|Body and chassis|
|Layout||Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive|
The Kia Sephia is a compact car that was manufactured by the South Korean automaker Kia Motors from September 1992 to 2003. The name "Sephia" is an acronym of these words: "style", "elegant", "powerful", "hi-tech", "ideal", and "auto".
The first generation Sephia was badged Kia Mentor in some markets, and as the Timor S515/S516 in Indonesia. This convention continued on with the second generation version, which was also badged Kia Shuma and Kia Spectra.
First generation (1992–1997)
|Also called||Kia Mentor
|Assembly||South Korea: Hwasung (Hwasung Plant)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan
|Related||Mazda Familia (BG)|
|Wheelbase||2,500 mm (98.4 in)|
|Length||4,360 mm (171.7 in)|
|Width||1,695 mm (66.7 in)|
|Height||1,390 mm (54.7 in)|
The first-generation Kia Sephia was directly based on the sixth-generation Familia. Engines available were the B-series engines, with the 1.5L rated at 59 kilowatts (79 hp), the 1.6L 78-kilowatt (105 hp), and the famous Mazda 1.8L BP 91-kilowatt (122 hp) from 1994. The car was presented in September 1992 to replace the aging Capital, which was rapidly losing market share. The Sephia proved quite successful, selling over 100,000 in its first full year in the home market (1993).
In the United States, sales began in 1993 for model year 1994. This was the first Kia to be exported to the US. An update came in the 1995 model year when grilles and taillights were restyled and all US-market Sephias except California-market RS/LS models got upgraded to the new 1.8-liter DOHC four-cylinder BP engine as used in the Mazda Familia (BG). Kia licensed the engine design from Mazda, but manufactured it themselves.
Kia presented a conceptual convertible version of the first generation Sephia, which was named "Kia Sephia Cabrio" at some auto shows.
The Sephia-derived "Timor" was meant to become the national car of Indonesia, and was sold there in the mid-1990s. It was intended fill a role similar to that of Malaysia's Mitsubishi Lancer-based Proton, and as such was exempt from taxes and duties levied on other cars sold in the country. The full name of the company was "PT Timor Putra Nasional" (TPN), literally meaning "Timor, National Son" in Indonesian. The patriotic name was meant to remind Indonesians of the importance of East Timor.
The Timor range consisted of the "S515" (SOHC carburetted), "S515i" (DOHC, fuel injected), and "S516i LE" (sports-oriented limited edition, licensed by Prodrive). Timor had plans in place for an "SW516i" station wagon and a "SL516i" limousine, but these projects never eventuated. Between June 1996 and July 1997, 39,715 Kias were imported and sold as "Timors". Escaping import tax, luxury tax, and an import surcharge meant that the Timor was sold at half the price of a comparable Toyota Corolla. Meanwhile, the planned factory in Cikampek was to be built with money lent by state-owned banks.
The Timor itself proved controversial, because unlike the Proton Saga, it was not assembled in Indonesia when first released. Instead, it was imported completely built-up from South Korea, to the annoyance of companies like Toyota, which had undergone considerable expenses to produce vehicles in Indonesia. The Timor, in return for promising future exports and 60 percent local content within three years of starting production in Indonesia, avoided the taxes and duties that added 60 percent to the price of other imported cars. This cozy deal led to accusations of nepotism and cronyism, as the project was the brainchild of Hutomo "Tommy" Mandala Putra, son of the then President Suharto. A welter of complaints followed, particularly from the Japanese automakers who controlled 90% of the Indonesian automobile market at the time. The threat of a WTO lawsuit followed. 45,000 cars a year were planned, but with the Asian financial crisis in 1997 came the collapse of Kia. Combined with the May 1998 demise of the Suharto regime, the Timor project was abandoned. By early 1998, 15,000 out of the nearly 40,000 Kias imported were still sitting unsold in Jakarta - only 2,493 units were sold in 1998 as people wanted to distance themselves from the hated Suharto regime. During the May 1998 riots in Java, Timor owners would remove the "T" logos in the hope that they would not be targeted by protesters.
In 2000, Kia considered reviving the Timor by restructuring Timor Putra Nasional. Kia finished the Cikampek factory and began CKD assembly of the Sephia II there in August 2000, but as "Kia Mobil Indonesia" (KMI) instead. Kia also took over some of the debts incurred by the Timor project.
Timor had also planned to build the Kia Sportage as the Timor J520i, but between the looming WTO lawsuit and the collapse of Kia and the Suharto regime this never materialized. The controversy also led to the cancellation of Indonesian Government's own national car project, the Zagato-designed "M3 Maleo" (Mobil Murah Masyarakat Maleo). This had been a joint venture between Konsorsium Mobil Indonesia (Indonesian Car Consortium), Millard Design and Orbital Engineering (Australia).
Second generation (1997–2003)
|Also called||Kia Mentor
|Assembly||South Korea: Hwasung (Hwasung Plant)
Indonesia: Cikampek, West Java
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan
5-door Coupe liftback
|Wheelbase||2,560 mm (100.8 in)|
|Length||Sedan (1997): 4,530 mm (178.3 in)
Sedan (2001): 4,510 mm (177.6 in)
Liftback: 4,525 mm (178.1 in)
|Width||Sedan: 1,700 mm (66.9 in)
Liftback: 1,725 mm (67.9 in)
|Height||Sedan: 1,410 mm (55.5 in)
Liftback: 1,425 mm (56.1 in)
In 1997 the Sephia was completely redesigned as a four-door sedan and five-door liftback, this time in-house by Kia itself with help from Mazda. Kia used a DOHC 1.5-liter and its own new DOHC 1.8-liter engine (the T8D engine, originally developed for the Kia Elan) and an improved air conditioning system. In South Korea, the Sephia label was retired in 2000 and replaced by the Spectra. The Sephia production totals were 628,168.
The North American market received the Sephia sedan in 1997 for the 1998 model year. In 2000 for the 2000 model year, the liftback variant was launched, sold under the name "Kia Spectra". The Sephia (sedan) and Spectra (liftback) continued to be sold alongside one another until 2001, when the 2002 model year updates were introduced. As part of this update, both body variants were facelifted, and the range was rationalized under the single "Kia Spectra" name. Three trim levels were available in the US: an entry level "S", slightly upgraded "GS", and the top-of-the-range "GSX".
The second generation Sephia sedan and liftback were badged "Mentor" in Australia when released in May 1998. Kia offered an entry-level "SLX" with the 1.5-liter inline-four engine, standard with five-speed manual transmission or optional four-speed automatic, and equipped with power steering, air conditioning, and cloth trim. The higher-specification "GLX" added central locking, power windows and mirrors, more upmarket trim, plus the option of the larger 1.8-liter engine on the liftback variant.
From June 2000, following the change of distributor in Australia to Ateco, Kia discontinued the sedan variant and rebadged the liftback "Shuma". Along with the sedan, Kia dispensed with the 1.5-liter engine and SLX/GLX model identifiers. In their place, Kia offered an entry-level "Shuma" and a limited edition "Shuma FX", which added alloy wheels, central locking, power windows and mirrors, improved audio and higher-grade trim to the base model's air-conditioning and power steering. The Shuma also benefited from a minor facelift, which changed the tail-lamp lenses, wheels and interior trimmings.
When the car was facelifted once more in May 2001, Kia rebranded it once more to "Spectra". This update brought redesigned headlights, a new front bumper, adjustments to suspension calibration, and an overhauled four-speed automatic. Equipment-wise, the single-specification "LS" offered a driver’s airbag, seatbelt pretensioners and immobiliser were added, along with standard powered mirrors and windows and a host of minor trim upgrades. Kia Australia discontinued the Spectra in 2004.
Third generation (2003–2005)
Although the Sephia's successor, the Kia Cerato, was released in 2003, this replacement vehicle was still named Sephia for Latin America until 2005, when it was discontinued in favor of the name Spectra, as used in North America.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kia Sephia.|
- Limb, Jae-un (2010-07-12). "Blast From the Past #26: First Korean car produced in Indonesia". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2011-06-27.
- Nunn, Peter (1996), "Japanese Industry: Back on Track?", in Norris, Ian, Automobile Year (Lausanne, Switzerland: Editions JR, J.-R. Piccard), 44 (1996–97): 99, ISBN 978-2-88324-043-8
- Hale, Christopher D. (July–August 2001). "Indonesia's National Car Project Revisited". Asian Survey (University of California) 41 (4): 632. doi:10.1525/as.2001.41.4.629.
- Hale, p. 635
- Hale, pp. 636-637
- "Kia plans to continue with Timor car project: Kalla". The Jakarta Post. 2000-02-16.
- Hale, pp. 642-643
- Indonesia — Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile Industry (Panel Report), World Trade Organization, 2 July 1998, p. 155, WT/DS54/R, WT/DS55/R, WT/DS59/R, WT/DS64/R
- Indonesian National Car Maleo to use Orbital Engine[dead link]
- "Arab American Vehicles Co". Aav.com.eg. Retrieved 2010-03-25.
- "Izhevsk Car Factory Stopped Production of Kia". Wroom.ru. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
- "Kia Mentor (Mentor II)". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- "Kia Mentor". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "1998 Kia Mentor SLX sedan – The Car". GoAuto. John Mellor. 1999-05-26. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
- "Kia Shuma (Shuma)". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- "Kia Spectra (FB Spectra)". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- Martin, Terry (2001-08-26). "2001 Kia Spectra LS 5-dr hatch – Our Opinion". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 2011-11-14.
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