Xorazm Province (Uzbek: Xorazm viloyati, Хоразм вилояти) or Khorezm Province as it is still more commonly known, is a viloyat (province) of Uzbekistan located in the northwest of the country in the lower reaches of the Amu-Darya River. It borders with Turkmenistan, Karakalpakstan, and Buxoro Province. It covers an area of 6,300 km². The population is estimated to be around 1,200,000, with some 80% living in rural areas.
Khorezm Province is divided into 10 administrative districts. The capital is Urganch (pop est 135,000). Other major towns include Khonka, Khiva, Shovot, and Pitnak.
The climate is a typically arid continental climate, with cold winters and extremely hot, dry summers.
The city of Khiva in Khorezm Province is a UNESCO World Heritage Site with world famous architectural monuments, making Khiva one of the main centers for international tourism in the country.
The economy of Khorezm Province is primarily based on cotton. Cotton is by far the main crop, although rice production has increased significantly in the last several years. (though the Uzbek government discourages rice production near to deserts, over water usage concerns) There are also many orchards and vineyards, melon and gourd plantations and potato fields. Khorezm Province is famous for its "gurvak" melon in Uzbekistan. Industry is also heavily oriented to cotton, with cotton refining, cottonseed oil extraction and textiles predominating. The Khiva Carpet-Weaving Factory produces “Persian carpets” for export.
Khorezm is a place where many famous scholars were born, such as Abu Rayhan Biruni and al-Khwārizmī. The famous terms algorithm and algebra come from the works of the latter. Algorithm is a modified spelling of Khwārizmī and algebra derives from his famous work "al-jabr wa-l-muqābala".
The province has a well-developed transportation infrastructure, with over 130 km of railways and 2000 km of surfaced roads. The Province is connected by rail to European Russia and the Caucasus.