King's commissioned Indian officer

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A King's commissioned Indian officer (KCIO) was an Indian officer of the British Indian Army who held a full King's commission after training at the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in England, as opposed to the Indian commissioned officers (ICOs), who were trained at the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, and the Viceroy's commissioned officers (VCOs), who were treated in almost all respects as commissioned officers, but who only had authority over Indian troops.

KCIOs were introduced in the early 20th century under the Indianisation process. They were equivalent in every way to the British officers holding a King's commission (known in India as King's commissioned officers, or KCOs). They held the same ranks, and unlike VCOs had authority over British troops. In fact, most KCIOs served on attachment to a British unit for a year or two early in their careers.

One of the first KCIOs was Rana Jodha Jung Bahadur, who fought in Great World War I commanding Tehri-Garhwal Sappers and Miners from 1915 to 1919 in France, Flanders, Egypt and Mesopotamia. He later commanded forces in the Afghan and Wazirstan Wars as well. He received 5 bullet wounds in the neck and upper shoulder during World War I at Battle of Loos and recovered in a London hospital. He was awarded many medals and honors during his long military career. During World War I at the Battle of Loos, in the MID of British Military London News, following was mentioned:
"Rana Jodha Jang Bahadur, who, in spite of being wounded, continued to lead his men against the Germans, and did not desist until a second wound in the neck rendered him unconscious. The Rana displayed great tenacity, leadership and conspicuous gallantry by leading his company right up to the German defenses in the face of heavy fire"
His titles read: Commander-in-Chief Tripura State Forces, Col. Rana Jodha Jung Bahadur, MBE; MIC, MID, GSM, Victory, Jubilee, War and Coronation Medals; KCIO 1st King Commissioned Officer.

Many officers who later held high rank in the post-independence Indian Army and Pakistan Army began their careers as KCIOs. Kodandera Madappa Cariappa, Hanmantrao Mohite, Kodendera Subayya Thimayya, S. P. P. Thorat, Jai Singh, Moti Sagar, B. M. Kaul, Ishfakul Majid and Ayub Khan were a few of the Sandhurst-trained officers.

The last of the KCIOs in Indian Army Service was General P. P. Kumaramangalam, who retired in 1969.

Some King's commissioned officers who were captured by the Japanese in Malaya joined the Indian National Army.[clarification needed] They were subsequently tried by the British for treason and court martialled at the Red Fort trials. Colonel Abdul Aziz Sultan Mohammad Tajik of Peshawar and Prince Burhanuddin of Chitral were two such officers. As they joined Pakistan, they never got their pensions and dues.[citation needed]