Khost

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This article is about the Afghan city. For the province, see Khost Province.
Khost
خوست
City
View in Khost, Afghanistan
View in Khost, Afghanistan
Khost is located in Afghanistan
Khost
Khost
Location in Afghanistan
Coordinates: 33°19′59″N 69°55′01″E / 33.33306°N 69.91694°E / 33.33306; 69.91694Coordinates: 33°19′59″N 69°55′01″E / 33.33306°N 69.91694°E / 33.33306; 69.91694
Country  Afghanistan
Province Khost Province
District Khost District
Elevation 1,225 m (4,019 ft)
Population (2006)[1]
 • Total 160,214
Time zone Afghanistan Standard Time (UTC+4:30)

Khost or Khowst (Pashto/Persian: خوست) is a city in eastern Afghanistan. The capital of Khost Province is Matoon. Khost is a mountainous region near Pakistan's border with neighboring North Waziristan in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Bannu in Pakistan. The population of Khost City is about 160,000 people and the whole province has around a million. There are various tribes living in Khost. Some main tribes are Zadran, Mangal, Zazi, Tani, Gurbaz, Muqbal, Sabari etc.

During the nine-year Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1980s, the town was besieged from July 1983 to November 1987. Khost Airfield, with its 9,000-foot (2,700 m) runway, served as a base for helicopter operations for the Soviet military.

American forces have used the Khost Airfield since as early as at least January 2007[citation needed] during the War in Afghanistan (2001–present) that commenced in October 2001.

Khost is the home of Khost University. The inhabitants of area are Pashto-speaking ethnic Pashtuns. Khost Mosque serves as the main mosque in the city.

Geography[edit]

Khost is located about 150 kilometres south of Kabul and 100 kilometres southeast of Gardēz, in Khost Province in eastern Afghanistan. The town of Khost is located on a plateau of minimally 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) altitude that extends to the East for about 40 kilometres (25 mi) until the Bannu Pakistan border. 30 km to the North the peaks start up to 2,500 to 3,000 metres (8,200 to 9,800 ft) right next to the frontier, while 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the South, near the border, the average is around 1,800 m. The valley of Khost is closed to the west with a long mountain chain with peaks that go over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft). Through this runs for about 90 kilometres (56 mi) the road to Gardez, which is considered extremely dangerous due to the risk of ambush. So Taliban invaded Khost in 1995.

Districts[edit]

The capital of Khost province is Matoon. Khost has the following 12 district units.[2]

  1. Spera
  2. Dwa monda (shamal)
  3. Nadershah koot
  4. Ismail khail Mandozi
  5. Musa khail
  6. Qalander
  7. Tani
  8. Gurbaz
  9. Bak
  10. Zazi maidan
  11. Sabari (Yaqubi)
  12. Ali shir

Climate[edit]

Khost has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk though very close to qualifying as BSh) though most unusually for Afghanistan it receives a substantial proportion of its annual rainfall of 475 millimetres (19 in) from the South Asian monsoon because it is open to the southeast from which the moist winds come. Nonetheless, for a large proportion of the year Khost remains hot and dry, and in many years there is no significant rain during the summer. Winters are milder than in most of Afghanistan due to the town’s relatively lower altitude than other surrounding towns like Gardez or Urgun, though frosts are still frequent during the morning.Nowadays, Khost has roughly 1.5 million population because of great weather and good location for variety businesses. Therefore most people are eager to live in the Khost business cities and countryside.

Climate data for Khost, Afghanistan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
26.9
(80.4)
32.3
(90.1)
37.0
(98.6)
40.2
(104.4)
46.4
(115.5)
41.5
(106.7)
37.8
(100)
40.0
(104)
33.2
(91.8)
29.0
(84.2)
22.0
(71.6)
46.4
(115.5)
Average high °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
13.8
(56.8)
19.1
(66.4)
25.1
(77.2)
30.3
(86.5)
35.4
(95.7)
33.6
(92.5)
32.3
(90.1)
30.5
(86.9)
26.4
(79.5)
20.1
(68.2)
14.8
(58.6)
24.5
(76.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.8
(40.6)
7.0
(44.6)
12.2
(54)
17.5
(63.5)
22.6
(72.7)
28.0
(82.4)
27.4
(81.3)
26.4
(79.5)
23.3
(73.9)
17.9
(64.2)
11.0
(51.8)
6.4
(43.5)
17.0
(62.6)
Average low °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
1.1
(34)
5.8
(42.4)
10.4
(50.7)
14.3
(57.7)
19.8
(67.6)
21.3
(70.3)
21.2
(70.2)
16.5
(61.7)
10.3
(50.5)
3.6
(38.5)
0.0
(32)
10.2
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) −8.5
(16.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
−3.3
(26.1)
1.0
(33.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.5
(49.1)
13.3
(55.9)
14.6
(58.3)
7.2
(45)
0.0
(32)
−6
(21)
−5.5
(22.1)
−10.4
(13.3)
Precipitation mm (inches) 25.9
(1.02)
53.6
(2.11)
61.8
(2.433)
65.2
(2.567)
39.8
(1.567)
21.6
(0.85)
75.9
(2.988)
62.0
(2.441)
30.5
(1.201)
7.7
(0.303)
11.6
(0.457)
20.9
(0.823)
476.5
(18.76)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 4.1 5.8 9.2 9.1 5.7 2.5 7.9 7.0 3.6 2.2 2.2 3.1 62.4
 % humidity 60 62 62 59 50 46 63 68 62 56 56 59 58.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 198.4 183.6 207.7 234.0 291.4 285.0 251.1 248.0 270.0 251.1 243.0 176.7 2,840
Source #1: NOAA (1972-1983) [3]
Source #2: (sunshine and precipitation days)[4]

History[edit]

Soviet war in Afghanistan[edit]

Further information: Soviet war in Afghanistan

During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, Khost was the object of a siege which lasted for more than eight years. Soon after the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet troops, Afghan guerillas took control of the only land route between Khost and Gardez, effectively putting a stop to the Soviet advance.

During the assault on the Zhawar Kili Cave complex, the Soviets used the Khost Airfield as an initial staging ground to insert troops into the combat zone, using Mil Mi-8 armed helicopter transport ships.


2001–present war in Afghanistan[edit]

A business centre in the town centre under construction in 2007
Khost Mosque, which is the largest mosque in the city.

Khost has been in American control since the 2001 US led invasion of Afghanistan. Due to its location in eastern Afghanistan, it was a hotbed for insurgent activity attempting to dislodge the American forces there. Like most other provinces, Khost is home to maneuver forces and a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT). Maneuver forces wage war against insurgents and assist the Afghan National Army and the Afghan National Police in operations, while the PRT handles the reconstruction aspects.

In early 2007, Lieutenant Colonel Scottie Custer of the 82nd Airborne Division saw that the best way to limit insurgent activity in Khost was to forward-deploy some 187 paratroopers under his command to Force Protection Facilities in Khost's various district centers around sub-governors' mansions, to directly protect these, maintain a visible presence in population centers, and help mentor Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police units operating across Khost.

The FPFs brought a broader sense of security and prosperity to surrounding areas. Bazaars, shops, and gas stations have improved the quality of life for local residents. The Mandozai Force Protection Facilities in Khost include a medical clinic attached to further assist Afghans in need of basic medical assistance. The offices of Khost's various sub-governors had experienced increased activity as Afghans went there to settle disputes and voice concerns instead of going through traditional tribal channels and bribes, cutting down on sectarian suspicion and strife.

Throughout 2007 and 2008 roads had been improved, businesses were springing up and schools were being built, at least 50 in 2007 alone with another 25 planned for 2008. A new airport was under construction as the Khost Airfield was used by the US Military, creating new opportunities and jobs. The Provincial Reconstruction Team, led by CDR David Adams was instrumental in connecting the people to the government in Khost City, by ensuring the PRT was able to execute over $2.5 million under the Commanders Emergency Response Program (CERP) program.

  • May 2009 battle

On May 12, 2009, several teams of armed militants stormed Khost, prompting a heavy 6-hour battle with US and Afghan National Army forces. Reportedly the attack involved 10 suicide bombers, of whom seven were able to detonate and three were shot by security forces. Coalition Forces, aided by the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police, took the lead in repelling the attack.

  • Attack on CIA base

On 30 December 2009, a suicide bomber attacked Forward Operating Base Chapman, a major CIA base in Khost, and killed seven CIA officers, including the chief of the base.[5][6][7]

On 18 February 2011 a suicide car bomber targeted a police checkpoint and killed 11 people.[8]

Security[edit]

On 20 November 2009 a bomb killed 3 civilians and wounded 3 others as a car hit a roadside bomb in Khost City. According to the chief of criminal investigation the act was perpetrated by the Taliban.[9]

On 24 November 2009, according to the Afghan Ministry of Interior, 6 people, including 5 children were killed when a remote control bomb attacked a water station in Khost which had been built by the Rural Rehabilitation Ministry to distribute water to the locals.[10]

On 30 December 2009, a suicide attacker detonated explosives at Forward Operating Base Chapman in Khost province near the Afghan border with Pakistan, killing eight American civilians and wounding others.

On 14 July 2011, according to a spokesman for the provincial government, NATO ground troops killed six civilians in a night raid of the village of Toora Worai, in an area known as Matoon, about seven kilometres from the Khost provincial capital of Khost city.[11]

Sport[edit]

Further information: Sport in Afghanistan

Cricket is growing in popularity in Khost, with the sport being introduced by newly returned refugees from Pakistan. Afghanistan batsman Noor Ali was born in Khost. Nawroz Mangal, the captain of the Afghanistan team for ODI and test matches, also belongs to the Khost Province. Dawlat Zadran, the new Afghan Cricket paceman who grabbed two crucial wickets against Pakistan (in 1st International One Day against Full Member), is also from Khost. Apart from Cricket, Volleyball and Football are also popular in Khost.

Stadiums[edit]

The stadium costing more than one million dollars and the facility would help promote peace in region. The stadium was constructed in three years with financial support from the Afghanistan National Olympic Committee.[13]

The stadium having race tracks, volleyball and basketball courts, as well as a cricket ground, the stadium has been constructed on 7.5 acres of land adding it had capacity for 18,000 spectators.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Khost", The National Area-Based Development Program (NABDP), Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development
  2. ^ {"Khost province", PROVINCIAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN. ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF AFGHANISTAN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY.}
  3. ^ "Khost Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 26, 2012. 
  4. ^ "Chitral, Pakistan, Pakistan". allmetsat. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Gorham, Siobham (December 31, 2009). "Suicide Bombing in Afghanistan Devastates Critical Hub for CIA Activities". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 1, 2010. 
  6. ^ "AP sources: Suicide bomber invited on base". Associated Press. December 31, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Afghanistan suicide bombing kills 8 CIA officers". Los Angeles Times. 2009-12-31. Retrieved 2010-03-28. 
  8. ^ "Afghan suicide car bomber kills 11 in Khost city". bbc.co.uk. 2009-12-31. Retrieved 2011-02-18. 
  9. ^ "Roadside bomb kills 3 civilians, wound 3 in E Afghanistan " 20 November 2009. Xinhua News. Khost. Accessed at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-11/20/content_12505067.htm
  10. ^ "Afghanistan: Children killed in bomb attack in Khost City." 24 November 2009. Accessed at: http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hvWEqwq3CrRvaQCmt21MfoYhjZJQD9C5SPI00
  11. ^ Afghan officials say NATO raid killed 6 civilians http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/07/14/afghan-nato-civilians-killed.html
  12. ^ Pashtunforums.com
  13. ^ Pajhwok.com

References[edit]

External links[edit]