Kilteel

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Kilteel
Cill Chéile
country
Kilteel is located in Ireland
Kilteel
Kilteel
Coordinates: 53°14′06″N 6°31′26″W / 53.235°N 6.524°W / 53.235; -6.524
Province Leinster
County County Kildare
Elevation 243.8 m (799.9 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Urban 225
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
 • Summer (DST) IST (WEST) (UTC-1)
Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1841 923 —    
1851 676 −26.8%
1871 477 −29.4%
1901 268 −43.8%
1951 181 −32.5%
2002 483 +166.9%
[1]

Kilteel (Irish: Cill Chéile) is the name of a village, a townland and a civil parish located in the barony of South Salt, County Kildare, Ireland. The townland of Kilteel Upper contains the remains of a church with a decorated Romanesque chancel arch, the ruins of a 13th-century preceptory of the Knights Hospitaller and a well-preserved 15th-century tower house. The historic settlement is located on the southwest corner of the English Pale and served an important function as a border fortress during the medieval period.

Geography[edit]

The village of Kilteel lies on a low northeast-southwest ridge at the western edge of the Wicklow Mountains. The civil parish of 3437 statute acres contains the following townlands:

Townland Acreage Irish Name Earliest record of placename or variant
Blackchurch 229 - 1654 - Blackchurch [2]
Blackdown 151 - 1717 - Blackdown/Blackdown Fodeens [3]
Coolahocka 119 - 1752 - Coolacaka [4]
Cromwellstown 240 - 1518 - Crommaliston [5]
Cupidstown 301 - 1690 - Cuppilstowne [6]
Kilteel Lower 259 Cill Chéile 1179 - Cehcheli [7]
Kilteel Upper 210 - -
Kilwarden 364 - 1543 - Kilwarnyng [8]
Newrow 70 - -
Oldmiltown 165 - 1669 - Millfarm [9]
Oldtown 21 - 1717 - Oldtown [10]
Porterstown 98 - 1669 - Porters-farme [9]
Rathbane 447[11] - 1752 - Rabane [4]

The parish extends from the peak of Cupidstown Hill adjoining Kilbride parish in County Wicklow to the southeast, east to Cromwellstownhill where it borders Dublin County. To the north, west and south it borders with the parishes of Oughterard, Kill and Rathmore. The N7 crosses the townland of Blackchurch at the northern extent of the parish.

History[edit]

Prehistory and Early Medieval Period[edit]

The Record of Monuments and Places suggests that a prehistoric barrow located on a hilltop within Kilteel Wood, northwest of the modern village, may have functioned as an inauguration site.[12][13] The barrow is marked as a 'fort' on Taylor's 1816 map of the environs of Dublin.[14]

Kilteel lay within Uí Máel Ruba, an early medieval territory controlled by the Fothairt Airthir Life.[15] While multiple origins have been suggested for the placename, including Cill tSile and Cill tSiadhail, the Ordnance Survey Placenames Commission has adopted Cill Chéile or Cell Chéile, an origin suggesting the original church was founded by Celé Crist, a bishop of the Cenél nEóġain who died in 727. The earliest documented reference to the church is a papal letter of 1179, which refers to the church of Cehcheli.[16][17][18]

Cromwellstown may contain the site of a second early Christian foundation, Kildronan or Cell Epscoip Drónáin. The current name originates in a grant of lands in Kildronan by Maurice FitzGerald to the Cromhale family before 1257. The Priory of All Hallows attempted to recover the lands from Thomas de Cromhale in 1317.[19][20][21]

An early medieval D-shaped enclosure and a range of associated industrial features were excavated in Blackchurch townland in 2004.[22] The townland name Rathbane, suggests the presence of an early medieval ringfort. The principal house of the townland is marked as Whitefort on the 1838 Ordnance Survey map.[23]

Medieval Period[edit]

Kilteel church
Kilteel Romansesque church

A ruined church southwest of the village contains the highly decorated remains of a Romanesque chancel arch or doorway. Excavations in 1977 and 1978 suggested the first church was a single cell stone building built after 800 AD and that the carved Romanesque figures were taken from a separate church and incorporated into the extant church in the 13th century during the construction of the preceptory. The excavator speculated that the 12th-century High Cross a short distance to the north marks the site of the Romanesque church, possibly built under the patronage of Diarmait Mac Murchada, whose mother was of the Fothairt Airthir Life.[24][25][26]

The later church, ruined in 1630, restored in the later 17th century, fell into disuse in the early 18th century, when Protestant services may have moved to the adjacent parish of Rathmore.[26][27][28] The decorated fragments of the chancel arch were recovered from the fabric of a farmhouse adjoining the castle and reinstated in 1935 by Harold Leask.[29]

Hospitaller preceptory

The church and lands of 'Kilheile' were in the possession of the Knights Hospitallers before 1212, but it is unclear when the preceptory was built; no foundation charter or original grant of land survives. James Ware described the preceptory as founded by Maurice FitzGerald, who died in 1257, while Kenneth Nicholls suggested it may have been founded by his father Gerard FitzMaurice who died in 1204.[30][31] The prior of the preceptory is first referred to in the Justiciary Rolls of 1308.[32] The preceptory was one of seventeen in Ireland and general chapters of the order were held there in 1326, 1333 and 1334, suggesting a substantial foundation.[33] The remains include traces of a large sub-rectangular enclosure, 200 metres long and 150 metres wide, which may represent the original enceinte, a substantial gatehouse containing a guardroom and the ruins of a second gatehouse.[34] A suit of armour was recovered from the ruins in the early 19th century.[35]

Pale boundary

In the medieval period Kilteel served as a border fortress on the marches of the English Pale, under attack from the Gaelic O'Byrne and O'Toole families of Wicklow. In 1355 Edward III issued letters requiring those appointed for the defence of the marches to take up their duties in the wards of Kilteel, Rathmore and Ballymore, noting the 'depredations and burnings of Obryn and his accomplices' .[36] An act of 1488 setting out the boundaries of 'the four obedient shires' of Louth, Meath, Dublin and Kildare described the Pale boundary as passing through Kilteel and Rathmore.[37] An act of 1494-5 required the boundary to consist of 'a double ditch of six feet high above the ground at one side or part which mireth next unto Irishman '.[38] A portion of the Pale boundary with traces of a possible earthen bastion is visible in aerial photographs southeast of the medieval church.[39][40] Archaeological excavations suggest the denuded remains continue east, forming the boundary between the townlands of Kilteel Upper and Cupidstown.[38]

Tower house
Kilteel Castle in 1833
Kilteel Castle today

A substantial tower house was built to strengthen or replace the earlier defences in the 15th century. This rectangular, five-storied structure contains four floor levels above a barrel-vaulted basement with a second vault over fourth-floor level.[41][42] It is adjoined to the southwest by a gatehouse and was originally adjoined by a bawn.[43] An 1833 depiction of the castle in the Dublin Penny Journal shows a steeply gabled house adjoining the gatehouse, possibly of late 17th or early 18th century date.[35] The archives of Trinity College Dublin contain an undated drawing from the Edwin Rae Collection depicting a similar building.[44] A cannonball, possibly of 17th century date, was recovered from near the castle in 1901.[45]

Early Modern Period[edit]

The Alen family of Norfolk obtained a range of monastic properties in Kildare after the dissolution of the monasteries. In 1536 John Alen was granted the dissolved monastery of St. Wolstans and in 1539 his brother Thomas was granted the dissolved preceptory of Kilteel; a lease of 12 July 1539 describes Thomas Alen and his wife Mary as 'of Kilheele'.[46][47] The preceptory's possessions included the adjacent Lordship of Kilbride.[48][49] The status of the area as a disputed marchland is highlighted in an early grant:

A 1543 lease lists the preceptory's possessions:

Alen's wife was the daughter of John Rawson.[47] While the Alen family's primary seat was St. Wolstans or Alenscourt, Kilteel served as a second seat in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1549 pardons were granted to John Alen of Alenscourte and Thomas Alen of 'Kylheale' , in 1560-1561 Thomas Alen of Kilteel was among the 'justices, commissioners and keepers of the peace' for Kildare and in 1626 Robert Allen, heir to Alenscourt, was described as 'of Kilheale'.[51][52][53] The Allen family were still claiming tithes from the parish in the 19th century.[54]

Kilteel was raided and burnt by Rory O'More in 1573 and on 3 November 1574. The Crown authorities believed that the 11th Earl of Kildare had 'procured' these attacks.[55][56][57] In November 1580 during the Second Desmond Rebellion the Earl, charged with the defence of the Pale against Fiach McHugh O'Byrne stationed a force of 50 horseman and 100 foot soldiers at Kilteel.[58] Fiach McHugh's son was stealing livestock from the 'mountain of Kilheele' in 1596.[59]

The Civil Survey of 1654–56 records only two divisions within the parish, Kilteel, 1540 plantation acres, and Kilwarning, 100 plantation acres, both held by Robert Allen, an 'Irish papist'.[60] In 1654 the parish contained:

The Archaeological Survey of Ireland notes a 16th or 17th century house in Blackchurch whose site has yet to be identified, presumably the 'stump of a castle'.[62]

Part of the Kilteel estate had passed to the Earl of Tyrconnell before 1669. Between 1669 and 1677 Tyrconnell granted several leases of lands in Kilteel. Jonathan Hayes and James Ashton held the 'millfarm' for 51 years from 1670; a 38 year lease of 'Porters-farme' to James Sharpe from 1670 had passed to Daniel Reading by 1703; George Eaton held Cromwellstown for 39 years from 1670; William Palmer held a portion of Kilteel for 99 years from 1670 and in 1677 Thomas Cholmondley was granted a portion including the modern townland of Cupidstown for 51 years.[63] Daniel Reading also held the lease of Kilteel Castle and the adjacent lands. After the Williamite Wars Tyrconnell was attainted and his lands confiscated. The castle and 'Reading's farm, being part of Kilteele' with 376 plantation acres, were bought by the Hollow Sword Blade Company for £976 on 23 June 1703.[64] This estate was sold to Sir William Fownes in 1706.[65][66]

Quaker community

A Quaker community briefly flourished at Kilteel, possibly with the encouragement of Tyrconnell, who showed sympathy towards the Quakers during the brief period of Catholic political ascendancy after the ascension of James II.[67] In 1678 James Ashton held the first Quaker meeting at his house in Kilteel. In 1704 'with the assistance of a few other friends in his neighbourhood' he built a Meeting House. In 1690 the Dublin Quaker community administered relief to the Quakers in Kilteel.[68] The meeting house was moved to Castlewarden in 1723.[69] James Ashton's 1704 will passed his lease of the 'millfarm' and Kilwarden to his wife and daughter and his lease from Daniel Reading to his son, Thomas Ashton of Kilteel. Jonathan Hayes, a trustee of the will, is described as a farmer of Millfarm. The townland of Newrow may owe its name to Ashton or Hayes who held property in New Row, Dublin.[70] Thomas Cholmondley's holding of 178 plantation acres, 'alias Brians farme', was bought by Joseph Maddock, a Quaker linen draper, in 1703.[71] Maddock's will of 1713 passed the 'lands of Cupidstown together with Cholmondly's farm' to his son Joseph.[72][73] In 1784 Mary Maddock leased Cupidstown to Peter Fox and his wife Abigail Maddock.[74][75]

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries[edit]

Population and landholding

In 1766, Robert Green, vicar of Rathmore, Kilteel and Kilbride, recorded five Protestant families and 33 Roman Catholic families in Kilteel parish.[76] From at least the 18th century the village had annual fairs on 1 May, 24 June, 29 September and 2 November and fairs continued to be held into the 20th century.[54][77][78][79] The 1821 census estimated the 'village' of Kilteel had 43 families, totalling 316 people in 36 houses.[80] The 1841 Census of the civil parish recorded 129 inhabited houses, declining to 112 inhabited houses in 1851.[81] The population reached its lowest point of 181 people in the middle of the twentieth century.

In 1838 the Kilteel estate of William Fownes Tighe, a descendant of William Fownes, was bought by Sir John Kennedy of Johnstown Kennedy.[65] In the 1853 Primary Valuations, Francis Kennedy of Johnstown is listed as lessor of all lands in the townlands of Blackchurch, Kilteel Lower, Kilteel Upper and the village of Kilteel. The castle and the adjacent buildings (with the highest valuation in the parish), were leased by John Ebbs from Francis Kennedy. Reverend Smyth Whitelaw Fox of Rathmines and Cupidstown, descended from Peter Fox and Abigail Maddock, was the lessor of all lands in Rathbane and Oldtown, the Haughton family held Cromwellstown and Cromwellstownhill and the Cogan family of Tinode leased Cupidstown and Cupidstownhill from Fox.[82][83] Fox-Whitelaw's lands were sold under the Incumbered Estates Act in 1853 and in the Landed Estates Court in 1866.[84] The Kennedy lands were sold under the Land Purchase Acts in 1898.[85] John Ebbs' leaseholds, acquired in 1834 and 1835, were sold in the Land Court in 1878.[86]

National school

A National school, built in 1843, recorded in the 1853 Primary Valuations and the 1911 Census and depicted on the Ordnance Survey maps, closed in 1968; the building, with the original datestone, survives next to Brennan's Public House.[87][88] The school had 100 pupils in 1845.[89]

Royal Irish Constabulary barracks

A Royal Irish Constabulary barracks, marked on the 1838 OS maps and recorded in the 1911 Census, survives as a private dwelling.[90][91] A barracks was present from at least 1827, with one constable and three sub-constables in 1829.[92] In October 1920 the barracks was attacked during the Irish War of Independence; the officers were withdrawn to Naas and the building was burnt by the Kill Company of the Irish Republican Army.[93] A minor confrontation between Free State and Irregular forces took place at Kilteel in 1923 during the Irish Civil War.[94]

Catholic church

While the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage describes the Catholic church of St. Laurence O'Toole as dating from c. 1870, a 1935 Irish Times article describes the construction and dedication of the chapel of ease in that year and the church is not depicted on the 25 Inch OS maps.[95][96][97] The parish presumably contained an earlier Catholic chapel or mass house, though it is possible the churches at Crosschapel and Kilbride, the latter present from 1776, served this purpose.

The Kilteel Inn

An account of a murder trial in the Freeman's Journal refers to James Goslin's public house in Kilteel in 1824. James and Matthew Goslin were acquitted of the murder of Patrick Hill at the fair of Kilteel on 1 May 1823.[98] The 1853 Valuations list James and Matthew Goslin among the lessees of a plot containing the site of the Kilteel Inn, though no public house is recorded in the Valuations. In September 1875 Bartholomew Goslin applied for a licence to 'sell by retail ale, beer, spirits, &c at my house, situate at Kilteel aforesaid....which house is fitted up for the accomodation of travellers'.[99] Goslin was decribed as a publican at the time of his death in 1887.[100] Margaret Goslin of Kilteel, presumably a widow or daughter, applied for a spirit licence in 1888.[101] A substantial public house is described in the 1901 and 1911 Censuses, then owned by James J. Morrin.[87][102] Morrin's of Kilteel, a fully licensed premises, was advertised for sale in January 1921.[103][104]

Mill

The townland of Oldmilltown presumably contained one of the mills recorded in the Civil Survey and the 'Millfarm' recorded in 1670. 'Old Mill' is marked on Noble and Keenan's 1752 map and the 1838 Ordnance Survey marks the 'Old Mill' at the northern extent of the townland.[105][106] The 1853 Valuations list Thomas Kelly as the lessee of the mill. The leasehold of a dwelling house, corn mill and 16 acres in Old Mill, 'with a steady supply of water to the mill' was advertised for sale in the Kildare Observer in 1882.[107] The Old Mill is marked on the 25 Inch OS map. Traces of the buildings and millrace depicted survive.

Kilteel wood

Kilteel Wood, a small oak wood north of the village is depicted in its current location and extent on the 1838 Ordance Survey map and is marked as a fox covert on the Valuations maps and the 25 Inch OS map.[108] The wood is a Proposed Natural Heritage Area (001394).[109]

Ordnance Survey stations

An Ordnance Survey trigonometrical station is located at the top of Cupidstownhill. Traces of a second station are visible within the prehistoric enclosure north of the village.[110]

Sport[edit]

Sporting history

RIC records from 1890 show that Kilteel King O'Tooles club had 30 members.[111]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://ncg.nuim.ie/content/projects/famine/maps/pop/Kildare/
  2. ^ Simington, Robert C. 1962. The Civil Survey AD 1654–56: Vol. VIII: County of Kildare. Irish Manuscripts Commission, Dublin. p. 30
  3. ^ Registry of Deeds, Book 75, Page 494, Memorial No. 54090
  4. ^ a b Noble J. & Keenan J. 1752. Map of county Kildare. D.Pomarede, Dublin.
  5. ^ Otway Ruthven, Jocelyn 'Knight's Fees in Kildare, Leix and Offaly' in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Vol. 91, No. 2 (1961), pp. 163-181, p. 166
  6. ^ in Rolf Loeber, Harman Murtagh and John Cronin (eds.) 2001, 'Prelude to Confiscation: A Survey of Catholic Estates in Leinster in 1690' in The Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, Vol. 131, (2001), pp. 61-139, p. 96.
  7. ^ Manning, Conleth 1982. 'Excavations at Kilteel Church, Co. Kildare' in Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, Volume XVI pp. 173-229, p. 176
  8. ^ Nicholls 1994.Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I.Dublin. Elizabeth No. 1087
  9. ^ a b Anonymous.1701. A List of the Claims As They are Entered with the Trustees at Chichester House on College Greene. Dublin, p. 52
  10. ^ Registry of Deeds, Book 75, Page 494, Memorial No. 54090.
  11. ^ http://www.thecore.com/seanruad/
  12. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-005: "A Registered Historic Monument. Shown as a circular feature in this general area on Taylor's Map of County Kildare (1783). Prominently sited on a wooded hilltop (OD 815 feet) with excellent views in all directions. A slightly raised, almost circular central area (diams. 25m E-W; 23m N-S; H 0.6-0.8m) has a small, low mound in its SW sector (diam 4.5m; H 0.6-0.7m), probably the remains of the Trigonometrical station shown on the OS 6-inch mapping, and is girdled by a broad, shallow fosse (Wth 6m), and a low outer bank (H 0.7m; Wth 2m). Intermittent traces of a possible second, narrow, shallow, outer fosse (Wth 1m; D 0.2m) may be a later feature. Some 4m to the SW, a large, roughly squared, stone block (dims. L 1.2m; Wth 1m; H 0.9m) appears to have been deliberately set in place, while two further, overgrown blocks to the SE are of uncertain significance. The monument may be a barrow which was subsequently modified for use as an inauguration site."
  13. ^ http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,698231,721656,7,9
  14. ^ John Taylor's Map of the Environs of Dublin 1816. Phoenix Maps.
  15. ^ Nicholls, K. 1986, 'Medieval Leinster dynasties and families: Three Topographical Notes', pp. 409-15 in Peritia, Volume V, pp. 409-415, p. 413.
  16. ^ http://logainm.ie/Viewer.aspx?text=kilteel&streets=yes
  17. ^ Manning, Conleth 1982. 'Excavations at Kilteel Church, Co. Kildare' in Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, Volume XVI pp. 173-229, p. 176
  18. ^ http://monasticon.celt.dias.ie/showrecord.php?id=2362
  19. ^ http://monasticon.celt.dias.ie/showrecord.php?id=1581
  20. ^ Butler Revd. Richard 1845. Registrum Prioratus Omnium Sanctorum Juxta Dublin. Dublin. p. 96
  21. ^ Nicholls, K. 1986, 'Medieval Leinster dynasties and families: Three Topographical Notes', pp. 409-15 in Peritia, Volume V, pp. 409-415, p. 413.
  22. ^ http://www.excavations.ie/Pages/Details.php?Year=&County=Kildare&id=11725
  23. ^ http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,699373,720613,6,7
  24. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-007005
  25. ^ http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,698346,721334,7,9
  26. ^ a b Manning, Conleth. 1996. 'Kilteel Revisited' in Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, Volume XVIII, pp. 297-300
  27. ^ Manning, Conleth 1982. 'Excavations at Kilteel Church, Co. Kildare' in Journal of the County Kildare Archaeological Society, Volume XVI pp. 173-229
  28. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-007002
  29. ^ Leask, Harold 'Carved stones discovered at Kilteel, Co. Kildare' in JRSAI 65 (1935) 1-8.
  30. ^ "Manning 1982. pp. 173-229
  31. ^ Nicholls, K. 1986, 'Medieval Leinster dynasties and families: Three Topographical Notes', pp. 409-15 in Peritia, Volume V, pp. 409-415, p. 414.
  32. ^ Wood, Herbert & Langman, Albert, 1956. Calendar of the Justiciary Rolls of Ireland:1308-1314. Dublin. Stationery Office - http://archive.org/stream/calendarofjustic03irel#page/44/mode/2up
  33. ^ Litton Falkiner, C. 1907. ‘The Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in Ireland’ in Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. 26 (1906–1907), pp 275-317, p. 310
  34. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-007003
  35. ^ a b 'Kilteel Castle' in Dublin Penny Journal, No. 68, Vol. II, Oct. 19, 1833
  36. ^ http://chancery.tcd.ie/roll/29-Edward-III/Patent
  37. ^ D'Alton, John (1838), The History of the County of Dublin. Dublin. p. 34
  38. ^ a b O'Donnell, M.G, 'The Pale Boundary at Cupidstown, Co. Kildare' in Cleary et al. 1987, Archaeological Excavations on the Cork-Dublin Gas Pipeline. pp. 106-110
  39. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-008: Description: "The area which would later be called 'The English Pale', from the Latin 'palus', a stake, and also possibly from the name of an earthen fortification at Calais in France (Lydon 1972, 261), originated in the 14th century when Norman settlers began fortifying their lands in counties Dublin, Kildare, Louth and Meath against attack by the native Irish. By 1435, ongoing attacks, probably primarily aimed at cattle theft (O'Riordáin 1971, 15), prompted the concept of an additional, linear defensive feature, the boundaries of which were defined in a 1488 Act of Parliament as extending, 'from Merrion inclusive to the waters of the Dodder, by the new ditch to Saggard, Rathcoole, Kilheel (Kilteel), Rathmore and Ballymore (Eustace), thence to the county of Kildare into Ballycutlan (Coghlanstown), Harristown and Naas, and so thence to Clane, Kilboyne, and Kilcock' (Mc Neill 1950, 250). In 1494, Parliament directed that, 'every inhabitant, earth tiller and occupier in said marches (borderlands), do build and make a double ditch six feet high above ground at one side or part which meareth next unto Irishmen between this and next Lammas (August 1st.), the said ditches to be kept up and repaired as long as they shall occupy said land.' However, Ellis (Ellis S. G. 'The emergence of the English Pale in Ireland' in Irish Historical Studies) points to a statute in Poyning's parliament in 1495 for 'ditches to be made aboute the Inglishe pale' as the first application of the term to Ireland. The Pale contracted eastwards in subsequent years and it is not certain if its original extent was ever completely ditched. By the 17th century the Pale had ceased to have any real political or defensive significance. Only a few short sections have been positively identified in Co Kildare; in Kilteel Upper/Cupidstown near Rathmore (KD020-008-----), in Bishopsland just SW of Ballymore Eustace (KD029-039----), at Castlebrown or Clongowes (KD010-021----/KD014-008----) and finally, the best preserved, semi-continuous portion which runs for c. 3365m through the townlands of Ballybrack, Ballyloughan, Clonduff, Clonfert South and Graiguepottle, c. 5km N of Clongowes (KD010-001----). In Kilteel Upper/Cupidstown, a 1966 aerial photograph (CUCAP APA 56) shows extensive earthworks around the early monastic foundation of 'Cell céli críst' (KD020-007002-) upon which a preceptory of Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem (KD020-007003-) was founded in the 13th century. Manning (1981–82, 213, 219) subsequently identified some of the earthworks which ran to the S and W of the preceptory as being part of the Pale Boundary (traceable L c. 1100m). The main line of the earthwork, to the S of the ecclesiastical remains, was a shallow ditch (Wth 3.5m; D 0.6m) with a broad, low earthen bank (Wth 6.5m; H 0.6m) 'outside', to S, and a low, earthen, bastion-like projection was also noted. A small, overgrown section of the earthwork c. 750m E of the ecclesiastical remains was subsequently excavated archaeologically as it lay on the line of the Cork-Dublin Gas-pipeline (O'Donnell 1987, 110; Cleary et al. 1987, 106-110). An earthen bank (H 1.27m; Wth 2m) had a shallow, 'outer' ditch (Wth 2.26m; D 0.23m) to SW, while second 'inner' ditch to NE had been recently recut. A palisade-trench (D 0.38m; Wth at top 0.34m; Wth at base 0.24m) was found running along the top of the bank."
  40. ^ http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,698598,721052,7,0
  41. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-006 "Description: A National Monument (No. 275), standing at the W edge of the Kilteel Early Christain and medieval ecclesiastical complex (KD020-007001- to KD020-007012-), around which the Pale Ditch (KD020-008----) also runs, and associated both with a Preceptory of the Knights Hospitallers (KD020-007003-) and the subsequent defence of the Pale. On a narrow terrace near the top of the moderate, SE-facing slope of a minor valley through which a small stream flows SW, and overlooked by slightly higher ground WSW-N-NE. A probable 15th century, rectangular, five-storied, roofed structure (ext. dims. L 8.5m NE-SW; Wth 5.5m; av. wall T 1.05m) comprises four floor levels above a barrel-vaulted (NE-SW axis) basement with a second vault over fourth-floor level. Built of randomly coursed limestone blocks and flags with well-dressed quoins and voussoirs, it has a projecting D-shaped stairs tower (ext. diam. c. 3.2m; int. diam 1.6m) at the SW end of the NW sidewall, and is adjoined at SW by a gatehouse (KD020-006001-). The basement (int. dims. L 6.4m NE-SW; Wth 3.65m) is entered through a probably later doorway in the SW gable wall, and has a low, vaulted ceiling (H 2.1m). Lit by only two loops, with steeply plunging sills, flanking a probably inserted and now robbed-out fireplace in the NE gable wall, the basement contains wall-cupboards in the NW, SE and SW walls, and a small, stone drain near the SW end of the SE wall. A narrow (Wth 0.5m), square-headed doorway immediately to the left (NW) of the main doorway gives access to the spiral stairs in the projecting tower. A loop near ground level looks SW across the adjoining gate arch, and six more loops light the tower; a second near ground level and one at the top look NW, while in between, four loops in a vertical line look WNW. Plain, square-headed doorways give access off the stairs to the upper floors, and, from a cap house on the stairs tower, to wall-walk level. A doorway between first and second-floor levels gives access to the first floor of the adjoining gate house which is also accessed through doorways in the SW gable wall of the main building at second and third-floor levels. Floor levels are indicated by corbels in the NW and SE sidewalls and each floor is lit by plain, rectangular windows in large embrasures in each wall (some with window-seating), those in the NE and SE walls rising in a vertical line, one above the other. There are fireplaces and wall-cupboards on each floor, except the fourth. A former window in the NE gable wall on first-floor level was broken out to form a doorway, possibly to give access to a wall walk of a formerly adjoining bawn (KD020-006002-). The low, stone-slabbed, A-roof, the guttering and the crenelations have been restored and chimney stacks on the NW, NE and SE walls have been lowered and capped below crenelation height. In 2005, an archaeological assessment (Licence No. 05E0681: 'Excavations 2005' 2008, (No. 761) 186) and subsequent monitoring of topsoil removal in 2006 (Licence No. 06E2475, C159: 'Excavations 2006' 2009, (No. 965) 246) at a single-house development c. 80m SW of the monument uncovered some 20 sherds of pottery, 14 of which were medieval in date, including Leinster cooking ware, Dublin-type coarseware and Dublin-type fine ware, with the remainder being post-medieval date in date. (Killanin and Duignan 1967, 408; Harbison 1975, 123) Compiled by: Gearóid Conroy"
  42. ^ http://maps.osi.ie/publicviewer/#V1,698311,721258,7,3
  43. ^ Record of Monuments and Places KD020-006, KD020-006002
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