Kindness is the act or the state of being kind, being marked by good and charitable behavior, pleasant disposition, and concern for others. It is known as a virtue, and recognized as a value in many cultures and religions (see ethics in religion). Research has shown that acts of kindness does not only benefit receivers of the kind act, but also the giver, as a result of the release of neurotransmitters responsible for feelings of contentment and relaxation when such acts are committed. 
In philosophy 
- According to book two of Aristotle's "Rhetoric" it is one of the (see list of emotions), which is defined as being "helpfulness towards some one in need, not in return for anything, nor for the advantage of the helper himself, but for that of the person helped".
- Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche argued that kindness and love are the "most curative herbs and agents in human intercourse".
- Kindness is considered to be one of the Knightly Virtues.
- According to eighteenth century Bohemian philosopher Honza z Žižkova kindness is the most important part of his practical philosophy on deceiving bureaucracy. Kindness is also thought by many to be the lost 11th of the 10 commandments. "Thou shall be merciful and kind to all creatures that roam the fruits of thy land." Peter IIV
In religion 
- It is considered to be one of the seven virtues, specifically the one of the Seven Contrary Virtues (direct opposites of the seven deadly sins) that is the direct opposite to envy.
- The Talmud claims that "deeds of kindness are equal in weight to all the commandments."
- Paul of Tarsus characterizes love as being "patient and kind..." (I Corinthians).
- It is listed as one of the Christian Fruits of the Spirit by Paul of Tarsus in his Letter to the Galatians 5:22, "The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law."
- In Buddhism, one of the Ten Perfections (Paramitas) is Mettā, which is usually translated into English as "loving-kindness". Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama wrote "my religion is kindness" and authored a book entitled "Kindness, Clarity, and Insight".
- Confucius urges his followers to "recompense kindness with kindness."
- Basavanna's 'most-quoted saying in Kannada asks, "Where is religion without loving-kindness?"'.
- In Islam there are many Surahs of Allahs kindness to his slaves. The Prophet Muhammad himself said "Allah is kind and He loves Kindness". One of the first traditions of behaviour passed down to Muslim children is the Seminal doctrine "Have Mercy to those on Earth and the One in Heaven shall have Mercy upon you". The Mercy mentioned here completely embodies Kindness.
In psychoanalysis 
Analysts warn that 'real kindness changes people in the doing of it, often in unpredictable ways. Real kindness is an exchange with essentially unpredictable consequences'.
They also argue that, in a relationship, 'real kindness, real fellow-feeling, entails hating and being hated - that is, really feeling available frustrations – and through this coming to a more real relationship'.
In literature 
- It has been suggested that 'most of Shakespeare's opus could be considered a study of human kindness'.
- Robert Louis Stevenson considered that 'the essence of love is kindness; and indeed it may best be defined as passionate kindness: kindness, so to speak, run mad and become importunate and violent'.
See also 
- Kindness Day UK
- Kindness UK
- Pay it forward
- Random act of kindness
- The Kindness Offensive
- UK Kindness Movement
- Australian Kindness Movement
- Poquérusse, Jessie. "The Neuroscience of Sharing". Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Aristotle (translated by Lee Honeycutt). "Kindness". Rhetoric, book 2, chapter 7. Retrieved 2005-11-22.
- Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. "On the History of Moral Feelings," Human, all too human: a book for free spirits. Aphorism 48. [Original: Menschliches, Allzumenschiles, 1878.] Trans. Marion Faber with Stephen Lehman. University of Nebraska Press: First Printing, Bison Books, 1996.
- "Contrary, Heavenly, and Cardinal Virtues". 7 Deadly Sins. Retrieved 2005-11-22.
- Dalai Lama (1984). "Kindness, Clarity, and Insight." Snow Lion Publications (ISBN 978-0937938188)
- A. K. Ramanujan, Speaking of Śiva (Penguin 1979) p. 54
- Adam Phillips & Barbara Taylor, On Kindness (London 2009) p. 12
- Phillips, p. 94
- Lagrette Tallent Lenker, Fathers and Daughters in Shakespeare and Shaw (2001) p. 107
- robert Louis Stevenson, Virginibus Puerisque (London 1909) p. 35
Further reading 
- RABBI-UL-AWWAL (July 1998). "What is Kindness to Parents?". Islamic Voice. 12-07 (139).
- El-Sayed M. Amin. "Kindness to a Non-Muslim Neighbor: Tips for Interaction". Society. Islam Online. Archived from the original on 2005-08-28. Retrieved 2005-11-22.
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