|Khowar language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Native to||Pakistan, China, Afghanistan|
|Native speakers||400,000 (date missing)|
|Writing system||Khowar alphabet (Nastaʿlīq script), see other less-used writing systems below|
|Official language in||Pakistan|
|Regulated by||Khowar Academy, (Pakistan); Literary Association for Promotion of Khowar language, Chitral (Pakistan)|
Khowar (کھوار), also known as Chitrali, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic branch, spoken by 400,000 people in Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in the Ghizer district of Gilgit-Baltistan (including the Yasin Valley, Phandar Ishkoman and Gupis), and in parts of Upper Swat. Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, having sizeable populations. It is spoken as a second language in the rest of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Afghanistan, China, Tajikistan and Istanbul.
Khowar has been influenced by Iranian languages to a greater degree than other Dardic languages, and less by Sanskrit than Shina or the Kohistani languages. John Biddulph (Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh) was among the first westerners to study Khowar and claimed that further research would prove Khowar to be equally derived from "Zend" (Avestan, Old Persian) and Sanskrit.
The Norwegian Linguist Georg Morgenstierne wrote that Chitral is the area of the greatest linguistic diversity in the world. Although Khowar is the predominant language of Chitral, more than ten other languages are spoken here. These include Kalasha-mondr, Palula, Dameli, Gawar-Bati, Nuristani, Yidgha, Burushaski, Gojri, Wakhi, Kyrgyz, Persian and Pashto. Since many of these languages have no written form, letters are usually written in Urdu, Pakistan's national language.
A native speaker of Khowar language and researcher Rehmat Aziz Chitrali has prepared the following chart regarding Romanization of khowar language.
|Phoneme||Sound (in IPA)||Letter||Romanization||Example|
|/p/||[p]||پ||p||/pakistan/ پاکستان (Pakistan)|
|/b/||[b]||ب||b||/brar/ برار (brother)|
|/t/||[t]||ت , ط||t||/patː/ پت 'till'|
|/d/||[d]||د||d||/duːst/ دوست 'friend'|
|/k/||[k]||ک||k||/kahak/ کہاک 'hen'|
|/ɡ/||[ɡ]||گ||g||/gordogh/ گوردوغ 'donkey'|
|/ʔ/||[ʔ]||ع , ء||', ʔ||/mæʔˈnɒː/ معنا 'meaning'|
|/ch/||[t͡ʃ]||چ||ch, č||/chhor/ چھور 'four'|
|/j/||[d͡ʒ]||ج||j||/dʒæˈvɒːn/ جوان 'young'|
|/f/||[f]||ف||f||/fil/ فل 'elephant'|
|/v/||[v]||و||v||/vezo dukaan/ ویزو دوکان 'medical store'|
|/s/||[s]||س , ص , ث||s||/saal/ سال 'year'|
|/z/||[z]||ز , ذ , ض , ظ||z||/ɒːˈzɒːd/ آزاد 'free'|
|/ʃ/||[ʃ]||ش||sh, š||/ʃɒːh abdul aziz/ شاہ عبدالعزیز 'Shah Abdul Aziz'|
|/ʒ/||[ʒ]||ژ||zh, ž||/ʒɒːraap/ ژاراپ 'socks'|
|/x/||[x]||خ||kh, x||/xɒːˈne zaad/ خانہ زاد 'slave'|
|/ɣ/||[ɣ]||ق , غ||gh, q||/ɣulaam/ غلام 'slave'|
|/ɢ/||[ɢ]||ق , غ||q, gh||/qæˈlæm/ قلم 'pen'|
|/h/||[h]||ه , ح||h||/hindu/ ھندو 'indian'|
|/m/||[m]||م||m||/mosh/ موش 'man'|
|/n/||[n]||ن||n||/nɒːn/ نان 'mother'|
|/ŋ/||[ŋ]||ن||ng, ŋ||/rænɡ/ رنگ 'color'|
|/l/||[l]||ل||l||/læket/ لاکٹ 'locket'|
|/ɾ/||[ɾ]||ر||r||/Rahmat Aziz/ رحمت عزیز 'Rehmat Aziz'|
|/j/||[j]||ی||y||/jɒː/ یا 'or'|
Written language 
Khowar has been written in the Nasta'liq script since the early twentieth century. Prior to that, the administrative and literary language of the region was Persian and works such as poetry and songs in Khowar were passed down in oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been written in the Roman script since the 1960s. Badshah Munir Bukhari worked on the language and its family.
Days of the week 
|Sunday||Adit||Aditya var||yak shambey|
|Monday||Tsunduro||Som var||du shambey|
|Tuesday||Ungaroo||Mangal var||sey shambey|
|Wednesday||Bodo||Budh var||char shambey|
|Thursday||Bressput||Brihaspati var||panch shambey|
According to Rehmat Aziz Chitrali, a linguistic researcher from Chitral, these names are used in Gilgit, Hunza, Nager, Chitral, Ghizer and Swat, and have been in use since time immemorial in the country of the Indus. It would seem as if the natives, while introducing the Sanskrit days of the week, adopted in other respects the mode of computing time already existing in the country. The Khowar names are from Persian.
Khowar media 
Television channels 
Khowar poet, journalist and researcher Rehmat Aziz Chitrali on Monday said Chitral district is rich in cultural heritage which needs to be promoted for next generations. In a message on the launch of Khowar language TV programme by Khyber News (KNTV) in Islamabad, Khowar poet Rachitrali said the step would help promote the rich heritage of Khowar.
|TV Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Khyber News TV (خیبر نیوز ٹیلی ویژن)||News and current affairs||http://www.khybernews.tv/|
|AVT Khyber TV (اے وی ٹی خیبر)||Entertainment||http://www.avtkhyber.tv/|
|K2 TV (کے ٹو)||Entertainment, news and current affairs||http://www.kay2.tv/|
These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.
|Radio Channel||Genre||Founded||Official Website|
|Radio Pakistan Chitral||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Peshawar||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Radio Pakistan Gilgit||Entertainment||http://www.radio.gov.pk/|
|Chitral Vision (چترال وژن)||Karachi, Chitral, Pakistan|
Khowar is the language of the Khow of Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is also spoken as a second language by some Gilgiti. It is designated as one of 14 regional languages of Chitral, Pakistan.
The Khowar vowel system has at least eight vowels: five long vowels and three short vowels. The long vowels are /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. The short vowels are /a/, /i/ and /u/. The short vowels have more centralized phonetic qualities than the long vowels.
Swati Khowar (at least as spoken in Swat) also has nasalized vowels, most importantly /ẽː/ and /ãː/.
The following consonants are common to both Chitrali Khowar and Gilgiti Khowar. The place of articulation of the consonants /s/, /z/, /n/, /ɾ/ and /l/ is claimed to be alveolar in Chitrali Khowar, while at least the /ɾ/ is claimed to be dental in Gilgit Khowar. The stops /t/ and /d/ are claimed to be dental in both dialects.
- Standard Khowar
- Swati Khowar (Swat Kohistan)
- Lotkuhiwar (Lotkuh Valley)
- Gherzikwar (Ghizer Valley)
- Gilgiti Khowar (Gilgit-Baltistan), spoken by a few families in Gilgit city.
Writing system 
According to Rehmat Aziz Chitrali’s research before the 19th century, Khowar was an unwritten language. At the time princely state of Chitral, the official written language was Persian, although Khowar was still spoken from Arandu to Yarkhun valley and Ghizer Valley of Nothern Pakistan. During an interview to Akbar Ali Qazi a Ismaili religious scholor, Rehmat Aziz Chitrali said that ‘’British linguists and political historians wrote form with the Latin script, but following the independence of Pakistan, Chitrali scholars adopted Urdu Arabic script’’. The first humorous collection of poetry in Khowar, Guldasta-e-Rahmat (گلدستہء رحمت) by Rehmat Aziz Chitrali was published in 1996 and incorporated the Urdu Arabic Script. Rehmat Aziz also wrote a comprehensive guidance on the usage of Urdu Arabic script and standardized it as the Khowar Orthography. He has created Khowar alphabets and Romanized Khowar alphabets . This earned Rehmat Aziz the title of 'the Father of Khowar'. Rachitrali's alphabets are widely used in Perso-Arabic Script and Roman script. In Pakistan, however, Khowar is written in a modified Arabic script based on what is used for Urdu but the foreigners are using Rehmat Aziz’s Khowar Romanized script in their articles.
The Rehmat Aziz 's Khowar Orthography' 
Khowar Latin alphabet 
The following Latin-based alphabet was created by Rehmat Aziz, Director Khowar Academy and adopted by the Khowar Workshop on "Khowar Roman Orthography" (Khowar Academy, Karachi, April 25, 1996)
a å b c ç ĉ ċ d e f g ġ h i j ĵ k l ł m ɱ n ň Ŋ o p q ǭ r ŗ s š Ş t ŧ ts u v w Ŵ ϣ ῶ x y Ý ў ÿ z zh ž ź
A/a aaɱ (mango), angúR(finger), bagh (garden), sardar (Head man-nobleman), naam (name)
å/á jhanDá (Flag)
B/b (be) bam (bomb), baas (bus), bághbán (gardner), bakhtáwwar (lucky)
C/ch (che) chat (roof), chor (four), chaku (knife)
ç/çh (çhey) çhetraar (Chitral), çhetrari (Chitrali)
ĉ/ĉe (ĉey) ĉeeǭ (Sound of Door opening and closing)
ċ/ċhe (ċhey) ċhraaǭ (Sound of the cutting of branches of tree)
d/d (daal) dowlat (wealth), dárman (medicine), dada (grand father)
D/d (Daal) daq(boy), daqanan(boys), daku(robber)
E/e ee (one), elaaj (cure), ee mosh (one man)
F/f (fe) To be used only in loan words where its use is inevitable, like Fráns (France), fármaysí (pharmacy), fil(elephant), faidah(profit)
G/g (ge) gap shap (talk), gunah (sin), bágh (garden), gulab (rose), Bagdád (Baghdad)
Ghair (Others), GhaaR (sports), GhaRuchun (polo stick).
ġ/ġ (like ġhaen ǭaaġ ǭaaġ (Sound of Crow)
H/h (he) hár (defeat), máhar (dower), koh (mountain), Haroon (Haroon), hon (flood)
I/i (i) istári (star), istaan (upper roof),india (India)
i/i (i) immaan (faith), chhir (milk)
J/j (je) jangal (forest), janjal (quarrel), Jinah (Muhammad Ali Jinah), grinj (rice)
ĵ/ĵ (ĵeem) ĵenĵair (Chain)
K/k (ke) Kimeri (woman), kahak (hen), kanu (blind), kaRbuki (doll), kash (store for flour)
L/l (le) laket (locket), lal (elder brother), laten (lantern)
ł/ł (łaam) Allah (Ałłah)
M/m (meem) mukuR (monkey), mama (uncle), mas (month), meshTair (Master).
ɱ/ɱ (ɱeem) aaɱ (mango)
N/n (noon) naskaar (nose), nogh (new, new moon), nan (mother)
ň/ň (ňooň) aaňboor
ɳ/ɳ (ɳooɳ) ŧaɳ (sound of tongue)
O/o (o) oshT (eight), onzok (a village in Khot Valley Chitral, Pakistan)
P/p (pe) pong (foot), pakistan (Pakistan), palogh (apple), gapp (talk)
Q/q (qú) qalam(pen), quraan(Quran)
ǭ/ ǭ (like ǭaaf ǭaaġ ǭaaġ (Sound of Crow)
R/r (re) Rehmat (a name), raah (road), rishwat (bribe)
ŗ/ŗ (re) ŗuyiik(to bray), ŗung(without horns)
S/s (se) sor (head), saf (all), sadah (simple), saal (year)
š/šh (šheen) šher(lion), šhadi(marriage), šhor(hundred),
Ş/Ş (Şeen) Şapik (bread), Şadágh (Khowar month), ŞhoŞp (Chitrali Dish(Halwa)), Şhaa (black), Şhawai (pearl).
T/t (te) tu (you), ta (your) thás (bowl), tarikh (date, history)
T/T (Te) Tung (without horns), Tali (bell), baT (cricket bat).
ŧ/ŧ (ŧe) ŧaɳ (sound of tongue)
ts/ts (tsey) tsetseq(Children)
U/u uth (camel), urdu (Urdu), ustád (teacher)
Ú/ú (ú, sounds like the "oo" in English word "root") úruru (noice)
V/v (ve) used in loanwords only, like in the English word service, very. Veshku(basket)
W/w (we) waraq (page), war (language), waskat (waist coat)
Ŵ/Ŵ (Ŵaw) ŗoŴ(fox)
ϣ/ϣ (ϣaϣ) druϣ (roots of a local bush)
ῶ/w (ῶaῶ) khosh gaῶ (Yak)
X/x (khe) X-ra (X-rays), xat (letter)
Y/y (ye) yád (remembrance), yár (friend), buryání (meat in rice), ridif (radio), yor (sun)
Ý/Ý (ye) xodaÝ (Allah)
ў/ў (ye) chalaў (clothes)
Z/z (ze) zor (power), zuwaalu (delicious), zindaghi (life),
zh/zh (zhe) zharaap (socks)
ž/ž (ž) žhindrik (a kind of horse's braying)
ź/ź (ź) źeeǭ (sound of door opening and closing)
hay (h) hayrán (surprise)
Aw/aw awrat (woman),, awlád (off-spring), qawl (promise).
See also 
Additional references 
- Bashir, Elena (2001) Spatial Representation in Khowar. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
- Decker, D. Kendall (1992). Languages of Chitral. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.
- L’Homme, Erik (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l’ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L’Harmattan
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1936) Iranian Elements in Khowar. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
- Badshah Munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher. Pakistan
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1947) Some Features of Khowar Morphology. Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S.K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84-98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267-72]
- Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.
- Decker, Kendall D. (1992). Languages of Chitral (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 5). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 257 pp. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.
- Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed), ed. (2005). "Ethnologue report for language code:khw". Ethnologue Languages of the World. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
- "Georg Morgenstierne". National Library of Norway. 2001. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
- Strand, Richard F. (2011). "Khow`ar Lexicon". Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Strand, Richard F. (2012). "The Sound System of Khow`ar". Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- See Rehmat Aziz Chitrali’s article Khowar Vovels (1990) for Khowar (as spoken in Karachi, Pakistan, and Rachitrali (1991) for Pakistani Khowar as spoken in Pakistan.
- Rehmat Aziz Chitrali (1990).
- See Rehmat Aziz Chitrali (2006) and Rachitrali (1990), respectively.
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