Georgian wine

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Not to be confused with Georgia (U.S. state) wine.

Current Georgia is probably the oldest wine region in the world. The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Georgia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world's first cultivated grapevines and neolithic wine production, over 8,000 years ago.[1][2][3] Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history, an its key economical role, the traditions of its viticulture are entwined and inseparable with the country's national identity.

Among the best-known regions of Georgia where wine is produced are Kakheti (further divided onto micro-regions of Telavi and Kvareli), Kartli, Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and Abkhazia.

UNESCO added the ancient traditional Georgian winemaking method using the Kvevri clay jars to the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists.[4]

History[edit]

Qvevri near Gori
Bronze statue from the 7th century BC discovered during archaeological excavations in the city of Vani. This statue is the statue of a Tamada, a toast master, and as you see on the souvenir sheet it is sometimes considered as the symbol of the earliest wine making in the world. The sheet also pictures amphora that were used at this time to carry and to stock the wine. Stamp of Georgia, 2007.

The roots of Georgian viticulture have been traced back by archeology to at least 6000-8000 BC,[1][2] when peoples of South Caucasus discovered that wild grape juice turned into wine when it was left buried through the winter in a shallow pit. This knowledge was nourished by experience, and from 4000 BC inhabitants of the current Georgia were cultivating grapes and burying clay vessels, kvevris, in which to store their wine ready for serving at ground temperature. When filled with the fermented juice of the harvest, the kvevris are topped with a wooden lid and then covered and sealed with earth. Some may remain entombed for up to 50 years.

Wine vessels of every shape, size and design have been the crucial part of pottery in Georgia for millennia. Ancient artifacts attest to the high skill of local craftsmen. Among vessels, the most ubiquitous and unique to Georgian wine-making culture are probably the Qvevris (or kvevris), very large earthenware vessels with an inside coat of beeswax. Not only qvevris were used to ferment grape juice and to store up wine, but also chapi and satskhao; others yet were used for drinking, such as khelada, doki, sura, chinchila, deda-khelada, dzhami and marani.

The continuous importance of winemaking and drinking in Georgian culture is also visible in various antique works of art. Many of the unearthed silver, gold and bronze artifacts of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC bear chased imprints of the vine, grape clusters and leaves. The State Museum of Georgia has on display a cup of high-carat gold set with gems, an ornamented silver pitcher and some other artifacts dated to the 2nd millennium BC. From classical Antiquity, Georgian museums display a cameo depicting Bacchus, and numerous sarcophagi with wine pitchers and ornamented wine cups found in ancient tombs.

From the 4th century AD, wine has gained further importance in Georgian culture due to Christianisation of the country. According to tradition, Saint Nino, who preached Christianity in Kartli, bore a cross made from vine wood. For centuries, Georgians drank, and in some areas still drink, their wine from horns (called kantsi in Georgian) and skins from their herd animals. The horns were cleaned, boiled and polished, creating a unique and durable drinking vessel.

During Soviet times wines produced in Georgia were very popular. In comparison with other wines from Moldavia and Crimea that were available on the Soviet market Georgian wines had been more preferable for Soviets. In 1950 vineyards in Georgia occupied 143,000 acres, but in 1985 already 316,000 acres due to increasing demand. In 1985 wine production was 881,000 tons. During Mikhail Gorbachev's anti-alcohol campaign, many old Georgian vineyards were cut off.[5]

Georgian wine has been a contentious issue in recent relationships with Russia. While political tensions with Russia have contributed to the 2006 Russian embargo of Georgian wine, wine produced within Georgia is also known for being counterfeit, which Russia states is the primary reasoning for the wine embargo.[6] Counterfeiting problems stem from mislabelling by Georgian Producers and falsified “Georgian Wine” labels on wines produced outside of Georgia and imported into Russia under the auspices of being Georgian produced.[6] Winemakers in Georgia have also been known to import grapes and produce “falsified” Georgian Wine, leading then defense minister Irakli Okruashvili to note in 2006 that “[He thought] several wineries that are still producing fake wine in Gori should be closed”.[7] However, these wines are currently being sold in the United States. and the European Union without any major difficulties noted in authenticity.[7] Also, the shipment of counterfeit wine has been primarily channeled through Russian managed customs checkpoints in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, where little inspection and regulation occurs.[6]

Georgia is optimistic its recent Association Agreement with the European Union will expand its export markets and reduce the risk presented by any future unilateral embargoes by Russia.[8]

Viticulture in Georgia today[edit]

Georgian vineyard.

Georgia ranks 2nd (in terms of volume) in grape production in the former Soviet Union behind Moldova, and Georgian wines have always been the most highly prized and sought after in the Soviet space. Presently, the wine is produced by thousands of small farmers (using primarily traditional techniques of wine-making), as well as modern wineries, such as Teliani Valley, Telavis Marani, Tbilvino, Kindzmarauli Marani, Badagoni and Mukhrani.[9]

According to Minister of Agriculture of Georgia grapes harvest in 2009 was 130000 tons and wine production has increased from 13.8 millions wine bottles in 2009 to 15.8 millions wine bottles in 2010 with bottle size 0.75 l (11.85 thousands tons in 2010). In 2009 Georgia exported 10.968 millions bottles of wine in 45 countries. In 2010 Georgia exported wines in: Ukraine - about 7.5 millions bottles, Kazakhstan - about 2.0 millions bottles, Belarus - about 1.2 millions bottles, Poland - about 870 thousands bottles and Latvia - 590 thousands bottles.[10]

Growing conditions[edit]

Georgia territorial and climate conditions are optimal for wine-making. Extremes of weather are unusual: summers tend to be short-sleeve sunny, and winters mild and frost-free. Natural springs abound, and the Caucasian Mountain streams drain mineral-rich water into the valleys. Georgia's moderate climate and moist air, influenced by the Black Sea, provide the best conditions for vine cultivating. The soil in vineyards is so intensively cultivated that the grape vines grow up the trunks of fruit trees eventually hanging down along the fruit when they ripen. This method of cultivation is called maglari.[11]

Georgian Grape Varieties[edit]

Alvani Grapes
Vineyards in Kakheti.

Traditional Georgian grape varieties are little known in the West. Now that the wines of Eastern and Central Europe are coming to international awareness, grapes from this region are becoming better known. Although there are nearly 400 to choose from, only 38 varieties are officially grown for commercial viticulture in Georgia:[12]

  • Rkatsiteli (white) is a variety that is so widely grown in Eastern and Central Europe that it ranks third in the world in hectares grown.[citation needed] It is the most important grape varietiy used to make Georgian white wines. It is high in acidity and is capable of producing wines with fine character.
  • Saperavi (red) produces substantial deep red wines that are suitable for extended aging, up to fifty years. Saperavi has the potential to produce high alcohol levels and is used extensively for blending with other lesser varieties. It is the most important grape variety used to make Georgian red wines.
  • Mtsvani (or Mtsvane) (white) is also important in Georgian wines, and is often blended with Rkatsiteli to which it adds a fruity, aromatic balance. In the Georgian language Mtsvane means green.
  • Alexandrouli (Alexandreuli,Alexsandrouli, red)
  • Alexandria
  • Tsolikauri (white)
  • Tetra (white)
  • Mujuretuli (red)
  • Ojaleshi (red) is cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western Georgia).
  • Usakhelauri (red) is cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia.
  • Izabella (red)
  • Tavkveri (red)
  • Asuretuli (red)
  • Cabernet Sauvignon (red)
  • Aladasturi (red)
  • Tsitska (white)
  • Tsolikouri (white)
  • Khikhvi (white) is grown in Kardanakhi.
  • Dzvelshava (red)
  • Krakhuna (white)
  • Chinuri (white)
  • Gibrita (red)
  • Manata (white)

Georgian wine varieties[edit]

Saperavi Wines

Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. Georgian wines are classified as sweet, semi-sweet, semi-dry, dry, fortified and sparkling. The semi-sweet varieties are the most popular.

White[edit]

    • Pirosmani is a semi-sweet white wine made from a 40% Tsolikauri, 60% Tsitska blend. It has won 3 gold medals and one silver medal at international competitions.
    • Tsinandali is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region.
    • Tvishi is a natural semi-sweet white wine made from Tsolikauri in the Lechkhumi region. It has won one gold medal, two silver medals and one bronze medal in international competitions.
    • Mtsvani is a dry white wine made from Mtsvani.
    • Alaznis Veli is white semi-sweet wine made from the Rkatsiteii, Tetra, Tsolikauri and other industrial grape varieties cultivated in Western and Eastern Georgia. The wine of straw color has a characteristic aroma, a fine, fresh and a harmonious taste. It contains 9-11% alcohol and has 6-7% titrated acidity.
    • Anakopia is a white semi-dry table wine made from the Tsolikauri grape variety grown in the Sukhumi and Gudauta districts in Abkhazia. The color range is from light to dark-straw. It has a specific aroma and a subtle fresh taste. The alcohol content in the ready wine is 9-11%, sugar content 1-2 g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5-8 g/l. The wine has been produced since 1978.
    • Tbilisuri is pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
    • Khikhvi is a vintage white dessert wine made from the Khikhvi grape variety grown in Kardanakhi. It has pleasant amber color, a characteristic aroma and a delicate taste. Its strength is 15 vol.%, sugar content 18-20%, titrated acidity 4-8 g/1. The wine has been produced since 1924. At international competitions it received 4 gold medals.
    • Saamo is a vintage dessert white sweet wine is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurjaani district in Kakheti. It takes the wine three years to mature. The golden-color wine has an original fine bouquet, a pleasant taste with a harmonious honey fragrance. When ready for use, the wine contains 17% alcohol, 13% sugar and has 4-6 g/1 titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1980. At international exhibitions Saamo was awarded 4 gold and 1 silver medal.
    • Gelati is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Tsolikauri, Tsitska and Krakhuna grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia. The wine of straw color has a characteristic savor with a fruity flavor and fresh harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated acidity 5-8%.
    • Kakheti is a white table wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has a fruity aroma with a vanillic flavor. It is characterized by an energetic, velvety and harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 vol.% and titrated acidity 4-6%. At international wine competitions the Kakheti wine was awarded one silver and one bronze medal. It has been produced since 1948.
    • Bodbe is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety in the village of Bodbe in the Magaro microdistrict, one of the most beautiful places of Kakheti. The wine has a light-straw color, a fine aroma of wild flowers and a pleasing tender taste which give the wine piquancy highly estimated by connoisseurs. The ready wine contains 10.5-11.5% alcohol and has 5-7% titrated acidity.
    • Dimi is an Imeretian-type white ordinary wine. It is made from the Tsolikauri and Krakhuna grape varieties grown on small areas in Imereti (Western Georgia) by the old local technique consisting in fermenting the grapes pulp to which some quantity of grapes husks is added. The dark-straw color has a pleasant specific bouquet with a fruity flavor, a fresh harmonious taste and savory astringency. Its strength is 10.5-13.0 vol.% and titrated acidity 6.5-8.0%. The wine has been produced since 1977.
    • Gareji is a white dry ordinary wine made of the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in Kakheti. The wine has a color ranging from pale-straw to amber, a pleasing bouquet and a full harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol. % and titrated acidity 4-7%.
    • Ereti is a white dry ordinary wine made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties. It has a straw color, a fine fruity bouquet and a full fresh and harmonious taste. Its strength is 10.0-12.5 vol.% and titrated acidity 5-8%.
    • Shuamta is a dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grape varieties according to the Kakhetian recipe. The wine is of amber or dark-amber color and has a moderately astringent harmonious taste with a fruity aroma. The alcohol content is 10-12%, titrated acidity 4-6 g/l, extractibility over 25 g/l.
    • Alazani (white), named after Alazani river, is a mid-straw colored semi-sweet wine made from 100% Rkatsiteli. The climate of the Alazani Valley is slightly warmer than that of other wine-growing Georgian regions, making the local grapes sweeter than the rest. It has won one silver and one gold metal in international competitions.

See also Georgian wines protected by Appellations of Origin

Red[edit]

Kindzmarauli Wine
    • Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti. The wine has a dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1958. At international exhibitions it was awarded 6 gold and 5 silver medals.
    • Khvanchkara is a high-end, naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Alexandria & Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in the Khvanchkara vineyards in Racha, Western Georgia. The wine has a strong, distinctive bouquet and a well-balanced tannin profile with flavors of raspberry. It has a dark-ruby color. Khvanchkara wine is one of the most popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5.0-7.0% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1907. It was awarded 2 gold and 4 silver medals at various international exhibitions.
    • Kindzmarauli is a high quality naturally semi-sweet wine of dark-red color. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated on the slopes of the Caucasian mountains in the Kvareli district of Kakheti. It has a strong characteristic bouquet and aroma, a gentle harmonious and velvety taste. The wonderful taste and curative properties have won Kindzmarauli general recognition. The wine contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5.0-7.0% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1942. For its supreme qualities Kindzmarauli was 3 gold, 4 silver & 1 bronze medal at international wine competitions.
    • Mukuzani is a dry red wine made from 100% Saperavi in Mukuzani, Kakheti. The wine is sourced from the very best wines of the vintage that have been fermented at controlled temperatures and with selected yeast strains. The wines are then matured for 3 years in oak to give the wine-added complexity and flavor. Mukuzani is considered to be the best of the Georgian Dry Red wines made from Saperavi. It has won 9 gold medals, 2 silver medals and 3 bronze medals in international competitions.
    • Napareuli
    • Ojaleshi is one of the best red semi-sweet wines made from the grape variety of the same name cultivated on the mountain slopes overhanging the banks of the Tskhenis-Tskali river, particularly in the Orbeli village and Samegrelo district (Western Georgia). Odzhaleshi has dark-ruby colour, a gentle bouquet and aroma, a harmonious rich taste with a fruity flavor. It contains 10-12% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has a titrated acidity of 5-6%.
    • Pirosmani is a naturally semi-sweet red wine. It is made from the Saperavi grape variety cultivated in the Akhoebi vineyards of the Kardanakhi village in the Alazani Valley. The wine is fermented in clay jars buried in the ground, an ancient Kakhetian wine-making technique. When ready for use, the wine contains 10.5-12% alcohol, 1.5-2.5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity.
    • Saperavi is a red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in some areas of Kakheti. It is an extractive wine with a characteristic bouquet, a harmonious taste and pleasant astringency. Its strength is 10.5-12.5% and titrated acidity 5-7%. At the international wine competitions this wine received one gold and one silver medal. It has been produced since 1886.
    • Usakhelauri is a naturally semi-sweet wine, which is superior to all other wines of this kind for its gentle and subtle qualities. It is produced from the excellent Usakhelauri grape variety cultivated mostly in the Zubi-Okureshi district in Western Georgia. Vineyards are arranged on the mountain slopes. The wine has attractive ruby color, harmonious sweetness with a wild strawberry flavor. It is noted for a pleasant velvety taste, a delicate bouquet and inimitable piquancy. The wine contains up to 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. It has been manufactured since 1943. The word "Usakhelauri" means "nameless" in Georgia. The wine was so fine that it was hard to find an adequate name for it. At international exhibitions Usakhelauri was awarded 2 gold and 3 silver medals.
    • Apsny is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made of red grape varieties cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine of pomegranate color has a pleasant aroma, a full and harmonious taste with gentle sweetness. When ready for use, the wine contains 9-10% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. At an international exhibition the wine received one silver medal.
    • Lykhny is a naturally semi-sweet pink wine made of the Izabela grape variety cultivated in Abkhazia. The wine has pink color, a specific aroma and a fresh harmonious taste. When ready for use, the wine contains 8-9% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. At international exhibitions Lykhny was awarded one silver and one bronze medal.
    • Mtatsminda is a pink table semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is prepared by the original technology from the Saperavi, Tavkveri, Asuretuli, Rkatsiteli and other grape varieties grown in Tetritskaro, Kaspi, Gori and Khashuri districts. The wine is characterized by a harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
    • Aguna is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made from the Saperavi, Cabernet and Rkatsiteli grape varieties grown in East Georgia. The wine has a rich fruity taste. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
    • Sachino is a pink semi-dry wine produced since 1984. It is made by the original method from the Aleksandreuli, Aladasturi, Odzhaleshi, Tsitska, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in West Georgia. The wine is notable for a mild taste, a moderate extractibility, a pure aroma and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 9-11.5%, sugar content 1-2%, titrated acidity 5-7 g/l.
    • Barakoni is a naturally semi-dry red wine made from the unique Alexandreuli and Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in Western Georgia on the steep slopes of the Rioni gorge in the Caucasian mountains. This top quality wine of light-ruby color has a fine fragrance of violets, natural pleasant sweetness and a tender harmonious taste. When ready for use, Barakoni contains 10-12% alcohol, 1.5-2.5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1981.
    • Salkhino is a liqueur-type of dessert wine made from the Izabella grape variety with an addition of the Dzvelshava, Tsolikauri and other grape varieties cultivated in the Mayakovski district (Western Georgia). It has characteristic ruby or pomegranate color. The alcohol content is 15%, sugar content 30%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/l. At international competitions the wine received 6 gold medals. It has been produced since 1928
    • Alaverdi (White and Red)
    • Alazani (Red) is a light red, semi-sweet wine made from a 60% Saperavi, 40% Rkatsiteli blend. It has won 3 gold medals and 3 silver medals at international competitions. The name comes from one of the major river systems of Georgia that borders Georgia with Azerbaijan. The climate is slightly warmer than the rest of the Georgian Wine growing regions and gives rise to much sweeter grapes than those found elseware.
    • Rkatsiteli Mtsvani
    • Saperavi Dzelshavi

See also Georgian wines protected by Appellations of Origin

Fortified[edit]

    • Kardanakhi is a fortified vintage white wine of the type. It is made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in the Kardanakhi vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district. The wine matures in oak barrels for three years. The amber color wine has a pleasant specific bouquet with a typical port wine flavor and a fine honey fragrance. It contains 18% alcohol, 10% sugar and has 4-6% titrated acidity. It was awarded 8 gold and one silver international medals.
    • Anaga is a madeira-type top-quality strong wine made from the Rkatsiteli, Khikhvi and Mtsvane grape varieties cultivated in the Gurjaani, Sighnaghi and Dedoplistskaro districts. The wine has light-golden to dark-amber color, a strong peculiar bouquet, an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced Madeira touch. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 4 g/ml, titrated acidity 3 - 7 g/l. The Anaga wine was awarded 1 international silver medal.
    • Sighnaghi is an ordinary strong wine of the port type made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in the Sighnaghi district in Kakheti. The amber-color wine has an extractive harmonious taste with a clearly pronounced fruity touch. The alcohol content 3 g/100 ml, titrated acidity 5 g/l.
    • Veria is a fortified vintage white port made from the Rkatsiteli, Mtsvane, Chinuri and other commercial grape varieties grown in Eastern Georgia. The amber-color wine has a peculiar aroma and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/1. At an international wine competition it received 1 gold medal. The wine has been produced since 1977.
    • Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaphoni, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
    • Marabda is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety grown in Marneuli and Bolnisi districts. It has a full harmonious taste with a fruity aroma & light-golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
    • Kolkheti is a fortified vintage white port is made from Tsolikauri, Tsitska and other commercial white grape varieties grown in Western Georgia. The amber-color wine has a specific bouquet and harmonious taste. Its strength is 18 vol.%, sugar content 7%, titrated acidity 3-7 g/l. At an international competition the wine received one silver medal. It has been produced since 1977.
    • Taribana is a port-type wine made from the Rkatsiteli grape variety cultivated in Kakheti. The wine has a mild oily taste, a low sugar content and a beautiful color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 5 g/l.

Wine styles[edit]

  • Lelo is a port-type wine made from the Tsitska and Tsolikauri grape varieties grown in Zestaponi, Terjola, Baghdati and Vani districts. The wine has a rich harmonious taste with a fruity aroma and a beautiful golden color. The alcohol content is 19%, sugar content 5%, titrated acidity 6 g/l.
  • Akhasheni is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Saperavi grape variety grown in the Akhasheni vineyards of the Gurdzhaani district in Kakheti, a province of Georgia. The wine of dark-pomegranate color has a harmonious velvety taste with a chocolate flavor. It contains 10.5-12.0% alcohol, 3-5% sugar and has 5-7% titrated acidity. The wine has been manufactured since 1958.
  • Khvanchkara is a naturally semi-sweet red wine made from the Alexandrouli & Mudzhuretuli grape varieties cultivated in the Khvanchkara vineyards, near the town of Ambrolauri in the Racha region of western Georgia.[13] It is one of the most popular Georgian semi-sweet wines. Along with Kindzmarauli, it was the favourite wine of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin.[14][15] It is of dark-ruby color. It contains 10.5 - 12.0% alcohol, 3 - 5% sugar and has 5.0 - 7.0% titrated acidity. The wine has been made since 1907.

Wine-producing regions of Georgia[edit]

Grapes in Kakheti region.

There are five main regions of viniculture, the principal region being Kakheti, which produces seventy percent of Georgia's grapes. Traditionally, Georgian wines carry the name of the source region, district, or village, much like French regional wines such as Bordeaux or Burgundy. As with these French wines, Georgian wines are usually a blend of two or more grapes. For instance, one of the best-known white wines, Tsinandali, is a blend of Rkatsiteli and Mtsvane grapes from the micro regions of Telavi and Kvareli in the Kakheti region.

Guria Samegrelo

Georgian Wine Catalogue[edit]

The first online Catalogue of Georgian Wine with an independent rating system was launched in 2014. It allows users to enter names of specific wines and get ratings and information about the producer.[16] The catalogue is targeted primarily at consumers who buy Georgian wines in the world's wine stores.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Keys, David (2003-12-28). "Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine". The Independent. Retrieved 2011-03-20. 
  2. ^ a b Berkowitz, Mark (1996). "World's Earliest Wine". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 49 (5). Retrieved 2008-06-25. 
  3. ^ Spilling, Michael; Wong, Winnie (2008). Cultures of The World Georgia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7614-3033-9. 
  4. ^ Georgian Winemaking Makes UNESCO Protected Heritage List RIA Novosti
  5. ^ Georgia the home of wine
  6. ^ a b c Georgia: Official Says Position Unchanged On Russian WTO Negotiations April 30, 2007 Radio Free Europe
  7. ^ a b Georgia/Russia: Georgian Agriculture Minister In Moscow For Talks On Wine Ban rferl.org April 13, 2006
  8. ^ "Georgia's long road to Europe". BBC News. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 
  9. ^ "Viticulture in Georgia today". 2005. Retrieved 2009-02-22. 
  10. ^ Выросло производство вина в Грузии
  11. ^ Goldstein, Darra (1958). The Georgian feast: the vibrant culture and savory food of the Republic of Georgia. United States: University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-21929-5. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  12. ^ Caucasian review. Institut zur Erforschung der UdSSR. 1958. p. 70. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  13. ^ Tamara Dragadze. Rural Families in Soviet Georgia: A Case Study in Ratcha Province, Routledge, 1988, ISBN 0-415-00619-8, p. 7
  14. ^ David R. Farber. Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors, University of Chicago Press, 2002, ISBN 0-226-23804-0, p. 146
  15. ^ Glenn Randall Mack, Asele Surina. Food Culture In Russia And Central Asia, Greenwood Press, 2005, ISBN 0-313-32773-4, p. 10
  16. ^ "An Online Buyer's Guide to Georgian Wine is Launched". “EurasiaNet.org” (New York). March 27, 2014. 
  17. ^ "Georgian wine catalogue launched". “Agenda.ge” (Tbilisi). February 1, 2014. 

External links[edit]