Kichisaburō Nomura

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In this Japanese name, the family name is "Nomura".
Kichisaburō Nomura
Kichisaburo Nomura 2.jpg
Native name 野村 吉三郎
Born (1877-12-16)December 16, 1877
Wakayama, Wakayama, Japan
Died May 8, 1964(1964-05-08) (aged 86)[1]
Allegiance  Empire of Japan
Service/branch  Imperial Japanese Navy
Years of service 1898-1937
Rank Admiral
Commands held
Awards Order of the Rising Sun
Other work

Kichisaburō Nomura (野村 吉三郎 Nomura Kichisaburō?, December 16, 1877 – May 8, 1964) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and was the ambassador to the United States at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Early life and education[edit]

Nomura was born in Wakayama city, Wakayama prefecture. He graduated from the 26th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1898, with a ranking of 2nd out of a class of 57 cadets. As a midshipman, he served on the corvette Hiei and battleship Yashima. He was promoted to ensign on January 12, 1900, and to sub-lieutenant on October 1, 1901. As a crewman, he made a voyage to the United States on the battleship Mikasa from 1901-1902.

Career[edit]

Promoted to lieutenant on September 26, 1903, he served on a large number of ships, including the gunboat Maya, corvette Kongō and cruiser Tokiwa. He served as chief navigator on the cruiser Saien (1904), and cruiser Takachiho during the Russo-Japanese War. After the war, he was chief navigator on the cruisers Hashidate and Chitose. In March 1908, he was sent as naval attaché to Austria. He was promoted to lieutenant commander on September 25, 1908, and became naval attaché to Germany in 1910. He returned to Japan in May 1911, and became executive officer on the cruiser Otowa in September 1911. In June 1912, he was assigned a number of staff roles and was promoted to commander on December 1, 1913. During World War I, from 11 December 1914 until 1 June 1918, Nomura was naval attaché to the United States. While in the United States, he was promoted to captain on April 1, 1917.

On Nomura's return to Japan, he received his first command, the cruiser Yakumo. However, only a month later, he was reassigned to the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff, which included a trip to France as part of Japan's delegation to the Versailles Peace Treaty Conference. Following the conclusion of these negotiations, he returned to Washington DC to participate in the Washington Naval Conference of 1921-1922. On June 1, 1922, Nomura was promoted to rear admiral. He served as chief of the 3rd section of the Navy General Staff, followed by Commander of the 1st Expeditionary Fleet, Director of the Education Bureau, and Vice Chief of the Navy General Staff. He was promoted to vice admiral on December 1, 1926. On 11 June 1930, Nomura became Commander in Chief of the Kure Naval District. He was Commander in Chief of the Yokosuka Naval District in December 1930.

During the First Shanghai Incident in 1932, he was appointed as commander of the Japanese forces (army and navy) fighting in Shanghai. However, he was replaced by Kenkichi Ueda when the Japanese forces did not manage to win. Finally, Yoshinori Shirakawa was the Japanese commander appointed who won the battle in Shanghai.

Nomura was promoted to full admiral on March 1, 1933. From 1933-1937, Nomura served as Naval Councilor on the Supreme War Council, and retired from active service in 1937.

Diplomatic career[edit]

Nomura meets the press after having appointed as Foreign Minister (26 September 1939)

After his retirement, Nomura was principal of the Gakushuin Peer's school from 1937-1939. He was appointed Foreign Minister of Japan from 1939-1940 in the cabinet of Nobuyuki Abe. On November 27, 1940, Nomura was sent as ambassador to the United States, replacing Kensuke Horinouchi (who had served since March, 1939). Through much of 1941, Ambassador Nomura negotiated with United States Secretary of State Cordell Hull in an attempt to prevent war from breaking out between Japan and the United States. Nomura and Hull attempted to resolve issues including the Japanese conflict with China, the Japanese occupation of French Indochina, and the United States oil embargo against Japan. Nomura's repeated pleas to his superiors to offer the Americans meaningful concessions were rejected by his own government.[2] On November 15, 1941, Nomura was joined by a "special envoy" to Washington, Saburō Kurusu.[3]


Ambassador Nomura presents his credentials to President Roosevelt at White House (14 February 1941)
Nomura (left) and Kurusu (right) meet Hull for the last time on 17 November 1941, two weeks before the attack on Pearl Habor (7 December 1941)

After World War II, Nomura denied that he knew beforehand of the attack.[4] Reportedly Nomura and Kurusu had to personally decode the radioed message of Japan's breaking off the negotiations with the United States (which given the circumstances practically meant war), as it had been sent from Japan on Monday, December 8 and was received when the embassy's technical support staff was still on Sunday holiday. Nomura stated that this is why he had been unable to deliver the message until after the actual attack had taken place.[5] In his memoirs, Hull credited Nomura with having been sincere in trying to prevent war between Japan and the United States.[6]

On August 20, 1942, Nomura returned to Japan. He continued to serve in an unofficial capacity as an advisor to the government through World War II, and was appointed to the Privy Council in May 1945.

Later life and death[edit]

After the war, Nomura started a new career: He was hired by Konosuke Matsushita to work in his company as a general manager and was sent to manage Victor Company of Japan, which was owned by Matsushita. He was then invited by Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida to serve as a member of a committee studying rearmament of Japan.

In 1954, Nomura ran for the House of Councilors (upper house) and was elected by a landslide. In the late 1950s he was considered to be a strong candidate to head the Defense Agency by both Prime Ministers Ichirō Hatoyama and Nobusuke Kishi, but declined each offer expressing his belief in civilian control of armed forces. Nomura had been a civilian for nearly two decades by that time but he was still regarded by many as a retired admiral of the old Imperial Japanese navy.

Nomura was reelected to the upper house in 1960 and died in office in 1964.

Honors[edit]

From the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia

Cultural references[edit]

Nomura appeared as a character in the 1970 American/Japanese war film Tora! Tora! Tora!, where he was portrayed by the Japanese actor Shōgo Shimada.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nishida, Imperial Japanese Navy
  2. ^ Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, p. 421
  3. ^ Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept, p.358
  4. ^ Victor, The Pearl Harbor Myth
  5. ^ Stinnet, Day of Deceit
  6. ^ The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, II, p. 987

References[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Stinnett, Robert (2000). Day Of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor. Free Press (Touchstone edition). ISBN 0-7432-0129-9. 
  • Victor, George (2007). The Pearl Harbor Myth: Rethinking the Unthinkable. Potomac Books. ISBN 1-59797-042-5. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Nobuyuki Abe
Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs
1939-1940
Succeeded by
Hachirō Arita