Platycodon grandiflorus

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Chinese bellflower
Platycodon grandiflorum2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Campanulaceae
Genus: Platycodon
Species: P. grandiflorus
Binomial name
Platycodon grandiflorus
(Jacq.) A.DC.

Platycodon grandiflorus (from Greek "πλατυκώδων", meaning a broad bell) is a species of herbaceous flowering perennial plant of the family Campanulaceae, and the only member of its genus. It is native to East Asia (China, Korea, Japan and East Siberia). This species is known as platycodon. Depending upon the region, it is also referred to as the Korean bellflower, Chinese bellflower, Japanese bellflower, common balloon flower, or balloon flower (referring to the balloon-shaped flower buds).

Description[edit]

swelling balloon-shaped buds

Growing to 60 cm (24 in) tall by 30 cm (12 in) wide, it is an herbaceous perennial with dark green leaves and blue flowers in late summer. A notable feature of the plant is the flower bud which swells like a balloon before fully opening.[1] The five petals are fused together into a bell shape at the base, like its relatives, the campanulas. There are varieties with white, pink and purple blooms in cultivation.[2] In Korea, white flowers are more common. This plant[3] together with its cultivars 'Apoyama group'[4] and 'Mariesii'[5] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Uses[edit]

The fresh root of doraji

In Korea, the plant is known as doraji (도라지) and its root, either dried or fresh, is a popular ingredient in salads and traditional cuisine. The Chinese bellflower (called 桔梗 in Chinese) is also used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Medicinal Properties[edit]

The extracts and purified platycoside compounds (saponins) from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum may exhibit neuroprotective, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, improved insulin resistance, and cholesterol-lowering properties.[6] Evidence for these potential effects was mainly observed in vitro, with the exception of cholesterol lowering effects documented in vitro and in rats. The lack of efficacy and limited safety data in humans however, necessitates further research.

In Korea, the roots are commonly used for treating bronchitis, asthma, tuberculosis, diabetes, and other inflammatory diseases. In China, they are used as a cough suppressant and expectorant for common colds, cough, sore throat, tonsillitis, and chest congestion.[6]

In popular culture[edit]

In Taiwan[edit]

In the Taiwanese drama "Autumn's Concerto", 花拓也, Hua Tuo Ye refers to the woman of his affection, 梁慕橙 Liang Mu Cheng as a Chinese Bellflower.

In Japan[edit]

The bellflower is called kikyō (桔梗) in Japanese. Traditionally, it is one of the Seven Autumn Flowers. In addition, the "Bellflower Seal" (桔梗紋 kikyōmon?) is the crest (kamon) of some clans.

Rumiko Takahashi named her character Kikyo from her manga Inuyasha after the flower. The Cloud Real Six Funeral Wreath leader, Kikyo, from Katekyo Hitman Reborn! is also named after this flower, following the "one thousand flowers" naming of the Millefiore family. Kikyou (aka Reverse Sia) from the Shuffle! series is named after this flower, but her name is written in katakana rather than the actual kanji. Mahoro from Mahoromatic leaves flowers at the Grave of Commander Morisato every year and was known to Shugura as the "Bell Flower" person until late in the anime.

In the manga and anime series Bleach, the insignia for the Fourth Division is the Bellflower; the meaning behind it is Those who grieve are loved.

In Korea[edit]

Main article: Doraji (folk song)

In Korea, the white bellflower (doraji) is sung about in the traditional folk song, "Doraji".

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://platycodon.net/
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Platycodon grandiflorus". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Platycodon grandiflorus 'Apoyama group'". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Platycodon grandiflorus 'Mariesii'". Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  6. ^ a b Nyakudya E.; Jeong JH.; Lee NK.; Jeong YS. (2014) “Platycosides from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum and Their Health Benefits.” Preventative Nutrition and Food Science 19 (2): 59-68. PMID 25054103.

External links[edit]