Kiki's Delivery Service

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This article is about the anime film. For other uses, see Kiki's Delivery Service (disambiguation).
Kiki's Delivery Service
A young girl accompanied by a black cat is flying on her broomstick over a city with seagulls surrounding her. To the right is the film's title and credits.
Theatrical release poster
Japanese 魔女の宅急便
Hepburn Majo no takkyūbin
Directed by Hayao Miyazaki
Produced by Hayao Miyazaki
Written by Hayao Miyazaki
Based on Kiki's Delivery Service 
by Eiko Kadono
Starring Minami Takayama
Rei Sakuma
Kappei Yamaguchi
Music by Joe Hisaishi
Cinematography Shigeo Sugimura
Edited by Takeshi Seyama
Production
company
Distributed by Toei Company
Release dates
  • July 29, 1989 (1989-07-29)
Running time 102 minutes
Country Japan
Language Japanese
Budget ¥800,000,000 (estimated)
(US$6,900,000)
Box office ¥2,170,000,000 (estimated)
(US$18,000,000)

Kiki's Delivery Service (Japanese: 魔女の宅急便 Hepburn: Majo no Takkyūbin?, "Witch's Delivery Service") is a 1989 Japanese animated fantasy film produced by Studio Ghibli. It was written, produced and directed by Hayao Miyazaki as an adaptation of the 1985 novel of the same name by Eiko Kadono. The film tells the story of a young witch, Kiki, who moves to a new town and uses her flying ability to earn a living. According to Miyazaki, the movie portrays the gulf between independence and reliance in teenage Japanese girls.[1]

Kiki's Delivery Service was released in Japan on July 29, 1989,[2] and won the Animage Anime Grand Prix prize.[3] It was the first Studio Ghibli film released under the distribution partnership between The Walt Disney Company and Studio Ghibli;[4] Walt Disney Pictures recorded an English dub in 1997, which premiered in United States theaters at the Seattle International Film Festival[5] on May 23, 1998. The film was released on home video in the U.S. and Canada on September 1, 1998.[6]

Plot[edit]

Thirteen-year-old Kiki leaves home with her talking black cat Jiji to train as a witch. She flies on her broomstick to the port city of Koriko.

In exchange for accommodation, Kiki accepts a job delivering goods by broomstick from Osono, a kindly bakery owner. She meets a variety of people through her work, including an artist, an old woman, and Tombo, a geeky boy obsessed with aviation. At first Kiki is annoyed by Tombo and his extroverted friends, but she warms up to him after they take his flying bicycle for a test run.

In the latter half of the film Kiki becomes depressed. She discovers she can no longer understand Jiji, and has also lost her flying ability, forcing to suspend her delivery business. Kiki gets a surprise visit from Ursula (the artist), who determines that Kiki's crisis is a form of artist's block. Ursula suggests that if Kiki can find a new purpose, she will be able to reclaim her powers.

While Kiki is visiting a customer, she witnesses an airship with Tombo on board. A strong gust sends the airship out of control into Koriko, and leaves Tombo hanging in mid-air. Kiki regains her flying power and manages to rescue him. She regains her confidence and resumes her delivery service. Kiki's parents receive a letter saying that she and Jiji are happy.

Cast[edit]

Character Japanese English (Streamline version) English (Disney version)
Kiki Minami Takayama Lisa Michelson Kirsten Dunst
Jiji Rei Sakuma Kerrigan Mahan Phil Hartman
Osono Keiko Toda Alexandra Kenworthy Tress MacNeille
Ursula Minami Takayama Edie Mirman Janeane Garofalo
Tombo Kappei Yamaguchi Eddie Frierson Matthew Lawrence
Fukuo (The Baker) Kōichi Yamadera Greg Snegoff Brad Garrett
Kokiri (Kiki's mother) Mieko Nobusawa Barbara Goodson Kath Soucie
Okino (Kiki's father) Kōichi Miura John Dantona Jeff Bennett
Madame Haruko Katō Melanie MacQueen Debbie Reynolds
Barsa Hiroko Seki Edie Mirman Edie McClurg
Senior Witch Yūko Kobayashi Wendee Lee Debi Derryberry
Ket Yuriko Fuchizaki Lara Cody Pamela Adlon
Ket's mother Mika Doi Diane Michelle Julia Fletcher
Jeff Unknown Unknown Pat Fraley (uncredited)
Lily Unknown Unknown Kirsten Dunst (uncredited)

Themes and analysis[edit]

Several aspects of Kiki's behavior and appearance have been the focus of commentary. One major theme is Kiki's transition into adulthood.[7] While being raised by loving parents who support her independence, Kiki is faced with problems common in adolescence such as finding a job, seeking acceptance, and taking care of herself.[8] The concept of vulnerability is also examined closely in the film. Critic Mark Schilling noted a scene during Kiki's first night away from home, staying with the bakers: At night, she quickly steps out of her room into the outhouses and peers out to see the husband, Fukuo, stretching his muscles. After he leaves the scene, Kiki rushes back to her room and slams the door behind her while gasping for air. "The scene does absolutely nothing to advance the plot and the humor in it is low...but...it wordlessly — and eloquently — expresses Kiki's youth, vulnerability, and isolation."[9]

Another theme is the transition from traditional to contemporary. Kiki is shown to balance both of these qualities. For instance, Kiki observes the tradition of witches wearing black, but adorns her hair with a bright red bow.[10] Kiki also engages in other traditional methods; such as baking with a wood burning stove, or flying her mother's old broom.[10]

Kiki's loss of her ability to fly is also the subject of discussion. It is considered the worst crisis Kiki has to face during the film.[11][12] The loss of flight reflects the harm dealt to Kiki by her own self-doubts.[11][13] However, this hardship is what causes Kiki to realize that being vulnerable does not always lead to failure. In essence, the experience demonstrates that such vulnerability can help one learn valuable lessons and better understand oneself.[13] Kiki in fact does not face any external adversaries in the film,[14] though some have argued that the crashing dirigible is a feasible example.[10][7] In the Japanese version of the film, Kiki also loses her ability to talk with her cat, Jiji.[15]

In relation to Kiki's portrayal as a witch, some have drawn comparisons to historical or contemporary views on witches and witchcraft. The film incorporates some conventions from fairy-tales such as a black cat companion for Kiki,[16] Kiki's use of a broom for flight, and her black dress.[17] While girls with magical powers are common in Japanese television, Miyazaki noted that, "the witchcraft has always merely been the means to fulfill the dreams of young girls. They have always become idols with no difficulties." In contrast, Kiki cannot use her powers as a means of wish fulfillment.[18]

Kiki has also been compared to other characters in Miyazaki's films. While there are overt differences in demeanor between Kiki and San from Princess Mononoke, a character who is motivated by anger, both characters take control over their own lives. This theme of remarkable independence is also seen in Miyazaki's earlier works, such as in Nausicaä in Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.[19] Kiki is also compared to Chihiro of Spirited Away in the sense that they are both young girls attempting to seek independence without being rebellious. Chihiro is able to develop her independence through her friends and parents just as Kiki leaves her village with her parents' blessings.[14]

Production[edit]

In 1987, Group Fudosha asked Kadono's publishers for the rights to adapt Kodono's novel into a feature film directed by either Hayao Miyazaki or Isao Takahata of Studio Ghibli. However, both of the chosen directors were busy working on My Neighbor Totoro and Grave of the Fireflies respectively.[20] Miyazaki accepted the role producer while the studio continued to search for a director.[21] Near the end of Totoro's production, members of Studio Ghibli were being recruited as senior staff for Kiki’s Delivery Service. The character design position was given to Katsuya Kondo, who was working with Miyazaki on Totoro. Hiroshi Ohno, who would later work on projects such as Jin-Roh, was hired as art director at the request of Kazuo Oga.

Miyazaki chose Sunao Katabuchi as director. Katabuchi had worked with Miyazaki on Sherlock Hound; Kiki's Delivery Service would be his directorial debut. Studio Ghibli hired Nobuyuki Isshiki as script writer, but Miyazaki was dissatisfied by the first draft, finding it dry and too divergent from his own vision of the film.[22] When Totoro was finished and released, Miyazaki began to look more closely at Kiki’s Delivery Service and wrote a screenplay. Miyazaki eventually took over as director when Katabuchi became intimidated.[clarification needed] Since the novel was based in a fictional country in northern Europe, he and the senior staff went to research landscapes and other elements of the setting. Their main stops were Stockholm, the Swedish island of Gotland and Adelaide, South Australia.[23]

Osono and Kiki serving customers at Gütiokipänja Bakery. The name of the bakery was a joke by Eiko Kadono, making reference to Guchokipa, an alternate name for jankenpon, or Rock, Paper, Scissors.[24] In the English dub, the bakery is referred to as Good Cooking Pan Bakery.

Upon their return to Japan, Miyazaki and the creative team worked on conceptual art and character designs. Miyazaki began significantly modifying the story, creating new ideas and changing existing ones.[25] Majo no Takkyūbin, the original children's book by Kadono that the movie was based on, is very different from Miyazaki's finished film. Kadono's novel is more episodic, consisting of small stories about various people and incidents Kiki encounters while making deliveries. Kiki overcomes many challenges in the novel based on "her good heart" and consequently expands her circle of friends. She faces no particular traumas or crises.[26] Many of the more dramatic elements, such as Kiki losing her powers or the airship incident at the film's climax, are not present in the original story. However, in order to more clearly illustrate the themes of struggling with independence and growing up in the film, Miyazaki intended to have Kiki face tougher challenges and create a more potent sense of loneliness.[26] One such challenge is Kiki's sudden loss of ability to fly. This event is only loosely paralleled in the novel, in which Kiki's broom breaks and merely requires her to fix it.[9] Miyazaki remarked, "As movies always create a more realistic feeling, Kiki will suffer stronger setbacks and loneliness than in the original".[1] Kadono was unhappy with the changes that made between the book and film, to the point that the project was in danger of being shelved at the screenplay stage.[27] Miyazaki and Toshio Suzuki, the producer of Ghibli, went to the author's home and invited her to the film's studio. After her visit to the studio, Kadono decided to let the project continue.[28]

Miyazaki finished the rough draft of the screenplay in June 1988 and presented it in July 1988. It was at this time that Miyazaki revealed that he had decided to direct the film, because he had influenced the project so much.[25] Kiki's Delivery Service was originally intended to be a 60-minute special, but expanded into a feature film running 102 minutes after Miyazaki completed storyboarding and scripting it.[29]

The word takkyūbin (宅急便?, literally "home-fast-mail") in the Japanese title is a trademark of Yamato Transport, though it is used today as a synonym for takuhaibin (宅配便?, "home-delivery-mail"). The company not only approved the use of its trademark, though its permission was not required under Japanese trademark laws,[30] but also enthusiastically sponsored the film, as the company uses a stylized depiction of a black mother cat carrying her kitten as its corporate logo.[31]

Inspiration for Koriko[edit]

Kiki's Delivery Service is set in an idealized trouble-free northern Europe in the city of "Koriko". The name of the city is not actually used in the movie except on the side of a briefly visible bus, and it is often spelled "Coriko" in publications from Ghibli. Miyazaki has noted that the town of Visby on the island of Gotland, Sweden is the main visual inspiration behind Koriko.[32] Fictional Koriko is, however, much larger than Visby and features buildings and shops with the look of Stockholm.

Kiki and Jiji illustrated by Akiko Hayashi from Majo no Takkyūbin. For the film, Kiki's hair was cut short to make the workload easier for the animators.[33]

Releases[edit]

The first official English dub of Kiki's Delivery Service was produced by Carl Macek of Streamline Pictures at the request of Tokuma Shoten for Japan Airlines' international flights.[34] Kiki was portrayed by voice actress Lisa Michelson. This dub is only available in the Ghibli Laserdisc Box Set.[35]

Kirsten Dunst voiced Kiki in Disney's 1997 English dub, released in 1998. This dub was also Canadian comedian and actor Phil Hartman's last voice-acting performance (as Jiji) before his death in 1998.[36] The dub is dedicated to his memory. Reviews of the dub were mixed; although reaction was mostly favorable, others objected to script changes compared to the original Japanese.

Third English version[edit]

Kiki's Delivery Service received a new Region 1 DVD in March 2010, the same day Miyazaki's Ponyo became available on American home video. This English audio production is something of a combination of the original Japanese version (which is fairly minimalist and has basic sound effects) and the 1998 Disney English audio production (which has newer sound effects, some new incidental music, and the many entirely new lines of dialog, particularly from Hartman). Some of the 1998 changes remain in the 2010 version, while others are gone. The opening and closing songs from the English version were reverted to the original Japanese pop songs. Hartman's final line which implied that Kiki could understand Jiji again was removed.[37]

Differences between versions[edit]

Disney's English dub of Kiki's Delivery Service contained some changes, which have been described as "pragmatic".[38] The changes were approved by Miyazaki and Studio Ghibli.

There are a number of additions and embellishments to the film's musical score, and several lavish sound effects over sections that are silent in the Japanese original.. The extra pieces of music, composed by Paul Chihara, range from soft piano music to a string-plucked rendition of Edvard Grieg's In the Hall of the Mountain King.[39] The original Japanese opening theme is "Rouge no Dengon" (ルージュの伝言 Rūju no Dengon?, "Message of Rouge"), and the ending theme is "Yasashisa ni Tsutsumareta nara" (やさしさに包まれたなら?, "Wrapped in Kindness"), both performed by Yumi Matsutoya (credited as Yumi Arai). The original opening and ending theme songs were replaced by two new songs, "Soaring" and "I'm Gonna Fly", written and performed for the English movie by Sydney Forest.

The depiction of the cat, Jiji, changed significantly in the Disney version. In the Japanese version Jiji is voiced by Rei Sakuma, while in the English version Jiji is voiced by comedian Phil Hartman. In Japanese culture, cats are usually depicted with feminine voices, whereas in American culture their voices are more gender-specific.[40] A number of Hartman's lines exist where Jiji simply says nothing in the original. Jiji's personality is notably different between the two versions, showing a more cynical and sarcastic attitude in the Disney English version as opposed to cautious and conscientious in the original Japanese.

Kiki and Jiji (sitting on Kiki's back) flying by the clock tower in Koriko just after arriving. According to Helen McCarthy, the "vibrant" Stockholm-inspired city gives a sense of safety as well as independence.[41]

In the original Japanese script, Kiki loses her ability to communicate with Jiji permanently, but the American version adds a line that implies that she is once again able to understand him at the end of the film.[42] Miyazaki has said that Jiji is the immature side of Kiki,[43] and this implies that Kiki, by the end of the original Japanese version, has matured beyond talking to her cat.

More minor changes to appeal to the different teenage habits of the day include Kiki drinking hot chocolate instead of coffee and referring to "cute boys" instead of to "the disco".[44]

The English subtitled script used for the original VHS subbed release and the later DVD release more closely adheres to the Japanese script, but still contains a few alterations. Tokuma mistakenly believed the Streamline dub was an accurate translation of the film and offered it to Disney to use as subtitles. As a result, several additions from the dub appear in the subtitles regardless of whether or not they are present in the film.[45]

In Spain, Kiki was renamed "Nicky" because in Castilian Spanish the phonetically similar "quiqui" is commonly used in the slang expression "echar un quiqui", which means "to have intercourse". The film was re-titled Nicky la aprendiz de bruja (Nicky the Apprentice Witch).

Manga[edit]

A manga book series using stills from the film was published in Japan by Tokuma Shoten. An English translation was published in 2006 by VIZ Media, in 4 volumes.

Musical[edit]

In 1993, a musical version of the story was produced. Yukio Ninagawa wrote the script and Kensuke Yokouchi directed the show. The role of Kiki was portrayed by Youki Kudoh and the role of Tombo was portrayed by Akira Akasaka. Akasaka was replaced by Katsuyuki Mori within the year. A cast recording was produced by the original cast, and the show was revived in 1995 and 1996.

Reception[edit]

Kiki's Delivery Service premiered on July 29, 1989 in Japanese theaters. The total distribution receipts were ¥2,170,000,000[46][47] ($18,000,000). The film proved to be a financial success and was the highest grossing film in Japan in 1989.[48] The Japanese DVD was the best selling anime DVD for February 7, 2001.[49]

The Disney English dub of Kiki's Delivery Service premiered at the Seattle International Film Festival on May 23, 1998. It was released to VHS on September 15, 1998 and became the 8th-most-rented title at Blockbuster stores during its the first week of availability.[50] This video release also sold over a million copies.[51] A few weeks later, Disney released another VHS of the movie, this time with the original Japanese soundtrack and with both English and Japanese subtitles. A Laserdisc version of the English dub also became available at this time. The Region 1 DVD was released on August 16, 2005, alongside Spirited Away and Castle in the Sky. It was again reissued on Region 1 DVD in March 2010 along with My Neighbor Totoro and Castle in the Sky as a tribute to the home release of Ponyo. This version of this 2010 release was slightly edited to match the original Japanese version. Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment will release Kiki's Delivery Service on Blu-ray Disc on November 18, 2014[52]

On September 4, 1998, Entertainment Weekly rated it as Video of the Year, and on September 12, 1998, it was the first video release to be reviewed as a normal film on Siskel and Ebert rather than on the "Video Pick of the Week" section.[50] Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune and Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave it “two thumbs up”[48][53] and Ebert went on to rank it as one of the best animated films of 1998.[54] The film ranked #12 on Wizard's Anime Magazine's list of the "Top 50 Anime released in North America".[55] Other reviews were very positive as well. On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, Kiki’s Delivery Service scored a perfect 100% rating based on 25 reviews.[56] The conservative Christian group Concerned Women for America boycotted Kiki’s Delivery Service screenings[57] and released a press release on May 28, 1998 titled “Disney Reverts to Witchcraft in Japanese Animation”.[58] Calling for a boycott of The Walt Disney Company, the group said the company “is still not family friendly, but continues to have a darker agenda”.[59]

Accolades[edit]

Year Award Category Result Recipient
1990 12th Anime Grand Prix Best Anime Won Kiki's Delivery Service[60]
Best Female Character Won Kiki[60]
Best Anime Theme Song Won Yasashisa ni Tsutsumaretanara[60]
44th Mainichi Film Award Best Animated Film Won Kiki's Delivery Service
Kinema Junpo Awards Readers' Choice Award Won Kiki's Delivery Service
13th Japan Academy Prize Special Award Won Kiki's Delivery Service[61]
Popularity Award Won Kiki's Delivery Service[61]
7th Annual Golden Gross Award Gold, Japanese Film Won Kiki's Delivery Service
The Movie's Day Special Achievement Award Won Kiki's Delivery Service
The Erandole Award Special Award Won Kiki's Delivery Service
Japan Cinema Association Award Best Film Won Kiki's Delivery Service
Best Director Won Hayao Miyazaki
Japanese Agency of Cultural Affairs Best Film Won Kiki's Delivery Service
Tokyo Metropolitan Cultural Honor Best Film Won Kiki's Delivery Service
7th Annual Money Making Director's Award Best Director Won Hayao Miyazaki[62]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Nausicaa.net The Hayao MIYAZAKI Web. The Hopes and Spirit of Contemporary Japanese Girls By Hayao Miyazaki 1989. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  2. ^ "Majo no takkyūbin". Japanese Cinema Database. Agency for Cultural Affairds. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  3. ^ [1][dead link]
  4. ^ "Majo No Takkyûbin". www.bcdb.com, May 13, 2012
  5. ^ Robogeek's Report on Miyazaki and KiKi!!! by Robogeek May 28, 1998. Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  6. ^ Nausicaa.net English VHS Video release. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.
  7. ^ a b Camp 2007, p. 178.
  8. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 154.
  9. ^ a b Cavallaro 2006, p. 82.
  10. ^ a b c Odell 2009, Kiki's Delivery Service (Majo no Takkyūbin) (1989).
  11. ^ a b Napier 2005, p. 163.
  12. ^ McCarthy 1999, p. 152.
  13. ^ a b Cavallaro 2006, p. 85.
  14. ^ a b Yamanaka 2008, p. 245.
  15. ^ Adachi 2012, p. 159.
  16. ^ Napier 2005, p. 162.
  17. ^ Cavallaro 2006, p. 84.
  18. ^ Miyazaki, Hayao. "The Hopes and Spirit of Contemporary Japanese Girls". The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service. Nausicaa.net. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  19. ^ Napier, Susan J. (2001). "Confronting Master Narratives: History As Vision in Miyazaki Hayao’s Cinema of De-assurance". Positions: East Asia Cultures Critique 9 (2): 474. doi:10.1215/10679847-9-2-467. ISSN 1067-9847. 
  20. ^ Nausicaa.net My Neighbor Totoro Frequently Asked Questions. "I heard that it was double-featured with 'Grave of the Fireflies' in Japan. Is this true?" Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  21. ^ Nausicaa.net Kiki's Delivery Service Frequently Asked Questions. "I heard that Miyazaki was not supposed to direct 'Kiki'. Is it true?" Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  22. ^ The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, "Part One: In the Beginning", Page 8. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  23. ^ (French) La forêt des Oomus Kiki, la petite sorcière Koriko. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  24. ^ Nausicaa.net Kiki's Delivery Service Frequently Asked Questions. "I heard that the name of the bakery was supposed to be a joke. Is it?" Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  25. ^ a b The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Part One, In The Beginning, Page 11. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  26. ^ a b McCarthy 1999, p. 142.
  27. ^ Camp 2007, p. 179.
  28. ^ Nausicaa.net's FAQ on Kiki's Delivery Service Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  29. ^ The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Part One, In The Beginning, Page 12. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  30. ^ Ono, Shoen Dr. (December 1999). "Overview of Japanese Trademark Law". Institute of Intellectual Property. Archived from the original on 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-02-11. 
  31. ^ "IBM e-business: jStart Program: Case studies: Web services: Yamato Transport Group.". Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.  Retrieved on 2007-01-04.
  32. ^ Hayao Miyazaki (February 3, 2010). Creating Kiki's Delivery Service (DVD) (in English and Japanese). Disney Presents Studio Ghibli. 
  33. ^ The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Part Two, Art Of Animated Film, Page 32. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  34. ^ Kiki's Delivery Service News-Old
  35. ^ FAQ // Kiki's Delivery Service // Nausicaa.net
  36. ^ RevolutionSF Kiki's Delivery Service Reviewed by Kevin Pezzano April 27, 2003. Retrieved on 2007-01-05.
  37. ^ Review of 2010 DVD for Kiki's Delivery Service
  38. ^ A Comparative Analysis Of Requests in Majo no Takkyūbin and Kiki's Delivery Service
  39. ^ Otaku World Reviews: Kiki's Delivery Service from Disney Reviewed by Jennifer Diane Reitz. Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  40. ^ Stomp Tokyo Video Reviews – Kiki's Delivery Service
  41. ^ Helen McCarthy Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation pub Stone Bridge Press (Berkeley, CA) 1999 ISBN 1-880656-41-8 pages 144 and 157
  42. ^ The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Part Four, The Complete Script Of The Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Page 205. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. "Central Park. Jiji weaves his way through the crowd. Cameras everywhere. Kiki amazed by the flood of camera flashes. Jiji skips into the frame, leaps onto her shoulder and meows over her shoulder. KIKI: Jiji! JIJI: Meow – Of course, his voice will never return. but it doesn't matter anymore... Kiki smiles and rubs her cheek against his." Retrieved on 2007-01-02.
  43. ^ The Art of Kiki's Delivery Service: A Film by Hayao Miyazaki, Part Two, Art Of Animated Film, Page 45. VIZ Media LLC; 1 edition (2006-05-09) ISBN 1-4215-0593-2, ISBN 978-1-4215-0593-0. Retrieved on 2007-02-11.
  44. ^ Original Japanese script at [2]. Line in Japan is "But there'll be a disco there, won't there?" This line is not present in the English dub. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  45. ^ Nausicaa.net Kiki's Delivery Service FAQ Q: Is there an English subtitled version of "Kiki"? Retrieved on 2007-03-04
  46. ^ "Kako haikyū shūnyū jōi sakuhin 1989-nen" (in Japanese). Motion Picture Producers Association of Japan. Retrieved February 5, 2000. 
  47. ^ Online Ghibli Kiki's Delivery Service: Review/Synopsis by Doraneko Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  48. ^ a b "Kiki's Delivery Service (Majo no Takkyubin) by Marc Hairston November, 1998.". Archived from the original on 2007-08-20.  Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  49. ^ "Anime Radar: Anime Info for the Otaku Generation". Animerica (San Francisco, California: Viz Media) 9 (12): 18. February 9, 2001. ISSN 1067-0831. OCLC 27130932. 
  50. ^ a b Kiki's Delivery Service on DVD from Criterion: A Pipe Dream? by Steve Brandon.[dead link]Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  51. ^ Nausicaa.net Reviews & Articles Archive "Houchi Sinbun, September 29, 1998". Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  52. ^ "Details for Studio Ghibli's "Princess Mononoke", "Kiki's Delivery Service", "The Wind Rises" on Disney Blu-ray". www.toonzone.net. Retrieved 26 September 2014. 
  53. ^ Nausicaa.net Reviews & Articles Archive Siskel and Ebert, September 13, 1998. "Siskel: "Two thumbs up for 'Kiki's Delivery Service'. A delightful animated feature new in video stores." Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  54. ^ Nausicaa.net Reviews & Articles Archive Chicago Sun-Times, December 27, 1998 by Roger Ebert. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  55. ^ "Wizard lists Top 50 Anime". Anime News Network. 2001-07-06. Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  56. ^ Rotten Tomatoes Kiki's Delivery Service (1989). Retrieved on 2013-09-06.
  57. ^ Hayao Miyazaki: Master of Japanese Animation by Helen McCarthy, Stone Bridge Press, September 1, 1999, ISBN 1-880656-41-8, ISBN 978-1-880656-41-9, Page 143. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  58. ^ Nausicaa.net Majo no Takkyubin Kiki's Delivery Service News (Old) May 28, '98 Headline. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  59. ^ "Disney Reverts to Witchcraft in Japanese Animation" by Concerned Women for America archived on Internet Mutual Aid Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  60. ^ a b c 第12回アニメグランプリ. Japan Academy Awards Association (in Japanese). May 1990. Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  61. ^ a b "List of award-winning films at the 13th Japan Academy Awards". Japan Academy Awards Association (in Japanese). Retrieved 2012-05-13. 
  62. ^ Credits // Kiki's Delivery Service // Nausicaa.net

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]