Khosrov II of Armenia

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Khosrov II (Armenian: Խոսրով Բ, flourished 3rd century, died 252[1]) was an Armenian king from Arsacid dynasty.

Khosrov II was the son of Tiridates II[2] King of Armenia by an unnamed mother, and followed his father on the Armenian throne. He was the namesake of his paternal grandfather Khosrov I[3] and the Parthian monarchs: Osroes I and Osroes II, see Khosrau. In Armenian sources, Khosrov II is often confused with his grandfather Khosrov I.[4] Little is known on his life prior to becoming Armenian King.

From 226 until 238, Tiridates II was in military conflict with Ardashir I, the first king and founder of the Sassanid Empire.[5] Ardashir I wanted to expand his empire, which included conquering Armenia. Khosrov II’s father put up a stubborn resistance against Ardashir I.[6] After twelve years of fighting although Tiridates II was defeated by Ardashir I, Ardashir I withdrew his army and left Armenia.[7] Khosrov II participated in his father’s military campaigns against Ardashir I and Ardashir I was alarmed by the victories of Tiridates II and Khosrov II against him.[8]

Tiridates II died in 252 and Khosrov II succeeded his father as King of Armenia. When Khosrov II became Armenian King his capital in the kingdom was Vagharshapat.[9] From an unknown wife, Khosrov II had known two children: a daughter, called Khosrovidukht[10] and a son called, Tiridates III.[11]

Sometime in 252, after Khosrov II succeeded his father as King of Armenia, Khosrov II was murdered by Anak the Parthian.[12] Anak the Parthian was an Arsacid Prince and is said to be related to the Arsacid Kings of Armenia.[13] Ardashir I and his son Shapur I, had incited Anak[14] to murder Khosrov II promising to return his own domain as a reward.[15] Anak went to Armenia who won Khosrov II’s trust, he treacherously murdered Khosrov II with his wife in Vagharshapat and in return Anak with his entire family were slain by the outraged Armenian nobles.[16] The only child to have survived from Anak’s family was his infant son Gregory,[17] who was taken to Cappadocia by his former caretakers Sopia and Yevtagh, who had escaped the slaughter of Anak’s family.

Ardashir I took possession of Armenia for himself and became a part of his empire.[18] Loyal troops of Khosrov II, had taken Tiridates III to Rome for protection[19] where Tiridates III was raised and Khosrovidukht was taken to be raised in Caesarea Mazaca, Cappadocia.[20] The foster parents of Khosrovidukht were Awtay a nobleman from the family of the Amatunik and Awtay’s wife a noblewoman whose name is unknown was from the family of the Slkunik.[21]

Tiridates III was restored to his Armenian throne by Roman emperor Diocletian in 287 and ruled until 330. There is a possibility that Agathangelos was instructed by Tiridates III to write a biography on the life and kingship of Khosrov II.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.218
  2. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.74
  3. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  4. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.71
  5. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  6. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  7. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.217
  8. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.72
  9. ^ Ghazarian, The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia During the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians With the Latins, 1080-1393, p.173
  10. ^ Biography on Saint Gregory the Illuminator
  11. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.218
  12. ^ Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, p.218
  13. ^ Kurkjian, A History of Armenia, p.270
  14. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.p.72&218
  15. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.72
  16. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.72
  17. ^ Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, p.72
  18. ^ Agat’angeghos, History of the Armenians, p.xxvii
  19. ^ Ghazarian, The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia During the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians With the Latins, 1080-1393, p.173
  20. ^ Eghiayean, Heroes of Hayastan: a dramatic novel history of Armenia, p.191
  21. ^ Dodgeon, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226-363, p.270

Sources[edit]

  • Biography on Saint Gregory the Illuminator
  • Agat’angeghos, History of the Armenians, SUNY Press, 1976
  • B. Eghiayean, Heroes of Hayastan: a dramatic novel history of Armenia, Armenian National Fund, 1993
  • M.H. Dodgeon & S.N.C Lieu, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars AD 226-363, A documentary History Compiled and edited, Routledge, 1994
  • J.G. Ghazarian. The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia During the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians With the Latins, 1080-1393, Routledge, 2000
  • M. Chahin, The Kingdom of Armenia: A History, Routledge, 2001
  • R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  • V.M. Kurkjian, A History of Armenia, Indo-European Publishing, 2008