the Mongols that speak the Khorchin dialect of Mongolian and predominantly live in southeastern Inner Mongolia.

The Ming Dynasty put two surrendered Borjigin princes (descended from Genghis Khan's brothers) over the Taining guard of the Three Guards which was established in 1389. During invasions of Esen Tayisi from 1446–48, most of them fled, however, Fuyu Guard of the Three Guards remained along the Nen River and Onon River. Ruled by descendants of Khasar,[2] they became direct ancestors of the Khorchins. Adai Khan of the Khorchin challenged the power of the Four Oirats and the Ming court over the succession struggle of Northern Yuan Dynasty, however, he was killed by them in Ejene in 1438 and his tribe was forced to flee southward. The Khorchin appeared again in Mongolian chronicles with the rise of Unebolad wang in the late 15th century. The Khorchins allied with Dayan Khan and defeated the Uriyangkhai at the battle of Dalan Terqin in 1510.

In 1624, Nurhaci received the submission of Khorchins who roamed east of Khingan[disambiguation needed] mountains and west of the Sungari. They were the first Mongol tribe that submitted to Qing Dynasty.[3] The Khorchins were responsible for production of fermented mare's milk for Manchu emperors. The later emperors of the Manchu Qing Dynasty rewarded the Khorchin nobles highly for this early loyalty. Notable Empresses of the Qing Dynasty, such as Empress Xiaozhuangwen (1613–88) and Empress Xiaohuizhang (1641–1717), were the Khorchin-Borjigins.[4] The Khorchins were further divided into two wings (north and south), each with three Banners.[5]

Due to the anti-Mongol rebellion among ethnic Han Jindandao followers in 1891, many thousands of Kharchin Mongols fled to the Khorchin. After 1900 both Chinese education and Chinese colonization spread among them. When the Japanese Empire occupied parts of Inner Mongolia and all of Manchuria in 1931, the Khorchins became the most energetic proponents of secular learning and reform among the Mongols. After World War II rural class struggle and the civil war of 1946–48 were very bloody and divisive. Since then they have been a powerful faction within Inner Mongolia's Chinese Communist Party apparatus.

References[edit]

  • Great Mongolia 800- [1]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ ethnologue.com information
  2. ^ The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia by René Grousset, p.687
  3. ^ New Qing imperial history By James A. Millward, Ruth W. Dunnell, Mark C. Elliott, p.100
  4. ^ Marriage and inequality in Chinese society by Rubie Sharon Watson, Patricia Buckley Ebrey, Joint Committee on Chinese Studies (U.S.) p.176
  5. ^ Occasional Papers by Mongolia Society, p.76

See also[edit]