Kim (Korean surname)
|Region of origin||Korea|
|Language(s) of origin||Korean|
Kim (occasionally romanized as Gim) is the most common surname in the Korean Peninsula and among the Korean diaspora. The hanja (Chinese character) for Kim is 金, meaning "gold". The Korean pronunciation varies: as a common noun meaning "gold", it is pronounced [kɯm] (금, geum) but, as a surname or in place names, it is pronounced [kim] (김, gim). Kim is the most common last name in Korea.
In Japan, some Koreans use the kanji 金 either by itself or in combination with other characters. This is sometimes read as Kin and sometimes as Kane- (e.g. Kaneda, Kanemoto) in kun'yomi, but not every Japanese or Chinese person who bears such a name is of Korean descent. The modern Mandarin pronunciation for "金" is jīn([tɕin˥˥]) but the modern Cantonese is "gam1"([kɐm˥˥]/[kɐm˥˧]), which may be seen as more similar to the Korean and Middle Chinese pronunciation (/kɰim/) in some aspects.
As with most other Korean family names, there are many Kim clans, known in Korean as bon-gwan (본관, 本貫), each of which consists of individual Kim families. Most Kims belong to one of a few very large clans. Even within each clan, people in different families are not related to each other. These distinctions are important, since Korean law used to prohibit intermarriage in the same clan, no matter how remote the relationship; now, however, only those in a relationship of second cousins or closer are prohibited from marrying.
As with other Korean family names, the Kim clans are distinguished by the place from which they claim to originate. A very large number of distinct Kim clans exist, besides those listed here. The 2000 South Korean census listed 348 extant Kim lineages.
According to the journalist's research, "Kim" was originally "Moyong", a clan of Xiongnu. Some research states that the Old Kims are descended from the Great Huns: north Asian people, including Mongols, Turkic and Koreans. Linguists say that Korean is derived from the Altaic. Some historians believe that the Huns originated from the Xiongnu.
According to a story recorded only in the Samguk Yusa, in AD 48, Princess Heo Hwang-ok travelled from a country called "Ayuda" to Korea, where she married King Suro of Geumgwan Gaya and gave birth to 10 children, thus starting the Kim dynasty of Geumgwan Gaya, the capital of which was in present-day Goryeong County. The country of Ayuda is often identified with Ayodhya in India.
Famous ancient members of this clan, aside from the kings of Geumgwan Gaya, include the Silla general Kim Yu-shin. In the Unified Silla period, members of the Gimhae Kim family were admitted to all but the highest level of the Silla bone rank system.
This clan is by far the most populous of all Korean clans. The 2000 South Korean census found it to add up more than four million people.
The Gyeongju Kims (Hangul: 경주김씨, Hanja: 慶州金氏) trace their descent from the ruling family of Silla. The founder of this clan is said to have been Kim Alji, an orphan adopted by King Talhae of Silla in the 1st century AD. Alji's seventh-generation descendant was the first member of the clan to take the throne, as King Michu of Silla in the year 262.
This clan is also extremely populous. In the South Korean census of 2000, more than 1.7 million citizens claimed to be Gyeongju Kims.
The Nagan Kim (Hangul: 낙안김씨, Hanja: 樂安金氏) clan is extremely rare. Its progenitor (Hangul: 김수징, Hanja: 金粹澄) was a descendant of the last king of Silla and established their ancestral home in Suncheon. In the South Korean census of 2000, less than 10,000 citizens claimed to be Nagan Kims.
The Hamchang Kims (Hangul: 함창김씨, Hanja: 咸昌金氏) trace their origin to the founder of the little-known Gaya state of Goryeong Gaya. His alleged tomb, rediscovered in the 16th century, is still preserved by the modern-day members of the clan. This clan numbered only 26,300 members in the 2000 South Korean census.
Shin Andong Kim clan was one of the powerful clans that dominated the later part of the Joseon Dynasty. One of the most powerful members from the clan was the Honorable Kim Jo-sun, who was the father-in-law to King Sunjo. Kim Jo-sun's daughter was Queen Sunwon.
Gwangsan Kim clan (Kwangsan Kim clan) (Hangul: 광산김씨, Hanja: 光山金氏) was one of the most prominent clans during the Joseon Dynasty. The members of the Gwangsan Kim clan are the descendants of Heung Gwang (흥광, 興光), who was the third prince of King Sinmu of Silla, the 45th monarch of the Silla Dynasty.
Cheongpung Kim clan (Hangul: 청풍김씨, Hanja: 淸風金氏) was one of the aristocratic families during the Joseon Dynasty. Two queens were from this clan during that period. Several members of the clan also became prime ministers.
Gangneung Kim clan (Hangul: 강릉김씨, Hanja: 江陵金氏) originated from Gangneung, Gangwondo, South Korea. The progenitor was Kim Ju-won (김주원, 金周元) who was a descendant of King Taejong Muyeol the Great of Silla.
Sangsan Kim clan (Hangul: 상산김씨, Hanja: 商山金氏) originated from Sangju in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. The progenitor was Kim Su (김수, 金需) and the clan had members that participated in the government of Joseon.
Ulsan Kim clan (Hangul: 울산김씨, Hanja:蔚山金氏) originated from Ulsan in South Korea. One of the members of this clan, Kim Inhu, was one of the 18 Sages of Korea and honored as a Munmyo Bae-hyang, (문묘배향, 文廟配享).
Seoheung Kim clan (Hangul: 서흥김씨, Hanja: 瑞興金氏) was one of the smaller Kim clans during the Joseon Dynasty. The progenitor was Kim Bo (김보, 金寶) and one of the members was Kim Gwoeng-pil (김굉필, 金宏弼), who was one of the 18 Sages of Korea and honored as Munmyo Bae-hyang, (문묘배향, 文廟配享).
- Korean culture
- Korean name
- List of Korea-related topics
- List of Korean family names
- Jin, the equivalent Chinese surname
- Storey, Robert. Lonely Planet: Korea. Lonely Planet Publications: Melbourne, Aus. 2001.