- This article is about the city. For the district, see Khulna District. For the division, see Khulna Division.
|— Metropolis —|
|Municipal Council:||12 December 1884|
|Municipal Corporation:||12 December 1984|
|City Corporation:||6 August 1990|
|• Type||City Corporation|
|• Mayor||Talukder Abdul Khaleque|
|• Metropolis||59.57 km2 (23.00 sq mi)|
|Elevation||9 m (30 ft)|
|• Density||14,364/km2 (37,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
|National Calling Code||+88|
|Postal Code||Khulna GPO 9000 & Khulna Head Office 9100|
|Website||Khulna City Corporation Official Khulna District|
Khulna (Bengali: খুলনা ) is the headquarter of Khulna District and the principal city of Khulna Division. It is located in the southern area of Bangladesh and situated on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab River. The River port of Khulna is one of the oldest River port in Bangladesh.
Khulna is the 3rd largest city in Bangladesh. Often referred to as; Industrial City (Bengali: শিল্প নগরী ). It is one of the important industrial and commercial area of the country. It has a Sea port named Mongla on its outskirts, 38 km from Khulna City. Which is the 2nd seaport in Bangladesh. Khulna Is also the gateway of Sundarban (home of Royal Bengal Tiger).
The population of the city (under the jurisdiction of the City Corporation), was 1,000,000 in 2007 estimation. The wider Statistical Metropolitan Area had at the same time an estimated population of 1,435,422.
The city is 333 km (by road) southwest from the capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka, or 133 km as the bird flies. To which it is connected by road, air, railway and waterways. The steamer fleet for this route includes the ancient ships Tern (1912), Osrich and Lepcha.
The city as well as the district is named after its headquarters. As per myth, there was a shrine called Khullaneswari temple on the bank of the Bhairab river (about one and a half kilometers to the east of the present Khulna city) and the area is called Khulna after the name of Khullaneswari.
Khulna, a subdivision of Jessore District, was formed as the first subdivision in Bengal in 1842. The district was formed in 1882, comprising the then Khulna and Bagerhat subdivisions of Jessore district, Satkhira subdivision of 24 Parganas district ( India ) and the Sundarbans.
In 1990 Khulna has been declared as a City Corporation.
Khulna is located in south-western Bangladesh at 22°49′0″N 89°33′0″E, on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab river. It covers a total area of 59.57 km², while the district itself is about 4394.46 km². It lies south of Jessore and Narail, East of Satkhira, West of Bagerhat and North of the Bay of Bengal. It is part of the largest delta in the world. In the southern part of the delta lies the Sundarban, the world's largest mangrove forest. The city of Khulna is in the northern part of the district, and is mainly an expansion of trade centers close to the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers.
Climate of Khulna is humid during summer and pleasant in winter. Khulna has an annual average temperature of 26.3 °C (79.4 °F) and monthly means varying between 12.4 °C (54.3 °F) in January and 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in May. Annual average rainfall of Khulna is 1809.4 millimeters (71.2 in). Approximately 87% of the annual average rainfall occurs between May and October.
|Climate data for Khulna|
|Average high °C (°F)||25.6
|Average low °C (°F)||12.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||13.3
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2||3||3||6||11||14||17||16||13||7||2||1||95|
|Source: Weather Base|
Civil Administration 
Khulna "Municipal council" was founded on 12 December 1884, and promoted to a "Municipal corporation" in 1984, It has declared as a "City corporation" in 1990. Khulna City Corporation is a self-governing corporation which runs the affairs of the city. There are 31 wards in the City Corporation area . Khulna City Corporation run by an elected Mayor.
Khulna Metropolitan Police(KMP) controls the law & order as well as traffic movements within the metropolitan area. The area has divided by 05 Police stations: Khulna Sadar Thana, Sonadanga Thana, Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana and Khan Jahan Ali Thana.
The Metropolitan Magistrate Court(CMM) look after the legal issues around the city. On the other hand, every District & Divisional level government officials have their administrative headquarters in the city, which functions as part of the government administrative set up. In addition, a governing body called Khulna Development Authority(KDA) plans the infrastructure development of the city and coordinates the development related works.
There are two parliamentary constituencies within the city. Which are, Khulna-02(Khulna Sadar Thana & Sonadanga Thana) & Khulna-03(Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana & Khan Jahan Ali Thana).
The population of Khulna (areas under the jurisdiction of the Khulna city corporation) stands at approximately 1.00 million. The city, in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to an estimated 1.44 million as of 2007.Density of population is about 14,364 per km2. The literacy rate among the urban people of Khulna is 59.1%. which is quite higher than the national average of 56.5%.
Most of the people in Khulna are the Bengali people, as is the case in most of Bangladesh. The long-standing inhabitants of the city are known as Khulnaia and they have a distinctive dialect. Apart from them, the city population is composed of people from the neighboring districts and from the greater Barisal & Faridpur regions of Bangladesh. A large number of people from greater Comilla & Noakhali region also resides in the city. Khulna also have a significant number of Bihari population.
Most residents of Khulna speak Bengali, the national language. Many distinctive Bengali dialects and regional languages are also spoken. English is understood by a large segment of the population, especially for business purposes. There is a minority Urdu-speaking population, who are descendants of displaced Muslims from eastern India during 1947 and sought refuge in East Pakistan.
Like the other big cities of Bangladesh, notably Dhaka and Chittagong, Khulna is undergoing a major transformation, due to its immensely growing population and its status as Bangladesh's third largest city. Because of its strategic location of only 45 km from the port of Mongla, Khulna is considered as a port city like Chittagong. Khulna is known as the city of shrimp, because 75% of shrimp exported from Bangladesh are cultivated in the Khulna zone. It is also known for its lobster, prawn, catfish, and crab. Khulna has some heavy and medium industries like Khulna Hardboard Mills, Bangladesh Oxygen Company, Khulna Oxygen Company, Platinum Jubilee Jute Mills, Star Jute Mills, Dada Match Factory (now Dhaka Match Factory) and Khulna Ship Yard Ltd.
Rickshaw is the most popular means of public transportation in Khulna. Usually people use it for short distance journeys. Baby Taxi & Tuktuk(Chinese auto-rickshaw) are also a common mode of transport within the city. There is a public bus service called "Nagar Paribahan", which runs frequently between Rupsha to Phultala and have stoppages in all major localities of Khulna. Motorcycle is also popular among the middle-class people, while the rich people prefer a private car.
There are several luxury and economy nationwide bus services available in Khulna. Most of them are private bus services. BRTC also operates Inter-district bus services from Khulna. Sonadanga Bus Terminal is the main bus terminal of Khulna. Major bus routes are: Khulna-Jessore-Dhaka, Khulna-Goplaganj-Dhaka, Khulna-Jessore-Kushtia, Khulna-Satkhira, Khulna-Bagerhat, Khulna-Mongla, Khulna-Narail, Khulna-Barisal, Khulna-Rajshahi, Khulna-Faridpur, Khulna-Kuakata, Khulna-Dhaka-Chittagong etc.
Khulna Railway Station is the main railway station in the city. Bangladesh Railway operates Express trains between Khulna-Dhaka, Khulna-Rajshahi, Khulna-Saidpur & Khulna-Benapole. And mail trains between Khulna-Parbatipur, Khulna-Chapainawabganj & Khulna-Goalanda.
Jessore Airport(JSR) located 71 km north of Khulna city centre, is the only airport in the region. United Airways, Regent Airways & NovoAir have regular flights between Jessore-Dhaka. And those airlines have direct A/C bus services from the airport to Khulna.
Khulna has many prestigious educational institutions. Govt. Brajalal College is the oldest institution of higher education in the city, founded in 1902. Khulna University is the only public University in Bangladesh where student politics is strictly prohibited. Also there is a engineering University Khulna University of Engineering & Technology(KUET) and a medical college Khulna Medical College(KMC). There are also some famous educational institutions like Azam Khan Govt. Commerce College, Khulna Govt. Women's College, Govt.M.M City College, Khulna Zila School, Govt. Coronation Girls School etc. Beside these there is 01 teacher’s training college, 01 regional public administration training institute, 01 polytechnic institute, 01 vocational institute, 01 homeopathic college and 01 social welfare training centre. Khulna is under the Jessore Education Board. This board varies the SSC and HSC standard.
Major institutions are:
- Khulna University
- Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET)
- Govt. Brajalal College
- Northern University(private)
- North Western University (private)
- Khulna Medical College
- Gazi Medical College(private)
- Khulna Govt. Women's College
- Govt. Azam Khan Commerce College
- Daulatpur College(Day/Night)
- Govt. M. M. City College
- Govt. Sundarban College
- Govt. Pioneer Women's College
- KCC Women's College
- Ahshanullah College
- Mohshin College
- Islamia College
- Govt. Khulna Polytechnic Institute
- Govt. Khulna Women's Polytechnic Institute
- Khulna Technical Institute
- Khulna Zilla School
- Govt. Coronation Girls School
- Khulna Public College
- Cantonment Public School & College
- St. Josheph School
- Khulna Collegiate Girls School
- Khulna Govt. Girls School (Munnujan School)
- Rotary School
- Model High School
- Bangladesh Navy School & College(English Version)
- Islamabad Collegiate School(English Version)
- Military Collegiate School Khulna(MCSK)
- South Herald English Medium School
- Johra Khatun Shishu Bidya Niketan
Beside these, there are 7 UCEP schools: 1 technical school and 6 IGV (Integrated General and Vocational) schools.
Cricket and football are the two most popular sports in Khulna. Khulna Division cricket team is a First class cricket team from Khulna Division and has its home ground in Khulna city. In domestic Twenty20 cricket, Khulna has a Bangladesh Premier League franchise known as Khulna Royal Bengals. In football, Khulna Abahani Club played in Bangladeshi top tier football league for several seasons before its relegation in 2008-09 season.
Sheikh Abu Naser Stadium is the only international sports venue in Khulna. It hosts Test cricket, One Day International and Twenty20 International. It became the 7th Test cricket venue in the country on November 21, 2012. It also hosts several matches of the Bangladesh Premier League. On the other hand Khulna District Stadium is the venue for other domestic sporting events.
- Newspaper: The Daily Purbanchal, The Daily Janmabhumi, The Daily Probah, The Daily Tribune(English) etc.
Sundarban : In the south-western part of Bangladesh, in the district of greater Khulna, lies the Sundarbans, the beautiful forest. It is a virgin forest which until recently owed nothing to human endeavour and yet nature has laid it out with as much care as a planned pleasure ground. For miles and miles, the lofty treetops form an unbroken canopy, while nearer the ground, works of high and ebb-tide marked on the soil and tree trunks and the many varieties of the natural mangrove forest have much to offer to an inquisitive visitor.
Here land and water meet in many novel fashions, Wildlife presents many a spectacle. No wonder, you may come across a Royal Bengal Tiger swimming across the streams or the crocodiles basking on the river banks. With the approach of the evening herds of deer make for the darking glades where boisterous monkeys shower Keora leaves from above for sumptuous meal for the former. For the botanist, the lover of nature, the poet and the painter this land provides a variety of wonder for which they all crave.
The Sundarbans is a cluster of islands with an approximate area of 6000 sq. km. forming the largest block of littoral forests. It's beauty lies in its unique natural surrounding. Thousands of meandering streams, creeks, rivers and estuaries have enhanced its charm. Sundarbans meaning beautiful forest is the natural habital of the world famous Royal Bengal Tiger, spotted deer, crocodiles, jungle fowl, wild boar, lizards, theses monkey and an innumerable variety of beautiful birds. Migratory flock of Siberian ducks flying over thousands of sail boats loaded with timber, golpatta (round-leaf), fuel wood, honey, shell and fish further add to the serene natural beauty of the Sundarbans.
This is indeed a land for the sportsmen, the anglers and the photographers with its abundance of game, big and small, crocodile, wild boar, deer, pythons, wild-birds and above all the Royal Bengal Tiger, cunning, ruthless and yet majestic and graceful, For the less adventurously inclined, there are ducks and snipes, herons and coots, yellow-lags and sandpipers. It is also the land for the ordinary holiday makers who desire to rest or wander around at will to refresh their mind and feast their eyes with the rich treasure that nature has so fondly bestowed.
AREA : Nearly 2400 sq. miles or 6000 sq. km.
FOREST LIMITS : North-Bagerhat, Khulna and Sathkira districts : South-Bay of Bengal; East-Baleswar (or Haringhata) river, Perojpur, Barisal district, and West-Raimangal and Hariabhanga rivers which partially form Bangladesh boundary with West Bengal in India.
MAIN ATTRACTIONS : Wildlife photography including photography of the famous Royal Bengal Tiger, wildlife viewing, boating inside the forest will call recordings, nature study, meeting fishermen, wood-cutters and honey-collectors, peace and tranquility in the wilderness, seeing the world's largest mangrove forest and the riverine beauty.
FAMOUS SPOTS : Hiron Point (Nilkamal) for tiger, deer, monkey, crocodiles, birds and natural beauty. Katka for deer, tiger, crocodiles, varieties of birds and monkey, morning and evening symphony of wild fowls. Vast expanse of grassy meadows running from Katka to Kachikhali (Tiger Point) provide opportunities for wild tracking. Tin Kona Island for tiger and deer.
Dublar Char (Island) for fishermen. It is a beautiful island where herds of spotted deer are often seen to graze.
Means of Communication : Water transport is the only means of communication for visiting the Sundarbans from Khulna or Mongla Port. Private motor launch, speed boats, country boats as well as mechanised vessel of Mongla Port Authority might be hired for the purpose. From Dhaka visitors may travel by air, road or rocket steamer to Khulna - the gateway to the Sundarbans. Most pleasant journey from Dhaka to Khulna is by Paddle Steamer, Rocket presenting a picturesque panorama of rural Bangladesh. Day and night-long coach services by road are also available. The quickest mode is by air from Dhaka to Jessore and then to Khulna by road.
Journey time : It varies depending on tides against or in favour in the river. Usually it takes 6 to 10 hours journey by motor vessel from Mongla to Hiron Point or Katka. Accommodation Inside the forest
Hiron Point : Comfortable three-storied Rest-House of the Mongla Port Authority. Prior booking is to be made.
Katka : Forest Department Rest-House located here. Prior booking essential. Journey by Rocket Steamer to Mongla and Khulna
Minimum Journey time is 22 Hours for Mongla and 24 Hours for Khulna from Dhaka.
Entry Permission : Prior permission must be obtained through written application from the Divisional Forest Office, Circuit House Road, Khulna (Phone 20665, 211731) to visit the Sundarbans. Required entrance fees for visitors, vessel or boat payable at the relevant forest station/range office.
Fee for Commercial Photography : Movie Tk. 5,000.00 per role exposed Video Tk. 4,000.00 per Cassette Still Tk. 1,000.00 per role exposed
Guided Tours : Bangladesh Parjatan Corporation & other tour operators offers all-inclusive guided package fours from Dhaka to Sundarbans and return during the tourist season (October to March).
Climate : Climate in the Sundarbans is moderate. Air is humid. Full monsoon is from June to September. The annual rainfall average between 65" and 70". During ebb-tide the forest becomes bare by 6-7 feet and at high tide (30 miles and hour) the entire territory of the forest floats on water.
Life in Forest : Only means of transportation inside the forest is boat. There is no road, no trail of a path anywhere. The wood-cutters make temporary dwellings at the edge of the forest at a height of 8-10 feet for fear of wild animals others live on boats. In the chandpai region it is fascinating to see the nomadic fishermen (living with families on boats) catching fish with the help of trained offers. Exciting activities take place in Dublar Char in the forest where fishermen from Chittagong gather for four months (mid Oct. to mid Feb.) to catch and dry fish. But the most daring and exciting of all activities is presented by the honey-collectors who work in groups for just two months (April-May) and it is interesting to see how they locate a hive and then collect honey.
Flora and Fauna : The Sundarbans is endowed by nature with rich flora and fauna. It is a wonderful place to see or to shoot a Royal Bengal Tiger with Camera if one has the time to wait in the forest. There are a good number of tigers in the Sundarbans. Lovely spotted deer are easy to find. Besides there are a wide variety of wildlife for which the Sundarbans is so famous Visit to the Forest
Permission from the Division Forest Officer, Khulna is required to visit to the forest. Cholera vaccine is to be taken well in advance. Anti-malarial, anti-diarrhoeal, insectrepellent cream, drinking water, green coconuts, medical kit, light tropical dress, thick rubber soled boots etc. are to be carried with the tourist. It will be wise to take the help of an experienced guide to make the journey fruitful.
Tourist season & Shooting : Best time to visit the Sundarbans is from November to March. Exciting honey collection season is during April-May. Hunting is prohibited by law in the country for the preservation of wildlife. Certain species of birds, however, can be shot with prior permission of the Divisional Forest Officer, Khulna, (Phone : 20665 & 21173).
Visit to the Forest : Permission from the Division Forest Officer, Khulna is required to visit to the forest. Cholera vaccine is to be taken well in advance. Anti-malarial, anti-diarrhoeal, insectrepellent cream, drinking water, green coconuts, medical kit, light tropical dress, thick rubber soled boots etc. are to be carried with the tourist. It will be wise to take the help of an experienced guide to make the journey fruitful.
Notable People 
- Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray Scientist
- Abdur Razzak (cricketer) Bangladesh national cricket team
- Moushumi Film-Actress
- Manjural Islam Rana former Test Cricketer
- Sheikh Razzak Ali formemr Speaker of the Parliament
- Sheikh Aslam formemr Footballer
- Sadika Parvin Popy Film-Actress
- Mrinalini Devi wife of Rabindranath Tagore
- Khan A Sabur former Communications Minister of Pakistan
- Marzuk Russell Poet, Lyricist & TV Actor
- "Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava –2001". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2001. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
-  2010 Population Estimate. Retrieved on 19 August 2010.
- "Khulna". Banglapedia. Retrieved 05-01-2010.
- (pdf-file) 2007 Population Estimate. Retrieved on 19 August 2009.
- Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava – 2001 (pdf-file) Retrieved on 2008-09-29.
- "BPL 2013 to kick off on January 17". Cricinfo. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
Shakib Al Hashan (cricketer) Bangladesh national cricket team
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Khulna|
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Khulna|
- Official Website of Khulna City Corporation
- Banglapedia article on Khulna
- Khulna Guide at Discovery Bangladesh
- MSN Map