Kiều Công Tiễn

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Kiều Công Tiễn or Kiểu Công Tiện
or
Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân
Reign 937–938
Predecessor Dương Đình Nghệ
Successor Ngô Quyền as King of Annam
Born Phong Châu, Phú Thọ, Tĩnh Hải quân
Died 938
Tĩnh Hải quân
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Kiều Công Tiễn or Kiểu Công Tiện (pinyin: Jiǎo Gōngxiàn) was a general in the court of Dương Đình Nghệ, a Vietnamese Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân who took over the position in 931. In 937 Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated the Jiedushi to seize his position and thus provoked a revolt led by Ngô Quyền who sought revenge his lord and father-in-law Dương Đình Nghệ. In response to the attack, Kiều Công Tiễn appealed to Liu Yan, the emperor of Southern Han, for reinforcements but he was defeated and executed by Ngô Quyền before the army of Southern Han entered the country. Later, Ngô Quyền had a decisive victory over the Southern Han in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River and marked the independence of Vietnam from Chinese authorities.

History[edit]

According to Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam, the date of birth of Kiều Công Tiễn was unknown but he was from Phong Châu (now Phú Thọ, Vietnam) where he was a notable of the region.[1][2] Commonly, the Hán tự characters of his name (矯公羨) are transcribed in Vietnamese as Kiều Công Tiễn[1][2] but there are some sources such as the Khâm định Việt sử thông giám cương mục or the Việt Nam sử lược of Trần Trọng Kim use the transcription Kiểu Công Tiện.[3][4] In several ancient historical books of China like the New History of the Five Dynasties, his family name (, Kiều) was recorded by another character which is often transcribed as Hiệu in Vietnamese.[5]

When Dương Đình Nghệ took over the position of Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân in 931 from the Southern Han,[6] Kiều Công Tiễn was chosen as a general in the court of Dương Đình Nghệ,[1] according to the Đại Việt sử lược, Kiều Công Tiễn was the adopted son of the Jiedushi.[7] In the third month of lunar calendar in 937,[5] Kiều Công Tiễn assassinated Dương Đình Nghệ in order to seize his position of Jiedushi.[1][8] Nine months later, Ngô Quyền, another general of Dương Đình Nghệ, commanded his army from the Ái province (now Thanh Hóa) to rise a revolt against Kiều Công Tiễn in revenging his lord and father-in-law Dương Đình Nghệ.[3] In response to Ngô Quyền's military campaign, Kiều Công Tiễn decided to seek help from the emperor of Southern Han Liu Yan who also wanted to profit the chaos in Tĩnh Hải quân to regain Chinese control in this country.[1][9][10] Because of his action against Dương Đình Nghệ and the call on Chinese aid, Kiễu Công Tiễn is denounced by many Vietnamese historians as a rebel (nghịch tặc) in history of Vietnam.[3][4][7]

After accepting the appeal of Kiều Công Tiễn, Liu Yan appointed his son Liu Yuancao the new Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân, which was renamed as King of Giao Chỉ (Giao vương), and personally conducted the reinforcements for Kiều Công Tiễn.[5] Before the troops of Southern Han entered the territory of Tĩnh Hải quân, Ngô Quyền got ahead by defeating and executing Kiều Công Tiễn in 938 and prepared to catch the army of Liu Yan in Bạch Đằng River. Finally Liu Yan's army was defeated in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River where his son Liu Yuancao was killed in action, the emperor of Southern Han had to abandon his military campaign and Ngô Quyền thus successfully secured the country from invaders and marked the beginning of the independence of Vietnam from Chinese authorities.[1][4][11] After the death of Ngô Quyền in 944, Vietnam again fell into trouble time with the 12 Lords Rebellion in which Kiều Công Hãn and Kiều Thuận, grandsons of Kiều Công Tiễn, were among the principal warlords.[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Kiều Công Tiễn" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. 
  2. ^ a b Đinh Xuân Lâm et al. (2005). Từ điển nhân vật lịch sử Việt Nam (in Vietnamese). Hanoi: Education Publishing House. p. 512. 
  3. ^ a b c Trần Trọng Kim 1971, p. 29
  4. ^ a b c National Bureau for Historical Record 1998, pp. 74–75
  5. ^ a b c Ngô Sĩ Liên 1993, p. 53
  6. ^ "Dương Đình Nghệ" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. 
  7. ^ a b Nguyễn Gia Tường (translator) (1993). Đại Việt sử lược. Ho Chi Minh City: Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House, University of Ho Chi Minh City. p. 22. 
  8. ^ Chapuis 1995, p. 36
  9. ^ Tucker, Spencer (1999). Vietnam. University Press of Kentucky. p. 9. ISBN 0-8131-0966-3. 
  10. ^ Chapuis 1995, p. 70
  11. ^ "Ngô Quyền" (in Vietnamese). Từ điển Bách khoa toàn thư Việt Nam. 
  12. ^ Taylor, Keith Weller (1991). The Birth of Vietnam. University of California Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-520-07417-3. 

Bibliography[edit]

Kiều Công Tiễn
Born:  ? Died: 938
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dương Đình Nghệ
Jiedushi of Tĩnh Hải quân
937–938
Succeeded by
none
Preceded by
Dương Đình Nghệ
Ruler of Vietnam
937–938
Succeeded by
Ngô Quyền