Khulna

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This article is about the city. For the division, see Khulna Division. For the district, see Khulna District. For the subdistrict, see Khulna Kotwali Thana.
Khulna
খুলনা
Metropolis
Khulna.jpg
Khulna is located in Bangladesh
Khulna
Khulna
Coordinates: 22°49′0″N 89°33′0″E / 22.81667°N 89.55000°E / 22.81667; 89.55000Coordinates: 22°49′0″N 89°33′0″E / 22.81667°N 89.55000°E / 22.81667; 89.55000
Country  Bangladesh
Division Khulna Division
District Khulna District
Municipal Council: 12 December 1884
Municipal Corporation: 12 December 1984
City Corporation: 6 August 1990
Government
 • Type City Corporation
 • Mayor Moniruzzaman Moni (Bangladesh Nationalist Party)
Area[1]
 • Total 80,01 km2 (3,089 sq mi)
Elevation 9 m (30 ft)
Population (2012) 770 498
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
National Calling Code +880
Calling Code 041
Literacy rate 59.1%[2]
Postal Code Khulna GPO 9000 & Khulna Head Office 9100
Website Khulna City Corporation

Khulna (Bengali: খুলনা ) is the capital of Khulna District and Khulna Division in Bangladesh. It is the third-largest urban area in the country (behind Dhaka and Chittagong), and has a population of more than 1.4 million.[3] It is one of the oldest river ports in Bangladesh, located on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers.

Khulna is an important hub of Bangladeshi industry and hosts the branch offices of numerous national companies. It is served by Mongla seaport. It is also one of the two principal naval command centres of the Bangladesh Navy.

A colonial steamboat service, including the fleet Tern, Osrich and Lepcha, continues to operate on the river route to the city. It is regarded as the gateway to the Sundarbans, the world's largest tidal forest and home of the Bengal Tiger. Khulna is also situated north of the Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[4][5]

Etymology[edit]

The city as well as the district is named after its headquarters. As per myth, there was a shrine called Khullaneswari temple on the bank of the Bhairab river (about one and a half kilometers to the east of the present Khulna city) and the area is called Khulna after the name of Khullaneswari.

History[edit]

Khulna was part of the ancient kingdoms of Vanga or Samatata. In the 12th century, it came under the Sena dynasty during the reign of Ballal Sena and formed part of the Bagri division of Bengal.

During the 14th century, Shamsuddin Firoz Shah became the first Muslim ruler to arrive in the city. The Muslim settlements in the city increased during the time of Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah. Subsequently, many mosques and shrines began to be established. In the 15th century, a Muslim saint named Khan Jahan Ali acquired a Jaigir comprising a large part of the greater Khulna Division from the king of Gauḍa. Later he started to exercise full rights of sovereignty and continued to do so till his death in 1459.[6]

After the death of Khan Jahan Ali, the city again became a part of the Sultanate of Bengal. During the reign of Daud Khan Karrani in the 16th century, Vikramaditya, one of the chief ministers of the ruler, obtained a grant in the southern Bengal including Khulna when the ruler was busy fighting the Mughals. He then established a sovereign kingdom, having the capital at Iswaripur currently in Jessore District. Vikramaditya was succeeded by his son Pratapaditya who gained preeminence over the Baro-Bhuyans, holding strong possession of Southern Bengal. He was eventually defeated by Man Singh I, a Hindu general of the Mughal emperor Akbar, in 1611 AD.[7]

Khulna remained under the rule of autonomous Nawabs (rulers) of Bengal till 1793, when the British East India Company abolished Nizamat (local rule) and took control of the city. In 1842, the city became a part of Khulna subdivision of Jessore District. In 1882, it became the headquarters of Khulna District, comprising the then Khulna and Bagerhat subdivisions of Jessore district, Satkhira subdivision of 24 Parganas district and the Sundarbans.[7]

Khulna was declared as a Pouroshava / Municipal council in 1884 and promoted to a Municipal corporation in 1984 on the platinum jubilee of Khulna Pouroshava.

In 1990 Khulna has been declared as a City Corporation.

Geography[edit]

Khulna is located in south-western Bangladesh at 22°49′0″N 89°33′0″E, on the banks of the Rupsha and Bhairab river. It covers a total area of 59.57 km²,[8] while the district itself is about 4394.46 km². It lies south of Jessore and Narail, East of Satkhira, West of Bagerhat and North of the Bay of Bengal. It is part of the largest delta in the world. In the southern part of the delta lies the Sundarban, the world's largest mangrove forest. The city of Khulna is in the northern part of the district, and is mainly an expansion of trade centers close to the Rupsha and Bhairab rivers. The Mayur River forms the western boundary of the metropolitan area.


Climate[edit]

Khulna is humid during summer and pleasant in winter. Khulna has an annual average temperature of 26.3 °C (79.3 °F) and monthly means varying between 12.4 °C (54.3 °F) in January and 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in May. Annual average rainfall of Khulna is 1,809.4 millimetres (71.24 in). Approximately 87% of the annual average rainfall occurs between May and October.

Climate data for Khulna
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25.6
(78.1)
28.5
(83.3)
33.1
(91.6)
34.6
(94.3)
34.3
(93.7)
32.9
(91.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.8
(89.2)
32
(90)
32
(90)
29.9
(85.8)
26.5
(79.7)
31.1
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
15.4
(59.7)
20.5
(68.9)
23.9
(75)
25.2
(77.4)
26.1
(79)
26
(79)
26.2
(79.2)
25.8
(78.4)
24.1
(75.4)
19.6
(67.3)
13.6
(56.5)
21.6
(70.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 13.3
(0.524)
44.4
(1.748)
52.1
(2.051)
87.5
(3.445)
200
(7.87)
335.6
(13.213)
329.8
(12.984)
323.5
(12.736)
254.7
(10.028)
129.8
(5.11)
32.1
(1.264)
6.6
(0.26)
1,809.4
(71.236)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2 3 3 6 11 14 17 16 13 7 2 1 95
Source: Weather Base[better source needed]

Civil administration[edit]

Khulna Municipal Council was founded on 12 December 1884, and promoted to a "municipal corporation" in 1984. It has declared a "city corporation" in 1990. Khulna City Corporation is a self-governing corporation run by an elected Mayor, which runs the affairs of the city. There are 31 wards in the City Corporation area.

Khulna Metropolitan Police (KMP) controls law and order as well as traffic movements within the metropolitan area. The area has been divided by five police stations: Khulna Kotwali Thana, Sonadanga Thana, Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana and Khan Jahan Ali Thana.

The Metropolitan Magistrate Court (CMM) looks after the legal issues around the city.

A governing body called Khulna Development Authority (KDA) plans the infrastructure development of the city and coordinates development-related work.

There are two parliamentary constituencies within the city: Khulna-02 (Khulna Sadar Thana and Sonadanga Thana) and Khulna-03 (Khalishpur Thana, Daulatpur Thana and Khan Jahan Ali Thana).

Every district and divisional level government official also has their administrative headquarters in the city.

Demographics[edit]

The population of Khulna (areas under the jurisdiction of the Khulna city corporation) stands at approximately 1.00 million. The city, in combination with localities forming the wider metropolitan area, is home to an estimated 1.44 million as of 2007. Density of population is about 14,364 per sq km. The literacy rate among the urban people of Khulna is 59.1%. which is quite higher than the national average of 56.5%.

Most of the people in Khulna are the Bengali people, as is the case in most of Bangladesh. The long-standing inhabitants of the city are known as Khulnaia and they have a distinctive dialect. Apart from them, the city population is composed of people from the neighboring districts and from the greater Barisal & Faridpur regions of Bangladesh. A large number of people from greater Comilla & Noakhali region also resides in the city. Khulna also have a significant number of Bihari population.

Most residents of Khulna speak Bengali, the national language. Many distinctive Bengali dialects and regional languages are also spoken. English is understood by a large segment of the population, especially for business purposes. There is a minority Urdu-speaking population, who are descendants of displaced Muslims from eastern India during 1947 and sought refuge in East Pakistan.

Islam is the major religion in Khulna, approximately 73.49% people are Muslim. And the proportion of other religions are: Hindu 25.74%, Christian 0.67%, Buddhist 0.04%, and Others 0.06%.

Economy[edit]

Like the other big cities of Bangladesh, notably Dhaka and Chittagong, Khulna is undergoing a major transformation, due to its immensely growing population and its status as Bangladesh's third largest city. Because of its strategic location of only 45 km from the port of Mongla, Khulna is considered as a port city like Chittagong. Khulna is known as the city of shrimp, because 75% of shrimp exported from Bangladesh are cultivated in the Khulna zone. It is also known for its lobster, prawn, catfish, and crab. Khulna has some heavy and medium industries like Khulna Hardboard Mills, Bangladesh Oxygen Company, Khulna Oxygen Company, Platinum Jubilee Jute Mills, Star Jute Mills, Dada Match Factory (now Dhaka Match Factory) and Khulna Shipyard Ltd.

Transport[edit]

Rupsha Bridge

Rickshaw is the most popular means of public transportation in Khulna. Usually people use it for short distance journeys. Baby Taxi & Tuktuk(Chinese auto-rickshaw) are also a common mode of transport within the city. There is a public bus service called "Nagar Paribahan", which runs frequently between Rupsha to Phultala and have stoppages in all major localities of Khulna. Motorcycle is also popular among the middle-class people, while the rich people prefer a private car.

There are several luxury and economy nationwide bus services available in Khulna. Most of them are private bus services. BRTC also operates Inter-district bus services from Khulna. Sonadanga Bus Terminal is the main bus terminal of Khulna. Major bus routes are: Khulna-Jessore-Dhaka, Khulna-Goplaganj-Dhaka, Khulna-Jessore-Kushtia, Khulna-Satkhira, Khulna-Bagerhat, Khulna-Mongla, Khulna-Narail, Khulna-Barisal, Khulna-Rajshahi, Khulna-Faridpur, Khulna-Kuakata, Khulna-Dhaka-Chittagong etc.

Khulna Railway Station is the main railway station in the city. Bangladesh Railway operates Express trains between Khulna-Dhaka, Khulna-Rajshahi, Khulna-Saidpur & Khulna-Benapole. And mail trains between Khulna-Parbatipur, Khulna-Chapainawabganj & Khulna-Goalanda.

Jessore Airport, located 71 km north of Khulna city centre, is the only airport in the region. United Airways, Regent Airways and NovoAir have regular flights between Jessore and Dhaka. And those airlines have direct AC bus services from the airport to Khulna.

Several Passenger Launches and Cargo Services are operated from BIWTA Launch Terminal, Khulna. There is a Rocket service from Khulna-Dhaka, which is not running currently.

Education[edit]

A building of Khulna University
In front of new academic building of KUET

Khulna has many prestigious educational institutions. Govt. Brajalal College is the oldest institution of higher education in the city, founded in 1902. Khulna University is the only public University in Bangladesh where student politics is strictly prohibited. Also there is an engineering University Khulna University of Engineering & Technology(KUET) and a medical college Khulna Medical College(KMC). There are also some famous educational institutions like Azam Khan Govt. Commerce College, Khulna Govt. Women's College, Govt.M.M City College, Khulna Zila School, Govt. Coronation Girls School etc. Beside these there is 01 teacher’s training college, 01 regional public administration training institute, 01 polytechnic institute, 01 vocational institute, 01 homeopathic college and 01 social welfare training centre. Khulna is under the Jessore Education Board. This board varies the SSC and HSC standard.

Major institutions are:

Universities:

Medical Colleges:

Colleges:

  • Govt. B.L College
  • Khulna Govt. Women's College
  • Govt. Azam Khan Commerce College
  • Daulatpur College(Day/Night)
  • Govt. M. M. City College
  • Govt. Sundarban College
  • Govt. Pioneer Women's College
  • KCC Women's College
  • Ahshanullah College
  • Mohshin College
  • Islamia College
  • BN School & Collage

Polytechnic Institutes:

  • Govt. Khulna Polytechnic Institute
  • Govt. Khulna Women's Polytechnic Institute
  • Khulna Technical Institute

Schools:

  • Khulna Zilla School
  • Govt. Coronation Girls School
  • Khulna Public College
  • Govt. Laboratory High School Khulna
  • Cantonment Public School & College
  • St. Joseph's High School
  • Khulna Collegiate Girls School
  • Khulna Govt. Girls School (Munnujan School)
  • Khulna Newsprint Mills School
  • Rotary School
  • Model High School
  • Bangladesh Navy School & College(English Version)
  • Islamabad Collegiate School(English Version)
  • Military Collegiate School Khulna(MCSK)
  • Rosedale International School
  • South Herald English Medium School
  • Johra Khatun Shishu Bidya Niketan
  • Khulna Engineering University School,
  • Iqbal Nagar High school

Beside these, there are 7 UCEP schools: 1 technical school and 6 IGV (Integrated General and Vocational) schools.

Sports[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Sports in Bangladesh.

Cricket and football are the two most popular sports in Khulna. Khulna Division cricket team is a First class cricket team from Khulna Division and has its home ground in Khulna city. In domestic Twenty20 cricket, Khulna has a Bangladesh Premier League franchise known as Khulna Royal Bengals. In football, Khulna Abahani Club played in Bangladeshi top tier football league for several seasons before its relegation in 2008-09 season.

Sheikh Abu Naser Stadium is the only international sports venue in Khulna. It hosts Test cricket, One Day International and Twenty20 International. It became the 7th Test cricket venue in the country on November 21, 2012. It also hosts several matches of the Bangladesh Premier League.[9] On the other hand Khulna District Stadium is the venue for other domestic sporting events.

Media[edit]

  • Newspaper: The Daily Purbanchal, The Daily Janmabhumi, The Daily Probah, The Daily Tribune(English) etc.

Tourism[edit]

Sundarbans : In the south-western part of Bangladesh, in the district of greater Khulna, lies the Sundarbans (world's largest mangrove forest), the home of Royal Bengal tiger. It is a virgin forest which until recently owed nothing to human endeavour and yet nature has laid it out with as much care as a planned pleasure ground. For miles and miles, the lofty treetops form an unbroken canopy, while nearer the ground, works of high and ebb-tide marked on the soil and tree trunks and the many varieties of the natural mangrove forest have much to offer to an inquisitive visitor. The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Rabindra Complex : Rabindra Complex is located in Dakkhindihi village, 19 km from Khulna city. It was the residence of Rabindranath Tagore's father-in-law; Beni Madhab Roy Chowdhury. Tagore visited this place several times in his life. Recently it has been declared as a protected archaeological site by Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh.

Notable person[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava –2001". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2001. Retrieved 2009-08-19. 
  2. ^ Tapan Palit (2012). "Khulna City Corporation". In Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 
  3. ^ (pdf-file) 2007 Population Estimate. Retrieved on 19 August 2009.
  4. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2007). World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia. Marshall Cavendish. p. 491. ISBN 9780761476313. 
  5. ^ Girard, Luigi Fusco (2003). The Human Sustainable City: Challenges and Perspectives from the Habitat Agenda. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 298. ISBN 9780754609452. 
  6. ^ "জেলার ঐতিহ্য". Khulna District Portal. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b Hunter, William Wilson (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 287. 
  8. ^ Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics; Area, Population and Literacy Rate by Paurashava – 2001 (pdf-file) Retrieved on 2008-09-29.
  9. ^ "BPL 2013 to kick off on January 17". Cricinfo. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2012-10-31. 


External links[edit]