Toyota Kijang

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Toyota Kijang
KijangInnovaTGN40V.JPG
Toyota Kijang Innova 2.0 G (TGN40)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota Astra Motor
Also called Innova/Tamaraw (in the Philippines)
Zace (in Taiwan and Vietnam)
Innova/Unser (in Malaysia)
Qualis/Innova (in India)
Stallion/Condor/Venture (in Africa)
Production 1977–present
Assembly Jakarta, Indonesia
Body and chassis
Body style Pickup truck (1977-2004)
Minivan
Related Toyota Revo
Toyota Hilux
Toyota Avanza
Powertrain
Engine Gasoline
Diesel
Transmission 4-speed manual
5-speed manual
4-speed automatic
Chronology
Successor Toyota Kijang Innova
Toyota Avanza

The Toyota Kijang is a series of pickup trucks and minivans sold in Indonesia and Brunei, made by Toyota. "Kijang", meaning deer/muntjac in Indonesian, was first introduced in Indonesia in 1977 and it has become the most popular car in the country.[citation needed]. The car was first built in the Philippines (as the Tamaraw), where it was launched on 2 December 1976.[1] This car is also sold in other countries, and is known as the Unser in Malaysia (Innova for the fifth generation), Zace in Taiwan, Qualis and Innova in India, Nepal, and the Philippines, and Stallion and Condor in South Africa. The original Kijang is known as the Revo in the Philippines (see Revo for the history of the Tamaraw and Tamaraw FX).

It is relatively affordable in the markets where sold when compared to four-wheel drive vehicles (the Kijang is a rear-wheel drive) and features high seating capacity, high ground clearance and rugged suspension, popular features in an area with generally poor road conditions and large extended families.

It is manufactured as a CKD (complete knock-down) in almost every country it is sold in, and many of the parts come from each of the markets in which it is sold. The Kijang was designed with ease of manufacture in mind; in 1986 assembly of a Kijang only cost 42% of the cost of assembling the much smaller Corolla 1300.[2]

First generation (1977-1980)[edit]

Toyota Kijang first generation

The prototype was displayed at the 1975 Jakarta Fair, and production began in 1977. The first Kijang was a boxy little pickup truck powered by 1.2 liter 3K engine matched to a four-speed manual transmission. The pickup with rear body and roof was also produced. The Kijang Minibus was built by a local company.

The Kijang first entered the market on 9 June 1977.[1] It was a boxy pickup truck with externally hinged half doors and plastic/canvas windows. Called "KF10" it shared the 3K engine with the Corolla, coupled to a 4-speed manual transmission. It was nicknamed "Kijang Buaya" (English: Crocodile Kijang) because of the long engine hood. The KF10 Kijang car sold 26,806 units until 1981, when replaced by the second generation Kijang.

Second generation (1981-1985)[edit]

Toyota Kijang pickup

The 20-series Kijang retained its boxy style although the body panels were different. Under its slimmer hood was a 1.3 liter 4K engine, which was replaced in 1985 by a 1.5 liter 5K. The only transmission was a 4-speed manual. The facelift model had rectangular headlights. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw was also sold as long wheelbase 30-series.

Third generation (1986-1996)[edit]

Toyota Kijang SSX (KF42) in Indonesia.
Toyota Kijang 1.8 Grand Extra (KF52)

Introduced in late 1986, the Kijang was offered as short wheelbase (KF40 series) and long wheelbase (KF50 series). The Standard Kijang had a 4-speed manual transmission, while the Super Kijang had a 5-speed manual and a better equipped interior. Introduced in this generation was Full Pressed Body minibus built by companies appointed by Toyota.

Minor changes occurred in 1992. The minibus now received a right-side rear door and adopted a new name, Toyota Original Body, instead of Full Pressed Body. In its creation process, it was pressed and used pointed welding. The amenities that has been added in this facelift was including power steering, new grey interior color, redesigned dashboard, double blower air conditioner, new fabric seats material, electric power windows, auto door locks, alarm and tachometers. The trim levels for the minibus were Standard, Deluxe, and Grand Extra, with emblems for short models being the SX, SSX, and SGX; and for the long ones the LX, LSX, and LGX. In 1994, the Kijang received a second facelift, including a new grille, new 14-inch Enkei racing aluminium wheels (only for SGX & LGX) and the larger 1.8-litre (1,781 cc) 7K-C engine.

To celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Indonesia (17 August 1995), Toyota has launched the Toyota Kijang Soeharto Series, also to celebrate the 75th Anniversary of Mr. Soeharto (second Indonesia president, 1921-1996) with the Toyota Kijang Soeharto Series Mk II. The car was based on Grand Extra series (SGX/LGX) with 7K 1800cc engine, but the car was only offered in 4-speed automatic transmission. This Soeharto Series is the very first time automatic transmissions were equipped throughout the Kijang history. The Soeharto's name on the car series was made because Mr. Soeharto was taking part of developing the Toyota Kijang from first generation in 1976. The car was very rare to found in second-hand market or in the streets of Indonesia because it was only built by limited years (1995-1996) and it was more, much more expensive than the regular Grand Extra trim (each car costs Rp 100 million at the time), although public demand for this car is very high. With the launch of this Toyota Kijang series, it reinforces the commercial vehicle made in Indonesia for Indonesian people itself.[citation needed]

The Kijang was sold in India under the name of Qualis. The Qualis was based on the third-generation model, but came with the newer fourth-generation front and rear.

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Venture, with the pickup variant called the Stallion.

It was called as the Tamaraw FX in the Philippines when it was introduced in the early 1990s. In the Philippines, the Tamaraw FX was available with the 1.8 litre 7K-C petrol engine, or the 2 litre 2C diesel. Power was 78 hp (58 kW) and 69 hp (51 kW) respectively, allowing for top speeds of 130 or 125 km/h (81 or 78 mph). Standard, Deluxe and GL were the equipment levels offered.

Fourth generation (1997-2004)[edit]

2003 Toyota Kijang LGX in Indonesia.

The new Kijang was more powerful and more refined than its predecessors. The pickup was coded 60-series. The minibus, often known as Kijang Capsule, was either the 70-series (short wheelbase) or the 80-series (long wheelbase). Engine options were 1.8-litre non EFI gasoline, 2.0-litre EFI gasoline, 1.8-litre EFI gasoline and 2.4-litre diesel engine. The diesel-equipped Kijang was the favorite model in Indonesia, and it could achieve up to 14 km/l of fuel, which was comparable to the Isuzu Panther (which gave the same rate of engine but with stiffer design). The design cues of this generation of the Kijang later appeared in the last revisions of the Philippines' Revo. This generation are the first Kijang that has a diesel engine option.

The fourth generation Kijang vehicles were generally released in two series of trims:

  • Long Series
    • LX: Standard (very basic model without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries. An air conditioning unit could be added for Rp 950,000 (approximately equivalent to US$105.5.) In Indonesia, the 1997 LX version has 4-speed manual transmission, but starting from the facelift model in 2000, the transmission has changed with 5-speed manual transmission.
    • LSX: Standard Plus (equipped with standard air conditioning. cassette tape player and tachometer)
    • LGX: Deluxe (equipped with double blower air conditioning, cassette tape/CD player, power windows, garnish and also available in 4-speed automatic transmission variant.
    • Krista (long series only): Deluxe Sport Edition (same as LGX but includes an additional body kit; the Krista edition also included specially made door trim and two-tone exterior and interior color. Like the LGX, the Krista is also available in automatic transmission)
A 2003 model of Kijang SSX in Indonesia.
  • Short Series
    • SX: Standard (without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries)
    • SSX: Standard Plus (equipped with standard air conditioning and cassette tape player)
    • SGX: Deluxe (equipped with double blower air conditioning, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish. Automatic transmission model was not available)
    • Rangga (Short chassis only): Deluxe Sporty (based on SGX with body kit, two-tone exterior color, higher ground clearance, honeycomb grille and spare tyre position attached on the boot, which gaves it a SUV-like model)

The pickup variant was offered with Standard Deck and Flat Deck. Trim levels for the minibus included SX, SSX, SGX (short), LX, LSX, LGX and Krista (long). The short wheelbase and sporty Rangga was also offered for a short time, but this model was not successful in the market, with only a very few units sold. The sporty "RoverAce" and "Jantan Raider" carroserie model was also offered for a few units only in 1997-2000.

In the year 2000, the Kijang got a new front end. The 2.0-litre engine was offered in the LGX and Krista models. Another minor change was given in 2003 with new grille, rear garnish, and some small changes with its features.

Fourth generation Kijang, in Indonesia, was changed three times:

  1. First edition (1997 - early 2000): The body's steel was thicker than 2nd edition. The window was still equipped with a rubber seal. It used 1.8-litre gasoline and 2.4 diesel.
  2. Second edition (2000–2003): Thinner body-steel was used to decrease production cost; therefore, the new model was sold as the same price as the 1st model. It used compound sealant for the rear window, while the front windscreen was still using rubber seals. The design of the front panel was slightly changed (mostly on the driver's side). For this model (and upwards) customers could choose which engine they wanted to use - the original (but renewed) 2.0-litre gasoline engine, a 2.4-litre diesel engine or the new 1.8-litre EFI engine. The second edition shares a similar interior design as the Land Cruiser.
  3. Third edition (2003–2005): LSX and LGX series and SGX for short series were now equipped with suede door trim (the older model used carpet-like door trim made from plastic). The interior changed into full beige color (the older models' color is mostly grey).

A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Condor with 4x4 drivetrain option.

Fifth generation (2004-2014)[edit]

Main article: Toyota Innova

In late 2004, Toyota launched the new Kijang, with the introduction of the new Avanza as a cheaper version to replace non-premier Kijangs. The new Kijang is more luxurious and expensive than the previous generation. This all new Kijang is called the Kijang Innova. The Innova was an MPV powered by either a 2.0-liter 1TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, a 2.7-liter 2TR-FE VVT-i Gasoline, or a 2.5 liter 2KD-FTV D4-D Common Rail Diesel. Although the exterior design is quite similar to the WISH which has a monocoque chassis, the Kijang Innova has a body-on-frame chassis using the Hilux platform. It was part of Toyota's IMV program together with the Hilux Vigo pickup truck and Fortuner SUV.

The Innova MPV sold in large numbers in India (where it's known as an MUV)- primarily serving the tourist taxi market and fleet operations of large technology business process outsourcing companies. It also enjoyed large markets in Malaysia, East Timor and Philippines. In the Philippines, it replaced the Tamaraw/Tamaraw FX/Revo line in the process, as the Toyota MPV sold there became simply known as the "Innova".

Sixth generation (2014-)[edit]

Toyota has prepared the sixth-generation Kijang and it is scheduled to be launched in 2014.[citation needed] It will be using the same chassis, suspension and engine as the fifth generation Kijang Innova. The engines will remain same as the Innova: its petrol engine is the 1TR-FE 2.0 L 16-valve VVT-i 136 PS (100 kW) 182 Nm and its diesel engine is the 2KD-FTV 2.5 L D4-D common-rail with a variable nozzle turbo (VNT) 16-valve 144 PS (106 kW) 260 Nm.[citation needed] The prototype design has already been released in PDF format by an Indonesian designer and has some brand new exterior and interior designs plus improvements to the Kijang that will be present in 2012. The design is matched with current car design trend for both the exterior and interior, plus Toyota's J-Factor will appear on the sixth-generation Kijang. The essential design given to the nickname of sixth generation Kijang concept was "Kijang Essential".[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Overall Chronological Table: 1971-1980". 75 Years of Toyota. Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  2. ^ Tang, Roger Y. W. (October 1990). "The Auto Makers and their Related Party Transactions in Indonesia". Asia Pacific Journal of Management (Kluwer Academic Publishers) 7 (2): 75. doi:10.1007/BF01731423. 
  3. ^ "Kijang". Indonesia: Toyota. Retrieved 2008-08-27. [dead link]

External links[edit]