|Nickname(s): Frontier, Frontier Province, Sarhad|
Location of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa within Pakistan
|Coordinates (Peshawar): Coordinates:|
|Established||14 August 1947, re-established 1 July 1970|
|• Body||Provincial Assembly|
|• Governor||Mehtab Ahmed Khan Abbasi|
|• Chief Minister||Pervez Khattak (PTI)|
|• Chief Secretary||Amjad Ali Khan|
|• High Court||Peshawar High Court|
|• Total||74,521 km2 (28,773 sq mi)|
|• Total||28,000,000 (estimate)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|ISO 3166 code||PK-KP|
Pashto, Hindko, Khowar,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pashto: خیبر پښتونخوا [pəxtunˈxwɑ]; [ˈpəxˈtuːnxwaː]), formerly the North-West Frontier Province, is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. Located in the northwestern part of Pakistan, the province borders the Federally Administered Tribal Areas to the west and south, Gilgit–Baltistan to the north-east, Azad Kashmir to the east, while both Punjab and the Islamabad Capital Territory lie to the south-east of the province. The province of Balochistan is located to the south of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa also shares an international border with Afghanistan, and is connected to the northern reaches of Afghanistan via the famous Khyber Pass - the same pass through which the armies of Alexander the Great marched on their military expedition through the Indian Subcontinent. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is also the site of ancient kingdom of Gandhara and the ruins of both its capital, Purushapura (modern day Charsadda), and its most prominent center of learning in the Peshawar Valley, Takht-i-Bahi. It has been under the suzerainty of the Persians, Greeks[disambiguation needed], Kushans, Shahis, Ghaznavids, Mughals, Sikhs, and British Raj throughout its long history.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy. It comprises 10.5% of Pakistan's economy, and is home to 11.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtun. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is Pakistan's smallest province by size, but is the most climactically diverse province - with barren deserts, lush forests, and high altitude tundras all located within its boundaries. Its largest city, and capital, is Peshawar, followed by Mardan.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been the site of militancy and terrorism that started after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and intensified when the Pakistani Taliban began an attempt to seize power in Pakistan starting in 2004. It has also been the location of Pakistan's Zarb-e-Azb operation - a broad military campaign against militants located in the province, and neighboring F.A.T.A. By 2014, casualty rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40% as compared to 2011-2013, with even greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, despite the province being the site of a large massacre of schoolchildren by terrorists in December 2014.
- 1 History
- 1.1 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region in the Period Before the Common Era
- 1.2 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region During the Common Era
- 1.3 The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under Muslim Rule
- 1.4 The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under Sikh Rule
- 1.5 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under the British Raj
- 1.6 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region After Pakistani Independence
- 1.7 War and Militancy in the Province
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Major cities
- 6 Economy
- 7 Social issues
- 8 Folk music and culture
- 9 Education
- 10 Sports
- 11 Notable people
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region in the Period Before the Common Era
The ancient Aryan Migration is believed to have taken place at approximately 2000 B.C., when semi-nomadic peoples entered the Gangetic plains of India after having passed modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Khyber Pass.
At around 516 B.C.E., Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued the races dwelling west of the Indus and north of Kabul, and incorporated them into the Indo-Greek Gandharan civilization, which reached its zenith between the sixth and first centuries B.C.E., and which features prominently in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharatha. Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire under the satrapy system of government. The satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.E.
In the spring of 327 B.C.E Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus (Hindu Kush) and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander then dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he himself advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Bajaur and Swat regions with his troops. Having defeated the Aspasians, from whom he took 40,000 prisoners and 230,000 oxen, Alexander crossed the Gouraios (Panjkora River) and entered into the territory of the Assakenoi - also in modern day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Alexander then made Embolima (thought to be the region of Amb in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) his base. The ancient region of Peukelaotis (modern Hashtnagar, 17 miles (27 km) north-west of Peshawar) submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Nicanor[disambiguation needed], a Macedonian, being appointed satrap of the country west of the Indus, which includes the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
After Alexander's death in 323 BC Porus obtained possession of the region, but was murdered by Eudemus in 317 BC. Eudemus then left the region, and with his departure Macedonian power collapsed. Sandrocottus (Chandragupta), the founder of the Mauryan dynasty, then declared himself master of the province. His grandson, Ashoka, made Buddhism the dominant religion in ancient Gandhara.
After Ashoka's death the Mauryan empire collapse, just as in the west the Seleucid power was rising. The Greek princes of neighboring Bactria (in modern Afghanistan) took advantage of the power vacuum to declare their independence. The Bactrian kingdoms were then attacked from the west by the Parthians and from the north (about 139 BC) by the Sakas, a Central Asian tribe. Local Greek rulers still exercised a feeble and precarious power along the borderland, but the last vestige of Greek dominion was extinguished by the arrival of the Yueh-chi.
The Yueh-Chi were a race of nomads that were themselves forced southwards out of Central Asia by the nomadic Xiongnu people. The Kushan clan of the Yuek Chi seized vast swathes of territory under the rule of Kujula Kadphises. His successors, Vima Takto and Vima Kadphises, conquered the north-western portion of the Indian subcontinent. Vima Kadphises was then succeeded by his son, the legendary king Kanishka, who himself was succeeded by Huvishka, and Vasudeva I. Under the reign of Vasudeva, who abandoned Buddhism in favor of Hinduism, the dominions of the Kushan empire shrank to an area roughly approximating the boundaries of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region During the Common Era
During the early 1st millennium C.E., prior to Muslim conquests, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region was ruled by the Shahi dynasty. The early Shahi kings were Buddhist, like their Kushan predecessors prior to the reign of Vasudeva. The later Shahi kings of Kabul and Gandhara were Hindu, and had strong ties to ruling dynasties in neighboring regions of modern Kashmir and Punjab. The Hindu Shahis are believed to have been a ruling elite of a predominantly Buddhist, Hindu and Shamanistic population and were thus patrons of numerous faiths. Various artefacts and coins from their rule have been found that show evidence of their multicultural domain. By the time the Chinese monk Xuanzang visited the region early in the 7th century, the region was ruled by affiliates of the Shahi kings, but was no longer under direct rule of the Shahis, whose efforts were focused on regions to the east of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Shahi suzerainty continued in the region until 870 C.E. when local noblemen began to carve out their own fiefdoms largely independent of Shahi control, but nominally subservient to the Shahi dynasty. The remnants of Shahi rule were wiped out by Mahmud of Ghazni after the defeat of Jayapala at the Battle of Peshawar on November 27, 1001 C.E.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under Muslim Rule
When Ghazni arrived in the region, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and Shamanism were the prominent religions. Local Pashtun and Dardic tribes converted to Islam, while retaining some local traditions (albeit altered by Islam) such as Pashtunwali or the Pashtun code of honor. Vestiges of shamanism are still to be found in the Chitral Valley, where the Kalash people still practice their pre-Islamic faith. Between 963 and 1187 C.E., the area of modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa became part of larger Islamic empires, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975-1187), headed by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, and the empire of Muhammad Shahabuddin Ghauri (reigned 1202–1206). The Ghaznavid domain included large swathes of modern Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. It was ruled from its capital at Lahore from 1151 to 1186.
Following the collapse of Ghaznavid rule, local Pashtuns of the Delhi Sultanate controlled the region. Several Turkic and Pashtun dynasties ruled from Delhi, having shifted their capital from Lahore to Delhi. Several Muslim dynasties ruled modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the Delhi Sultanate period: the Mamluk dynasty (1206–90), the Khilji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320–1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451–1526).
Mughal suzerainty over the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region was partially established after Babar, the founder of the Mughal Empire, invaded the region in 1505 C.E. via the Khyber Pass. He was forced to retreat westwards to Kabul, but returned to defeat Ibrahim Lodi, the last Lodhi king, in 1525 C.E. The local Pashtun tribesmen quickly pledged loyalty to the Mughal Empire, and largely remained under nominal Mughal rule until the arrival of the Sikhs in the 19th century.
Under the reign of Babar's son, Humayun, direct Mughal rule was briefly challenged with the rise of the Pashtun king, Sher Shah Suri, who began construction of the famous Grand Trunk Road - which links Kabul, Afghanistan with Chittagong, Bangladesh over 2000 miles to the east. Later, local rulers once again pledged loyalty to the Mughal emperor. Mughal rule was again interrupted by the invasion of Persia's Nadir Shah, who in 1707 sacked the Mughal capital at Delhi with the help of Pashtuns from the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region. The area fell under the rule of Afghans under the Durrani Empire. Muslim rule was interrupted by a brief invasion of the Hindu Marathas, who established a tenuous rule over the region from 1758 following the 1758 battle of Peshawar. Durrani rule was re-established eleven months later in 1759, and lasted until 1818 when the Sikhs invaded the region under the command of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under Sikh Rule
Sikh's continue to rule the region for several decades. Sikh rule came to an end after the British East India Company defeated the Sikhs during the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region under the British Raj
British East India Company defeated the Sikhs during the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849, and incorporated small parts of the region into the Province of Punjab. While Peshawar was the site of a small mutiny against British during the Indian Rebellion of 1857, local Pashtun tribes throughout the region generally remained neutral and supportive of the British as they detasted the Sikh's, in contrast to the rest of British India which rose up in revolt against the British. However, British control of parts of the region was routinely challenged by Wazir tribesmen in Waziristan and other Pashtun tribes, who resisted any foreign occupation until the British granted Pakistan its independence. By the late 19th century, the official boundaries of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region still had not been defined as vast part of the region was still claimed by the Kingdom of Afghanistan. It was only in 1893 The British demarcated the boundary with Afghanistan under a treaty agreed to by the Afghan king, Abdur Rahman Khan, following the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Several princely states within the boundaries of the region were allowed to maintain their autonomy under the terms of maintaining friendly ties with the British. As the British war effort during World War One demanded the reallocation of resources from British India to the European war fronts, Mehsud tribesmen from Afghanistan crossed the Durand Line in 1917 to attack British posts in an attempt to gain territory and weaken the legitimacy of the border. The validity of the Durand Line, however, was re-affirmed in 1919 by the Afghan government with the signing of the Treaty of Rawalpindi, which ended the Third Anglo-Afghan War - a war in which Waziri tribesmen allied themselves with the forces of Afghanistan's King Amanullah in their resistance to British rule. The Wazirs and other tribes, taking advantage of instability on the frontier, continued to resist British occupation until 1920 - even after Afghanistan had signed a peace treaty with the British.
British campaigns to subdue tribesmen along the Durand Line, as well as three Anglo-Afghan wars, made travel between Afghanistan and the densely populated heartlands of Khyber Pakhtunkwa increasingly difficult. The two regions were largely isolated from one another from the start of the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1878 until the start of World War Two in 1939 when conflict along the Afghan frontier largely dissipated. Concurrently, the British continued their large public works projects in the region, and extended the Great Indian Peninsula Railway into the region, which connected the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region to the plains of India to the east. Other projects, such as the Attock Bridge, Islamia College University, Khyber Railway, and establishment of cantonments in Peshawar, Kohat, Mardan, and Nowshera further cemented British rule in the region. In 1901, the British carved out the northwest portions of Punjab to create the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), which was renamed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2010.
Disassociation from Afghanistan, and increased connectivity to Punjab and the Gangetic Plains beyond Punjab, had a profound effect on Pashtun tribes living on the British side of the Durand Line. With the exception of tribesmen living close to the border with Afghanistan, the vast majority of Pashtuns under British held areas increasingly viewed themselves as Indians, rather than Afghans, and found it easier to travel to Lahore and Delhi than to Kabul or Kandahar. Large numbers of Pashtuns also enlisted in the British Indian Army, and were stationed throughout British held territories in India and educated in the British Indian system, both of which helped to further re-orient the local population eastwards towards the heartlands of India. The in migration of Hindu and Sikh traders to the NWFP from India also strengthened cultural re-orientation towards British India. This dramatic shift in self-identification is epitomized the Khudai Khidmatgar movement of the popular Pashtun nationalist Abdul Ghaffar Khan, who non-violently campaigned for the independence of a united India, and not for a united Afghanistan. Further, no prominent leaders amongst the Pashtuns campaigned for unification with Afghanistan during the period preceding independence.
The NWFP was granted limited home-rule by the British in 1937. Beginning in 1940, support for the Pakistan Movement, which sought the establishment of an Indian Muslim homeland, increased in the NWFP. Immediately prior to Pakistani independence from Britain in 1947,the British held a referendum in the NWFP to allow voters to choose between joining Pakistan or India. The referendum was held on 2 July 1947; 50.1% of the registered voters exercised their vote and 99.02% of voted in favor of Pakistan, Although large numbers of Khudai Khidmatgar supporters boycotted the referendum, and intimidation against Hindu and Sikh voters by supporters of the Pakistan Movement was also reported. Abdul Ghaffar Khan pledged allegiance to the new state of Pakistan in 1947, and thereafter abandoned his goal of a United India, in favor of supporting increased autonomy for the NWFP under Pakistani rule. He was subsequently arrested several times for his opposition to strong centralized rule.
As the region came under British control, as had been agreed to by the Afghan government following the British victory over Afghanistan in the Second Anglo-Afghan War and after the treaty ending Third Anglo-Afghan War, no option was available to cede the territory to the rule of the Afghan king even though Afghanistan continued to claim the entire region as it was part of the Durrani Empire prior the conquest of the region by the Sikhs in 1818. By 1947 Pashtun nationalists were advocateing for a united India, and no prominent voices advocated for a union with Afghanistan. Also in line with similar votes held throughout the British controlled territories in India, no option was accommodated for independence. However, all the princely states within the boundaries of the NWFP were allowed to maintain their autonomy, in return for their support to the Pakistani state.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Region After Pakistani Independence
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Afghanistan was the sole member of the United Nations to vote against Pakistan’s accession to the UN because of Kabul’s claim to the Pashtun territories on the Pakistani side of the Durand Line. Afghanistan's Loya Jirga of 1949 declared the Durand Line invalid, which led to border tensions with Pakistan, and decades of mistrust between the two states. Afghan governments have also periodically refused to recognize Pakistan's inheritance of British treaties regarding the region. During the 1950s, Afghanistan supported the secessionist Pushtunistan Movement, although it failed to gain substantial support amongst the population of the North-West Frontier Province.
Afghanistan's refusal to recognize the Durrand Line and its subsequent support for the Pashtunistan Movement has been cited as the main cause of tensions between the two countries that have existed since Pakistan's independence. Ayub Khan eliminated the NWFP as a provincial unit of Pakistan in 1960, in favor of ruling the entire country as a single unit under a strong and centralized federal government. His successor, Yahya Khan, in 1969 announced intentions to eliminater the "one unit" system - NWFP was re-established a as a province of Pakistan in 1970. The previously autonomous "Princely States" of Amb, Swat, Dir and, Chitral were amalgamated to the new North-West Frontier Province as the Provincially Administered Tribal Areas - and lost a large degree of their autonomy, relegating their local noblemen to ceremonial roles.
During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979–1989), the NWFP served as a major supply base for the Afghan Mujahideen who fought the Soviet Union during the 1980s. As a result of the Soviet invasion, over five million Afghan refugees poured into Pakistan, mostly choosing to reside in the NWFP (as of 2007[update], nearly 3 million remained). The province remained heavily influenced by events in Afghanistan thereafter. The 1989-1992 Civil war in Afghanistan following the withdrawal of Soviet forces led to the rise of the Afghan Taliban, which had emerged in the border region between Afghanistan, Balochistan, and FATA as a formidable political force.
In 2010 the province was renamed "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa." Protests arose among the local Hindkowan, Chitrali, Kohistani and Kalash populations over the name change, as they began to demand their own provinces. Seven people were killed and 100 injured in protests on 11 April 2011. The Awami National Party sought[when?] to rename the province "Pakhtunkhwa", which translates to "Land of Pashtuns" in the Pashto language. The name change was largely opposed by non-Pashtuns, and by political parties such as the Pakistan Muslim League-N, who draw much of their support from non-Pashtun regions of the province, and by the Islamist Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal coalition.
War and Militancy in the Province
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been a site of militancy and terrorism that started after the attacks of September 11, 2001, and intensified when the Pakistani Taliban began an attempt to seize power in Pakistan starting in 2004. Armed conflict began in 2004, when tensions, rooted in the Pakistan Army's search for al-Qaeda fighters in Pakistan's mountainous Waziristan area (in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas), escalated into armed resistance. Fighting is ongoing between the Pakistani Army and armed militant groups such as the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Jundallah, Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI), Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM), al-Qaeda, and elements of organized crime have lead to the deaths of over 50,000 Pakistanis since the country joined the U.S-led War on Terror, with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa being the site of most of the conflict.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is also the main theater for Pakistan's Zarb-e-Azb operation - a broad military campaign against militants located in the province, and neighboring F.A.T.A. By 2014, casualty rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40% as compared to 2011-2013, with even greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, despite the province being the site of a large massacre of schoolchildren by terrorists in December 2014.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa sits primarily on the Iranian plateau and comprises the junction where the slopes of the Hindu Kush mountains on the Eurasian plate give way to the Indus-watered hills approaching South Asia. This situation has led to seismic activity in the past. The famous Khyber Pass links the province to Afghanistan, while the Kohalla Bridge in Circle Bakote Abbottabad is a major crossing point over the Jhelum River in the east.
Geographically the province could be divided into two zones: the northern one extending from the ranges of the Hindu Kush to the borders of Peshawar basin and the southern one extending from Peshawar to the Derajat basin.
The northern zone is cold and snowy in winters with heavy rainfall and pleasant summers with the exception of Peshawar basin, which is hot in summer and cold in winter. It has moderate rainfall. The southern zone is arid with hot summers and relatively cold winters and scanty rainfall.
The major rivers that criss-cross the province are the Kabul, Swat, Chitral, Kunar, Siran, Panjkora, Bara, Kurram, Dor, Haroo, Gomal and Zhob.
Its snow-capped peaks and lush green valleys of unusual beauty have enormous potential for tourism.
The climate of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa varies immensely for a region of its size, encompassing most of the many climate types found in Pakistan. The province stretching southwards from the Baroghil Pass in the Hindu Kush covers almost six degrees of latitude; it is mainly a mountainous region. Dera Ismail Khan is one of the hottest places in South Asia while in the mountains to the north the weather is temperate in the summer and intensely cold in the winter. The air is generally very dry; consequently, the daily and annual range of temperature is quite large.
Rainfall also varies widely. Although large parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are typically dry, the province also contains the wettest parts of Pakistan in its eastern fringe.
Chitral District lies completely sheltered from the monsoon that controls the weather in eastern Pakistan, owing to its relatively westerly location and the shielding effect of the Nanga Parbat massif. In many ways Chitral District has more in common regarding climate with Central Asia than South Asia. The winters are generally cold even in the valleys, and heavy snow during the winter blocks passes and isolates the region. In the valleys, however, summers can be hotter than on the windward side of the mountains due to lower cloud cover: Chitral can reach 40 °C (104 °F) frequently during this period. However, the humidity is extremely low during these hot spells and, as a result the summer climate is less torrid than in the rest of the Indian subcontinent.
Most precipitation falls as thunderstorms or snow during winter and spring, so that the climate at the lowest elevations is classed as Mediterranean (Csa), continental Mediterranean (Dsa) or semi-arid (BSk). Summers are extremely dry in the north of Chitral district and receive only a little rain in the south around Drosh.
At elevations above 5,000 metres (16,400 ft), as much as a third of the snow which feeds the large Karakoram and Hindukush glaciers comes from the monsoon since these elevations are too high to be shielded from its moisture.
Central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
|Climate chart (explanation)|
On the southern flanks of Nanga Parbat and in Upper and Lower Dir Districts, rainfall is much heavier than further north because moist winds from the Arabian Sea are able to penetrate the region. When they collide with the mountain slopes, winter depressions provide heavy precipitation. The monsoon, although short, is generally powerful. As a result, the southern slopes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are the wettest part of Pakistan. Annual rainfall ranges from around 500 millimetres (20 in) in the most sheltered areas to as much as 1,750 millimetres (69 in) in parts of Abbottabad and Mansehra Districts.
This region’s climate is classed at lower elevations as humid subtropical (Cfa in the west; Cwa in the east); whilst at higher elevations with a southerly aspect it becomes classed as humid continental (Dfb). However, accurate data for altitudes above 2,000 metres (6,560 ft) are practically nonexistent here, in Chitral, or in the south of the province.
|Dera Ismail Khan|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The seasonality of rainfall in central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shows very marked gradients from east to west. At Dir, March remains the wettest month due to frequent frontal cloud-bands, whereas in Hazara more than half the rainfall comes from the monsoon. This creates a unique situation characterized by a bimodal rainfall regime, which extends into the southern part of the province described below.
Since cold air from the Siberian High loses its chilling capacity upon crossing the vast Karakoram and Himalaya ranges, winters in central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are somewhat milder than in Chitral. Snow remains very frequent at high altitudes but rarely lasts long on the ground in the major towns and agricultural valleys. Outside of winter, temperatures in central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are not so hot as in Chitral. Significantly higher humidity when the monsoon is active means that heat discomfort can be greater. However, even during the most humid periods the high altitudes typically allow for some relief from the heat overnight.
Southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
As one moves further away from the foothills of the Himalaya and Karakoram ranges, the climate changes from the humid subtropical climate of the foothills to the typically arid climate of Sindh, Balochistan and southern Punjab. As in central Pakhtunkhwa, the seasonality of precipitation shows a very sharp gradient from west to east, but the whole region very rarely receives significant monsoon rainfall. Even at high elevations annual rainfall is less than 400 millimetres (16 in) and in some places as little as 200 millimetres (8 in).
Temperatures in southern Pakhtunkhwa are extremely hot: Dera Ismail Khan in the southernmost district of the province is known as one of the hottest places in the world with temperatures known to have reached 50 °C (122 °F). In the cooler months, nights can be cold and frosts remain frequent; snow is very rare, and daytime temperatures remain comfortably warm with abundant sunshine.
The province has an estimated population of about 21 million. The largest ethnic group is the Pashtun, who historically have been living in the areas for centuries. Around 1.5 million Afghan refugees also remain in the province, the majority of whom are Pashtuns followed by Tajiks, Hazaras, and other smaller groups. Despite having lived in the province for over two decades, they are registered as citizens of Afghanistan.
According to the 1998 census, the population of the province was approximately 17 million, of whom 52% are males and 48% are females. The density of population is 187 per km² and the intercensal change of population is of about 30%.
In most rural areas of the centre and south, Pashtun tribes can be found including the Gigyani (Their main land is Shabqadar Doaaba), Yusufzai, Bangash, Bhittani, Daavi, Khattak, Qazi khail also known as Qaziye Babar, Gandapur, Gharghasht, Marwat, Afridi, Shinwari, Orakzai, Mahsud, Mohmand, Wazir and Bannuchi as well as other tribes of Hazara division•, Swati, Kakar, Tareen, Jadoon, Tanoli, Gujar, Maliar, and Mashwani.
There are non-Pashtun tribes including Arain Maliar, Jat, Mughal, Turks, Karlal, Rajpoot, Dhund Abbasi, Syed, Awan, Kashmiri, Qureshi and Sarrara. The mountainous extreme north includes the Chitral and Kohistan districts that are home to diverse Dardic ethnic groups such as the Khowar, Kohistani, Shina, Torwali, Kalasha and Kalami.
However in the southernmost district such as Dera Ismail Khan live some of the Baloch tribe: Kori, Buzdar, Kanera, Leghari, Rind and some other sub tribes of Lashari tribe. These Baloch tribes speak Saraiki as their first language. In this southern district, most of its population speaks Saraiki.
- Urdu, the lingua franca being the national language is also spoken and understood.
- Pakhto, is the major language, spoken and understood mainly in the central districts.
- Hindko, (a Punjabi dialect) is in Majority in Hazara Division and also in the central old city areas of Nowshera, Kohat and Peshawar cities.
- Saraiki (a Punjabi dialect) is in majority in the southern Districts of DI Khan and Tonk
- Khowar, by people in the north specially in majority in district Chitral
- Standard Punjabi, minority living in the major cities and all cantonment areas.
- Kohistani, majority in Kohistan district and north half of Swat district.
- Gojri minority throughout Northern half of the province.
- Dari/Hazaragi/Farsi/Tajik, varieties of Persian by Afghan refugees
Only Urdu and English are found as written languages in the city. English, the official language of Pakistan, is mainly used for official and literary purposes.
Most of the inhabitants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa profess Islam, with a Sunni majority and significant minorities of Shias, Ismailis, and Ahmadis. Many of the Kalasha of Southern Chitral still retain their ancient Animist/Shamanist religion.
Government and politics
- Legislative Branch
The Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa consists of a 124-member Assembly. Members serve five-year.
- Executive Branch
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa executive branch] consists of the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa appointed by President of Pakistan (subject to Prime Minister advice), Chief Minister of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa elected by Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Cabinet of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa appointed by Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (subject to Chief Minister advice).
- Judicial Branch
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa consists of 26 districts, comprising 21 Settled Area Districts and 5 Provincially Administered Tribal Area (PATA) Districts. The administration of the PATA districts is vested in the President of Pakistan and the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, by Articles 246 and 247 of the Constitution of Pakistan.
The 26 districts are:
Peshawar is the capital and largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The city is the most populous and comprises more than one-eighth of the province's population.
Largest cities or towns of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
Main article: List of cities in Pakistan
|6||Dera Ismail Khan||Dera Ismail Khan District||90,357|
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has the third largest provincial economy in Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's share of Pakistan's GDP has historically comprised 10.5%, although the province accounts for 11.9% of Pakistan's total population. The part of the economy that Khyber Pakhtunkhwa dominates is forestry, where its share has historically ranged from a low of 34.9% to a high of 81%, giving an average of 61.56%. Currently, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa accounts for 10% of Pakistan's GDP, 20% of Pakistan's mining output and, since 1972, it has seen its economy grow in size by 3.6 times. It has the second poorest economy after Balochistan.
After suffering for decades due to the fallout of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, today they are again being targeted for a different situation of terrorism.
Agriculture remains important and the main cash crops include wheat, maize, tobacco (in Swabi), rice, sugar beets, as well as fruits are grown in the province.
Some manufacturing and high tech investments in Peshawar has helped improve job prospects for many locals, while trade in the province involves nearly every product. The bazaars in the province are renowned throughout Pakistan. Unemployment has been reduced due to establishment of industrial zones.
KMW domestic & international Courier & cargo Pvt Limited head office also situated in KPK Havelian.
The Awami National Party sought to rename the province "Pakhtunkhwa", which translates to "Land of Pakhtuns" in the Pashto language. This was opposed by some of the non-Pashtuns, and especially by parties such as the Pakistan Muslim League-N (PML-N) and Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA). The PML-N derives its support in the province from primarily non-Pashtun Hazara regions.
In 2010 the announcement that the province would have a new name led to a wave of protests in the Hazara region. On 15 April 2010 Pakistan's senate officially named the province "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa" with 80 senators in favor and 12 opposed. The MMA, who until the elections of 2008 had a majority in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa government, had proposed "Afghania" as a compromise name.
After the 2008 general election, the Awami National Party formed a coalition provincial government with the Pakistan Peoples Party. The Awami National Party has its strongholds in the Pashtun areas of Pakistan, particularly in the Peshawar valley, while Karachi in Sindh has one of the largest Pashtun populations in the world — around 7 million by some estimates. In the 2008 election the ANP won two Sindh assembly seats in Karachi. The Awami National Party has been instrumental in fighting the Taliban. In the 2013 general election Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf won a majority in the provincial assembly and has now formed their government in coalition with Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan.
Folk music and culture
|Provincial animal||Kabul Markhor|
|Provincial bird||White-crested Kalij Pheasant|
|Provincial flower||Calotropis procera|
Hindko and Pashto folk music are popular in Pakhtunkhwa and has a rich tradition going back hundreds of years. The main instruments are the rubab, mangey and harmonium. Khowar folk music is popular in Chitral and northern Swat. The tunes of Khowar music are very different from those of Pashto and the main instrument is the Chitrali sitar. A form of band music composed of clarinets (surnai) and drums is popular in Chitral. It is played at polo matches and dances. The same form of band music is played in the neighbouring Northern Areas.
Abbottabad is the only city in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with higher literacy rate in province and also in Pakistan.The trend towards higher education is rapidly increasing in the province and the Pakhtunkhwa is home to Pakistan's foremost engineering university (Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology), which is in Topi, a town in Swabi district. The University of Peshawar is also a notable institution of higher learning. The Frontier Post is perhaps the province's best-known newspaper and addresses many of the issues facing the population.
|BA, BSc... degrees||20,359||42,773||63,132||5.31|
|MA, MSc... degrees||18,237||35,989||53,226||4.95|
Major educational establishments
- City University of Science & Information Technology, (CUSIT) Peshawar
- Army Burn Hall College, Abbottabad
- Army Public College PMA Kakul, Abbottabad
- Hazara University, Mansehra
- Karnal Sher Khan Cadet College Swabi Ismaila, Shewa Adda, Swabi.
- Abbottabad Public School, Abbottabad
- University of Swat, Saidu Sharif Swat
- Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan
- Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad
- Ayub Dental College, Abbottabad
- Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan
- Pakistan International Public School and College, Abbottabad
- Women Medical College, Abbottabad
- Bannu Medical College, Bannu
- Cadet College Razmak, Bannu
- Cadet College Kohat, Kohat
- Cadet College Batrasi, Mansehra
- COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad Campus
- CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar
- Edwardes College, Peshawar
- Gandhara University, Peshawar
- Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi, Swabi
- Gomal Medical College, D. I. Khan
- Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan
- Islamia College, Peshawar
- Khyber College of Dentistry, Peshawar
- Khyber Medical College, Peshawar
- Khyber Medical University, Peshawar
- Khyber Girls Medical College, Peshawar
- Kabir Medical College, Peshawar
- Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat
- KMU Institute Of Medical Sciences,Kohat (KIMS), Kohat
- Military College of Engineering, Risalpur
- National Institute of Transportation, Risalpur
- National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar Campus
- Peshawar Public School and College, Warsak road, Peshawar
- Pakhtunkhwa University of Agriculture, Peshawar
- Pakistan Air Force Academy, Risalpur
- Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.
- Pakistan Military Academy, Abbottabad
- Saidu Medical College, Swat
- Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal
- The Quaid-e-Azam Public School, Zaida, Sawabi
- University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar
- University of Malakand, Chakdara
- University of Peshawar, Peshawar
- University of Science & Technology Bannu, Bannu
- Pakistan Scouts Cadet College Batrasi, Mansehra
- Khushal Khan Khattak University, Karak
- University Of Haripur (UOH) Haripur,
Cricket is the main sport played in Pakhtunkhwa. It has created world-class sportsmen like Younus Khan and Umar Gul. Besides producing cricket players, Pakhtunkhwa has the honour of being the birthplace of many world-class squash players, including greats like Jansher Khan and Jahangir Khan.
The following is a list of notable people who were either born in or are otherwise closely associated with or from the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Those born in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have their names printed in bold.
- Abbas Khattak - former Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan)
- Abdul Waheed Kakar - former Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)
- Imran Ullah Khan- retired general
- Karnal Sher Khan - recipient of Nishan-e-Haider
- Afrasiab Khattak - politician
- Aftab Ahmad Sherpao - politician
- Asfandyar Wali Khan - politician
- Ayub Khan - former president of Pakistan
- Fazal-ur-Rehman - politician
- Ghulam Ishaq Khan - former president of Pakistan
- Hayat Sherpao - politician
- Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan - politician
- Khan Abdul Wali Khan - politician
- Qazi Hussain Ahmad - politician
- Hashim Khan - squash player
- Jahangir Khan - squash player
- Jansher Khan - squash player
- Umar Gul - cricketer
- Younus Khan - cricketer
- Junaid Khan - Cricketer
- Yasir Shah - Cricketer
- Muhibullah[disambiguation needed] - Hockey player
- Samiullah - Hockey Player
- Amjad Khan - Bollywood actor
- Aitzaz Hasan - recipient of Sitara-e-Shujaat
- Dilip Kumar - Bollywood actor
- Khan Abdul Ghani Khan - pashto poet
- Madhubala - Bollywood actress
- Pāṇini - Sanskrit grammarian
- Rahman Baba - Pashto poet
- Shah Rukh Khan - Bollywood actor
- Malala Yousafzai - activist and Nobel Prize recipient
- 2010 Pakistan floods
- Durand line
- Frontier Regions
- North-West Frontier (military history)
- Federally Administered Tribal Areas
- Pashtun people
- Kalash people
- A Small Measure of Progress
- North-West Frontier Province - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 19, p. 148.
- North-West Frontier Province - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 19, p. 149.
- "Country Profile: Afghanistan". Library of Congress Country Studies. August 2008. Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- Robson, Crisis on the Frontier pp. 136–7
- KPK Historical Overview
- The Dust of Empire: The Race for Mastery in the Asian Heartland, Karl E. Meyer. Books.google.co.in. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- Abdul Ghaffar Khan(1958) Pashtun Aw Yoo Unit. Peshawar.
- Harrison, Selig S. "Pakistan: The State of the Union". Center for International Policy. pp. 13–14. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Singh, Vipul (2008). The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination. Pearson. p. 65.
- "PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN RELATIONS IN THE POST-9/11 ERA, October 2006, Frédéric Grare" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- "Anti-Pakhtunkhwa protest claims 7 lives in Abbottabad". The Statesmen. 13 April 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
- "[Pakistan Primer Pt. 1] The Rise of the Pakistani Taliban," Global Bearings, 27 October 2011.
- Varun Vira and Anthony Cordesman "Pakistan: Violence versus Stability: A Net Assessment." Center for Strategic and International Studies, 25 July 2011.
- "The War in Pakistan". The Washington Post. 25 January 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
- Zaffar Abbas. "Pakistan's undeclared war". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 19 October 2008.
- Shaun Waterman (27 March 2013). "Heavy price: Pakistan says war on terror has cost nearly 50,000 lives there since 9/11". The Washington Times, 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "A Small Measure of Progress".
- "Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (province, Pakistan) :: Geography – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "It’s wintertime in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa | Newspaper". Dawn.Com. 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- "Cold weather in upper areas & dry weather observed in almost all parts of the country | PaperPK News about Pakistan". Paperpkads.com. 2013-01-29. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- "North-West Frontier Province – Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 19, p. 147". Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Mock, John and O'Neil, Kimberley; Trekking in the Karakoram and Hindukush; p. 15 ISBN 0-86442-360-8
- Mock and O'Neil; Trekking in the Karakoram and Hindukush; pp. 18–19
- "World Climate Data: Dir, Pakistan". Weatherbase. 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- "World Climate Data: Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan". Weatherbase. 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
- See Wernsted, Frederick L.; World Climatic Data; published 1972 by Climatic Data Press; 522 pp. 31 cm.
- People and culture – Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa[dead link]
- "Pakistani TV delves into lives of Afghan refugees". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "UNHCR country operations profile – Pakistan". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- "District wise area and population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa".
- Wajihaalikhan1 (2011-02-15). "Pushto Muzakarah with Khiyal Jaan – پشتو مذاكرہ Islam Ahmadiyya". YouTube. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- "Jihad of Holy Prophet (Pushto) Discussion about Jihad پشتو مذاكرہ ۔ جہاد". YouTube. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- "Pakistan Valmiki Sabha". Bhagwanvalmiki.com. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- "Sikh refugees demand Indian citizenship". Oneindia News. 2010-02-24. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
- "The Constitution". Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-25.[dead link]
- Roman, David (2009-05-15). "Pakistan's Taliban Fight Threatens Key Economic Zone - WSJ.com". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Pakistan May Need Extra Bailouts as War Hits Economy (Update2)". Bloomberg.com. 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Pakistan Balochistan Economic Report From Periphery to Core" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "World Bank Pakistan Growth and Export Competitiveness" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "NWFP to KPK". http://www.insightonconflict.org/.
- "Protest in Hazara continues over renaming of NWFP to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa". App.com.pk. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "NWFP officially renamed as Pakhtun HAZARA". Dawn.com. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- "MMA govt proposes new name for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (then NWFP)". Dawn.[dead link]
- Abbas, Hassan. "Peace in FATA: ANP Can Be Counted On." Statesman (Pakistan) (2007 Feb 4).
- PBS Frontline: Pakistan: Karachi's Invisible Enemy City potent refuge for Taliban fighters. July 17, 2009.
- "Pakistan's 'Gandhi' party takes on Taliban, Al Qaeda". CSMonitor.com. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- South Asia: The Indian Subcontinent. (Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 5). Routledge; Har/Com edition (November 1999). ISBN 978-0-8240-4946-1
- "Pakistan: where and who are the world's illiterates?; Background paper for the Education for all global monitoring report 2006: literacy for life; 2005" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan". Statpak.gov.pk. Retrieved 2010-05-25.[dead link]
- "City University". City University. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
All newspaper jobs from Khyber pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Balochistan and Sindh, Pakistan | PakPaperAds http://www.khyberpakhtunkhwa.gov.pk/Departments/Wildlife/Wildlife-parks.php http://www.wildlifeofnwfp.gov.pk/np.html
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