Kilo-class submarine

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RIAN archive 187524 The crew of a diesel-powered Varshavyanka -Kilo--class submarine.jpg
Crew of the Pacific Fleet's B-190 Krasnokamensk Kilo-class submarine on the eve of Submariner Day.
Class overview
Builders:

Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering "Rubin"

Shipyard 199 "Krasnoe Sormovo", Nizhniy Novgorod (Gorkiy)

Shipyard 112,"imeni Leninskogo Komsomola", Komsoloľsk na Amure

Shipyard "Leningradskoe Admiralteyskoe Obedinenie" (Admiralteyskie Verfi), Saint Petersburg (Leningrad)

Shipyard "Severnoe Mašinostroiteľnoe Predprijatie", Severodvinsk
Operators:  Soviet Navy
 Russian Navy
 People's Liberation Army Navy
 Indian Navy
 Islamic Republic of Iran Navy
 Polish Navy
 Romanian Naval Forces
 Algerian National Navy
 Vietnamese People's Navy
Preceded by: Tango-class submarine
Succeeded by: Lada-class submarine
In commission: April 1982
Building: 7
Completed: 57
Active: 48
Retired: 2
General characteristics
Displacement: Surfaced: 2,300–2,350 tons
Submerged:3,000-3,950 tons full load
Length: 70.0–74.0 m
Beam: 9.9 m
Draft: 6.5 m
Depth of hold: Operational: 240 meters
Maximum: 300 meters
Installed power: Diesel-electric
Propulsion: Diesel-electric propulsion
2 x 1000 kW Diesel generators
1 x 5,500–6,800 shp Propulsion motor
1 x fixed-pitch 6 or 7 bladed Propeller (6BL project 877) (7BL project 636)
Speed: Surfaced: 10–12 knots
Submerged: 17–25 knots
Range: With snorkel: 6,000–7,500 miles at 7 knots
Submerged: 400 miles at 3 knots
Full run: 12.7 miles at 21 knots
Endurance: 45 days
Test depth: 300 m
Complement: 52
Armament: 6/533 mm torpedo tubes
18 torpedoes
Club S anti-ship missiles (only on some export versions)
24 mines
8 SA-N-8 Gremlin or 8 SA-N-10 Gimlet Surface-to-air missiles (export submarines may not be equipped with air defense weapons)
KILO–class diesel-powered attack submarine underway on the surface.

The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric submarine that is made in Russia. The original version of the vessels were designated Project 877 Paltus (Halibut) in Russia. There is also a more advanced version, designated as Improved Kilo class submarine in the west, and Project 636 Varshavyanka in Russia.

Role[edit]

The boats are mainly intended for anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations in relatively shallow waters. Original Project 877 boats are equipped with Rubikon MGK-400 sonar system (with NATO reporting name Shark Gill), which includes a mine detection and avoidance sonar MG-519 Arfa (with NATO reporting name Mouse Roar). Newer Project 636 boats are equipped with improved MGK-400EM, with MG-519 Afra also upgraded to MG-519EM. The improved sonar systems have reduced the number of operators needed by sharing the same console via automation.

Anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sound waves of active sonar, which results in a reduction and distortion of the return signal.[1] These tiles also help attenuate sounds that are emitted from the submarine, thus reducing the range at which the sub may be detected by passive sonar.[2]

Future[edit]

The Kilo class was to have been succeeded by the Lada class. In November 2011 the Russian Navy announced that the Lada class will not enter service because trials with the lead boat of the new class, Sankt Peterburg (B-585) had shown major deficiencies. Construction of two further boats was suspended.[3]

On 27 July 2012, the Russian Navy commander-in-chief announced that construction of the Lada class submarines will resume, having undergone design changes.[4]

Variants[edit]

One Kilo class submarine B-871 was equipped with pump-jet propulsion.[5][6]

Kilo 636MV (Vietnam exported version) contains GE2-01 radar and improved MGK 400E sonar. In this version,the submarine also suitable with more weather conditions than original Kilo.[7]

Operators[edit]

The first submarine entered service in the Soviet Navy in 1980, and the class remains in use with the Russian Navy today. As of September 2011, 17 vessels were believed to still be in active service with the Russian Navy, while 7 vessels were thought to be in reserve.[8] 33 vessels have been exported[when?] to several countries:

Possible operators[edit]

  • The government of Venezuela expressed interest in buying 3 Project 636 Kilo class submarines[27]
  • The government of Indonesia in 2007-2008 planned to acquire at least 2 Kilo class submarines. In October 2013, the ministry of defence of Indonesia reported the possibility of a grant from the Russian government involving up to ten ex-Russian navy Kilo-class submarines. Army General Moeldoko, Indonesian Armed Forces chief of staff, announced that a team will be sent to Russia last month to inspect the condition of future submarines.[28]

Specifications[edit]

Schematic drawing of the Kilo class

There are several variants of the Kilo class. The information below is the smallest and largest number from the available information for all three variants of the ship.[29]

  • Displacement:
    • 2,300–2,350 tons surfaced
    • 3,000–4,000 tons submerged
  • Dimensions:
    • Length: 70–74 meters
    • Beam: 9.9 meters
    • Draft: 6.2–6.5 meters
  • Maximum speed
    • 10–12 knots surfaced (18–22 km/h)
    • 17–25 knots submerged (31–46 km/h)
  • Propulsion: Diesel-electric 5,900 shp (4,400 kW)
  • Maximum depth: 300 meters (240–250 meters operational)
  • Endurance
    • 400 nautical miles (700 km) at 3 knots (6 km/h) submerged
    • 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km) at 7 knots (13 km/h) snorkeling (7,500 miles for the Improved Kilo class)
    • 45 days sea endurance
  • Armament
  • Crew: 52
  • Price per unit is US$200–250 million (China paid approx. US$1.5-2 billion for 8 Project 636 Kilo class submarines)

Gallery[edit]

Project 877 units[edit]

Project 877 – significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
 Russia B-248 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 16 March 1980 12 September 1980 31 December 1980 in reserve
 Russia B-260 Chita Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 22 February 1981 23 August 1981 30 December 1981 PF active as of 2010
 Russia B-227 Vyborg Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 23 February 1982 16 September 1982 23 February 1983 BF active as of 2010
 Russia B-229 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 23 February 1983 15 July 1983 30 October 1983 in reserve
 Russia B-404 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 07 May 1983 24 September 1983 30 December 1983 in reserve
 Russia B-401 Novosibirsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 06 October 1982 15 March 1984 30 September 1984 NF active as of 2010
 Russia B-402 Vologda Nizhniy Novgorod 877 24 August 1983 29 September 1984 30 December 1984 NF active as of 2010
 Russia B-405 (ex Tyumenskiy Komsomolets) Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 20 April 1984 21 September 1984 30 December 1984 decommissioned and sold for scrap in 2007
 Poland 291 (ex B-351) Orzeł Nizhniy Novgorod 877E 1984 1985 1985 active as of 2010
 Romania 581 (ex B-801) Delfinul Nizhniy Novgorod 877E 1984 1985 1985 unknown (in reserve from 1995)
 India S55 Sindhugosh Saint Petersburg 877EKM 29 May 1983 29 July 1985 25 November 1985 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2002–2005
 Russia B-470 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 06 May 1985 27 August 1985 30 December 1985 decommissioned and sold for scrap in 2007
 Russia B-806 x Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM[citation needed] 15 October 1984 30 April 1986 25 September 1986 BF active as of 2009, status in 2010 unknown
 India S56 Sindhudhvaj Saint Petersburg 877EKM 01 April 1986 27 July 1986 25 November 1986 active as of 2010
 Algeria 012 Rais Hadj Mubarek Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1985 1986 29 November 1986 Upgraded in 2010, able to launch Klub missiles
 Russia B-439 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 4 April 1986 31 July 1986 30 December 1986 in reserve
 India S57 Sindhuraj Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1986 1987 02 September 1987 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 1999–2001
 Algeria 013 Rais Hadj Slimane Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1986 1987 25 November 1987 Upgraded in 2011, able to launch Klub missiles
 India S58 Sindhuvir Saint Petersburg 877EKM 15 May 1987 13 September 1987 25 December 1987 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 1997–1999
 Russia B-445 Svyatoi Nikolai Chudotvorets Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 21 March 1987 26 September 1987 30 January 1988 PF unknown (in reserve from 2007 or active)
 India S59 Sindhuratna Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM 1987 1988 14 August 1988 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2001–2003
 India S60 Sindhukesari Saint Petersburg 877EKM 20 April 1988 16 August 1988 29 October 1988 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 1999–2001
 Russia B-808 Yaroslavl Nizhniy Novgorod 877 29 September 1986 30 July 1988 27 December 1988 NF active as of 2010
 Russia B-394 (ex Komsomolsk Tadjikistana) Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 15 April 1988 03 September 1988 30 December 1988 PF unknown (in reserve from 2007 or active)
 Russia B-800 Kaluga (ex Vologodskij komsomolets) Nizhniy Novgorod 877LPMB[citation needed] 05 March 1987 07 May 1989 30 September 1989 NF refit as of 2012(refit finished launching of the vessel underway)
 India S61 Sindhukirti Saint Petersburg 877EKM 05 April 1989 26 August 1989 30 October 1989 in modernization to project 08773 from 2007
 Russia B-464 Ust'-Kamchatsk Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 26 May 1989 23 September 1989 30 January 1990 PF in reserve from 2007
 Russia B-459 Vledikavkaz Nizhniy Novgorod 877 25 February 1988 29 April 1990 30 September 1990 NF unknown (in reserve from 2008 or active)
 India S62 Sindhuvijay Saint Petersburg 877EKM 06 April 1990 27 July 1990 27 October 1990 active as of 2010, modernized to project 08773 in 2005–2007
 Russia B-871 Alrosa Nizhniy Novgorod 877V[citation needed] 17 May 1988 September 1989 30 December 1990 BSF active as of 2010
 Russia B-471 Magnitogorsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 26 October 1988 22 September 1990 30 December 1990 NF active as of 2010
 Russia B-494 Ust'-Bolsheretsk Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 5 May 1990 04 October 1990 30 December 1990 PF unknown (in reserve from 2008 or active)
 Iran 901 Tareg Saint Petersburg 877EKM 05 April 1991 25 September 1991 25 December 1991 active as of 2012[31] Upgraded in Iran shipyard[32]
 Russia B-187 x Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 07 May 1991 05 October 1991 30 December 1991 PF in reserve from 2007
 Russia B-177 Lipetsk Nizhniy Novgorod 877 03 November 1989 27 July 1991 30 December 1991 NF active as of 2010
 Russia B-190 Krasnokamensk Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 08 May 1992 25 September 1992 30 December 1992 PF active as of 2010
 Iran 902 Noor Saint Petersburg 877EKM 30 April 1992 16 October 1992 31 December 1992 unknown (probably in modernization in Iranian shipyard)
 Russia B-345 Mogocha Komsomoľsk na Amure 877 22 April 1993 06 October 1993 22 January 1994 PF active as of 2010
 People's Republic of China 364 Yuan Zhend 64 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM ??? 1994 10 November 1994 active as of 2007
 People's Republic of China 365 Yuan Zhend 65 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 877EKM ??? 1995 14 August 1995 active as of 2007
 Iran 903 Yunes Saint Petersburg 877EKM 05 February 1992 12 July 1994 02 September 1996 active as 2011[33] (probably in modernization in Iranian shipyard)
 India S63 Sindhurakshak Saint Petersburg 877EKM 16 February 1995 26 June 1997 02 October 1997 On 29 January 2013, the Sindhurakshak began shipment to India from Severodvinsk, Russia after repairs. On 14 August 2013, there was an explosion and fire on the Sindhurakshak suspected to have occurred from the munitions onboard - killing 3 officers and 15 sailors at the Indian Navy's Dockyard at Mumbai Port. The submarine is reported to have been completely destroyed.[34]
 India S64 Sindhushastra Saint Petersburg 877EKM 12 December 1998 14 October 1999 16 May 2000 active as of 2010

Project 636 units[edit]

Project 636 – significant dates
Operator # Name Shipyard Project Laid down Launched Commissioned Fleet Status
 People's Republic of China 366 Yuan Zheng 66 Hao Saint Petersburg 636 16 July 1996 26 April 1997 26 August 1997 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 367 Yuan Zheng 67 Hao Saint Petersburg 636 28 August 1997 18 June 1998 25 October 1998 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 368 Yuan Zheng 68 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 18 October 2002 27 May 2004 20 October 2004 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 369 Yuan Zheng 69 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 18 October 2002 19 August 2004 2005 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 370 Yuan Zheng 70 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2004 05.2005 2005 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 371 Yuan Zheng 71 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2004 2005 2005 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 372 Yuan Zheng 72 Hao Saint Petersburg 636M 2005 2005 2006 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 373 Yuan Zheng 73 Hao Nizhniy Novgorod 636M 07.1992 08.05.2004 05.08.2005 active as of 2007
 People's Republic of China 374 Yuan Zheng 74 Hao Severodvinsk 636M 29 May 2003 21 May 2005 30 December 2005 active as of 2006
 People's Republic of China 375 Yuan Zheng 75 Hao Severodvinsk 636M 29 May 2003 14 July 2005 30 December 2005 active as of 2006
 Algeria 021 Messali el Hadj Saint Petersburg 636M 2006 20 November 2008 28 August 2009 active
 Algeria 022 Akram Pacha Saint Petersburg 636M 2007 09.04.2009 29 October 2009 active
 Russia B-261 Novorossiysk Saint Petersburg 636.3 20 August 2010[35] 28 November 2013[36] 22 August 2014[37][38] BSF active
 Russia B-237 Rostov-on-Don Saint Petersburg 636.3 21 November 2011[39] 26 June 2014[40] pl.2104 BSF sea trial
 Russia B-262 Stary Oskol[41] Saint Petersburg 636.3 17 August 2012[42] 28.08.2014[43] pl.2015 BSF laid down
 Russia B-265 Krasnodar Saint Petersburg 636.3 20.02.2014 pl.2015 BSF laid down
 Russia B-268 Veliky Novgorod Saint Petersburg 636.3 30.10.2014 pl.2016 BSF laid down
 Russia B-??? Kolpino Saint Petersburg 636.3 30.10.2014 pl.2016 BSF laid down
 Vietnam HQ-182 Hà Nội Saint Petersburg 636M 25 August 2010 28 August 2012[44] 15 January 2014[45] active[46][47]
 Vietnam HQ-183 Hồ Chí Minh City Saint Petersburg 636M 28 September 2011 28 December 2012 4 April 2014 active[48][49]
 Vietnam HQ-184 Hải Phòng Saint Petersburg 636M August 2013[50] pl.2014 sea trial[51]
 Vietnam HQ-185 Đà Nẵng Saint Petersburg 636M 2013 28 March 2014 [52] pl.2015 Ready for launch [52]
 Vietnam HQ-186 Khánh Hòa Saint Petersburg 636M pl.2016 laid down [53]
 Vietnam HQ-187 Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu Saint Petersburg 636M Late 2014 [54] pl.2016[45] ordered

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Anechoic tiles are fitted on casings and fins to absorb the sonar sound waves of active sonar, which results in a reduction and distortion of the return signal.
  2. ^ Kilo Class Submarines
  3. ^ "ВМФ отказался от новейших подлодок проекта "Лада"". Izvestia. 23 November 2011. 
  4. ^ http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20120727/174805860.html
  5. ^ "Russian submarine towed to port after engine malfunction | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.rian.ru. 2009-11-23. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  6. ^ "Kilo Class Submarine "ALROSA" :: Black Sea Fleet, Russian Federation". Alrosa.net. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  7. ^ http://khucquanhanh.vn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=68:so-sanh-kilo-636-cua-viet-nam-636mv-voi-trung-quoc-636mk&catid=15:ky-thuat-quan-su
  8. ^ "877 / 636 Kylo class | Russian Military Analysis". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  9. ^ "Algeria – Navy". Country-data.com. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  10. ^ "Algeria looking to procure two additional Improved Kilo Project 636M Diesel Submarines from Russia". Navyrecognition.com. 2012-09-24. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  11. ^ Алжир может закупить российские подводные лодки | Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер" (in Russian). Vpk-news.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  12. ^ "Наука и техника: Алжир докупит у России две "Варшавянки"". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  13. ^ "PDF file" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  14. ^ "Алжир заказал Рособоронэкспорту две подводные лодки". KM.RU. 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  15. ^ "Kilo Class (Project 636/877EKM) Diesel-Electric Submarine". SinoDefence.com. 23 February 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  16. ^ "SSK Kilo Class (Type 877EKM) Attack Submarine". Naval Technology. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  17. ^ John Pike. "Kilo-class submarine – People's Liberation Army Navy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  18. ^ "Kilo Class – Project 636". Fas.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  19. ^ [1][dead link]
  20. ^ "Polish Navy" (in Polish). Navy.mw.mil.pl. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  21. ^ "SSK Kilo Class (Type 877EKM) Attack Submarine". Naval Technology. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  22. ^ Traunreut  PsycINFO . "Romanian Naval Forces". Dic.academic.ru. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  23. ^ "877 / 636 Kylo class | Russian Military Analysis". Warfare.ru. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  24. ^ "ВЗГЛЯД / ВМФ России до 2016 года получит шесть дизельных подлодок". Vzglyad.ru. 2011-11-21. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  25. ^ "Russia dominates Asian market with 28 diesel subs". Rusnavy.com. 15 December 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  26. ^ "Vietnam receives first Russian-made submarine". xinhuanet.com. 2 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
  27. ^ "Venezuela acquiring Russian submarines". UPI.com. 10 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  28. ^ "Butuh Kapal Selam, TNI Kirim Tim ke Rusia". tempo.co. 6 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  29. ^ "Kilo Class – Project 636". Fas.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  30. ^ "Project 877 Kilo class Project 636 Kilo class Diesel-Electric Torpedo Submarine Specifications". GlobalSecurity.org. 22 April 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2008. 
  31. ^ "Iran relaunches Russian-made submarine". Fox News. 2012-05-29. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  32. ^ 29 Май 2012. "Иран вернул на флот подводную лодку российской постройки". Flot.com. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  33. ^ "Иранские подводные лодки отправятся в 90-дневный поход". Flot.com. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  34. ^ "BBC News - Indian submarine hit by explosion at Mumbai port". Bbc.co.uk. 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  35. ^ "Submarine Novorossiysk has been laid down at Admiralteyskie Verfi". Rusnavy.com. 20 August 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  36. ^ "Russia Floats Out ‘Stealth’ Submarine for Black Sea Fleet | Defense | RIA Novosti". En.ria.ru. 2013-11-28. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  37. ^ http://flotprom.ru/news/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=170176
  38. ^ "Russia’s first Varshavyanka-class submarine "Novorossiisk" joined Black Sea Fleet". September 18, 2014. 
  39. ^ 21 Ноя 2011. "Подводная лодка "Ростов-на-Дону" заложена на Адмиралтейских верфях". Flot.com. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  40. ^ http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/russia-launches-new-ultra-quiet-submarine-for-black-sea-fleet/502589.html
  41. ^ 15 Май 2012. "НАПЛ "Санкт-Петербург" выходит из ремонта". Flotprom.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  42. ^ 15 Авг 2012. "Подводная лодка "Старый Оскол" для Черноморского флота будет заложена на Адмиралтейских верфях 17 августа". Flotprom.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  43. ^ http://admship.ru/?p=4957
  44. ^ 28 Авг 2012. "Головная подводная лодка для ВМС Вьетнама спущена на воду". Flotprom.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  45. ^ a b "Вьетнам получит первую российскую подводную лодку через три года". Flotprom.ru. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  46. ^ "First Type 636 diesel submarine (SSK) ordered by Vietnam arrived at Cam Ranh base". 2 January 2014. 
  47. ^ "Vietnam Navy receives 2 Russia-made project 636 Kilo class diesel electric submarines". 6 April 2014. 
  48. ^ "Vietnam received the second project 636 submarine". 20 March 2014. 
  49. ^ "Ho Chi Minh City submarine arrived in Cam Ranh". 20 March 2014. 
  50. ^ Россия поставит Вьетнаму 2 подводные лодки до конца года | Еженедельник "Военно-промышленный курьер" (in Russian). Vpk-news.ru. Retrieved 2014-03-08. 
  51. ^ "The third submarine for Vietnam is under sea trial". 22 March 2014. 
  52. ^ a b "The forth submarine for the Vietnam People's Navy will be launched on March 28th". 22 March 2014. 
  53. ^ "The 5th submarine for Vietnam has already been under construction". 22 March 2014. 
  54. ^ "Russia Laid Down the 6th and last Kilo-Class Diesel Electric Submarine for Vietnam". 3 June 2014. 

References[edit]