|King of Thailand|
|Reign||9 June 1946 – present|
|Coronation||5 May 1950|
|Heir apparent||Maha Vajiralongkorn|
|Spouse||Sirikit Kitiyakara (1950–present)|
|Issue||Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya
Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn
Princess Chulabhorn Walailak
|House||House of Mahidol
|Father||Mahidol Adulyadej, Prince of Songkla|
|Mother||Srinagarindra, The Princess Mother|
5 December 1927 |
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; RTGS: Phumiphon Adunyadet; pronounced [pʰūː.mí.pʰōn ʔà.dūn.já.dèːt] ( listen); see full title below; born 5 December 1927) is the King of Thailand. He is also known as Rama IX, as he is the ninth monarch of the Chakri Dynasty. Having reigned since 9 June 1946, he is the world's longest-serving current head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history, serving for 68 years, 349 days.
King Bhumibol is respected and revered by most Thais. In 1957, the overthrow of his then government was justified with allegations of lèse majesté, which is offence against the dignity of the monarch, punishable under Thai law. Although Bhumibol did invite public criticism in a 2005 speech, the lèse majesté laws have not been revoked by the Thai parliament.
Forbes estimated Bhumibol's fortune—including property and investments managed by the Crown Property Bureau (CPB), a unique body that is neither private nor government-owned—to be US$30 billion in 2010, and he was the leader of the magazine's list of "The World's Richest Royals" from 2008 to 2013. In May 2014, Bhumibol's wealth was once again listed as US$30 billion. Officially the assets managed by the CPB are owned by the crown as an institution, not Bhumibol Adulyadej as an individual.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Succession and marriage
- 3 Coronation and titles
- 4 Role in Thai politics
- 5 Royal powers
- 6 Royal projects
- 7 60th Anniversary celebrations
- 8 Private life
- 9 Wealth
- 10 Lèse majesté
- 11 Biographies
- 12 Succession to the throne
- 13 Titles and styles
- 14 Issue
- 15 Ancestors
- 16 Works
- 17 Biographies
- 18 See also
- 19 References
- 20 External links
Bhumibol was born at the Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States on 5 December 1927. He was the youngest son of HRH Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, the Prince of Songkla, and his commoner wife Mom Sangwan (later HRH Princess Srinagarindra, the Princess Mother). His US birth certificate reads simply "Baby Songkla", as the parents had to consult his uncle, King Rama VII (Prajadhipok), then head of the House of Chakri, for an auspicious name. The king chose Bhumibol Adulyadej, meaning "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power" (from Sanskrit भूमिबल अतुल्यतेज, bhūmibala atulyatēja). His father was enrolled in the Public Health program at Harvard University, hence his unusual place of birth for a Thai monarch. He is the only monarch to be born in the U.S. Bhumibol had an elder sister, Princess Galyani Vadhana, and an elder brother, Prince Ananda Mahidol.
Bhumibol came to Thailand in 1928, after Prince Mahidol obtained a certificate from Harvard. The father died of kidney failure in September 1929, when Bhumibol was two years old. He briefly attended Mater Dei school in Bangkok but in 1933 his mother took the family to Switzerland, where he continued his education at the Ecole Nouvelle de la Suisse Romande in Lausanne. In 1934 Bhumibol was given his first camera, which induced his lifelong enthusiasm for photography. When Bhumibol's childless uncle Prajadhipok abdicated in 1935, his 9-year-old brother Ananda became the new King Rama VIII. However, the family stayed in Switzerland and the affairs of the head of state were conducted by a regency council. They returned to Thailand for only two months in 1938. In 1942, Bhumibol became a jazz enthusiast, and started to play the saxophone, a passion that he has kept throughout his life. He received the baccalauréat des lettres (high-school diploma with major in French literature, Latin, and Greek) from the Gymnase Classique Cantonal of Lausanne, and by 1945 had begun studying science at the University of Lausanne, when World War II ended and the family returned to Thailand.
Succession and marriage
|Thai Royal Family|
HM The King
Bhumibol ascended the throne following the death by gunshot wound of his brother, King Ananda Mahidol, on 9 June 1946, under circumstances that remain unclear. While a first government statement declared that Ananda had accidentally shot himself, an investigation committee ruled that this was impossible. Two palace aides were convicted of regicide and executed. A third possible explanation, that Bhumibol accidentally shot his brother while the boys played with their guns, was never seriously considered, as such an implication could have strongly damaged the institution of monarchy.
Bhumibol succeeded his brother, but returned to Switzerland before the end of the 100-days mourning period. Despite his interest in science and technology, he changed the subject and enrolled in law and political science to prepare for his duties as head of state. His uncle, Rangsit, Prince of Chainat, was appointed Prince Regent. In Bhumibol's name, Prince Rangsit authorized a military coup that overthrew the government of Thamrongnawasawat in November 1947. He also signed the 1949 constitution, which gave back to the monarchy many of its powers that had been taken away by the 1932 Revolution.
On 4 October 1948, while Bhumibol was driving a Fiat Topolino on the Geneva-Lausanne road, he collided with the rear of a braking truck 10 km outside Lausanne. He hurt his back and incurred cuts on his face that cost him the sight of his right eye. While he was hospitalised in Lausanne, Sirikit visited him frequently. She met his mother, who asked her to continue her studies nearby so that Bhumibol could get to know her better. Bhumibol selected for her a boarding school in Lausanne, Riante Rive. A quiet engagement in Lausanne followed on 19 July 1949, and the couple were married on 28 April 1950, just a week before his coronation.
Bhumibol and his wife Queen Sirikit have four children:
- (Formerly HRH) Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya, born 5 April 1951 in Lausanne, Switzerland; married Peter Ladd Jensen, has 2 daughters. Her autistic son, Bhumi Jensen, was killed in the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
- HRH Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn, born 28 July 1952; married Mom Luang Soamsawali Kitiyakara (later divorced and became HRH the Princess Niece); 1 daughter. Then married Yuvadhida Polpraserth; 4 sons and a daughter. Third marriage was to Srirasmi Suwadee; one son.
- HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, born 2 April 1955; unmarried
- HRH Princess Chulabhorn Walailak, born 4 July 1957; married Virayudh Tishyasarin, (now divorced); 2 daughters
Coronation and titles
Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on 5 May 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pledged that he would "reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม"). Notable elements associated with the coronation included the Bahadrabith Throne beneath the Great White Umbrella of State; and he was presented with the royal regalia and utensils.
In 1950 on Coronation Day, Bhumibol's consort was made Queen (Somdej Phra Boromarajini). The date of his coronation is celebrated each 5 May in Thailand as Coronation Day, a public holiday. On 9 June 2006, Bhumibol celebrated his 60th anniversary as the King of Thailand, becoming the longest reigning monarch in Thai history.
Following the death of his grandmother Queen Savang Vadhana, Bhumibol entered a 15-day monkhood (22 October 1956 – 5 November 1956) at Wat Bowonniwet, as is customary for Buddhist males on the death of elder relatives. During this time, Sirikit was appointed his regent. She was later appointed Queen Regent (Somdej Phra Boromarajininat) in recognition of this.
Although Bhumibol is sometimes referred to as King Rama IX in English, Thais refer to him as Nai Luang or Phra Chao Yu Hua (ในหลวง or พระเจ้าอยู่หัว: both mean "the King" or "Lord Upon our Heads"). He is also called Chao Chiwit ("Lord of Life"). Formally, he would be referred to as Phrabat Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua (พระบาทสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัว) or, in legal documents, Phrabat Somdet Phra Paraminthara Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej (พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช), and in English as His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej. He signs his name as ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช ป.ร. (Bhumibol Adulyadej Por Ror; this is the Thai equivalent of Bhumibol Adulyadej R[ex]).
Role in Thai politics
Plaek Pibulsonggram era
In the early years of his reign, during the government of military dictator Plaek Pibulsonggram, Bhumibol had no real power and was little more than a ceremonial figure under the military-dominated government. In August 1957, six months after parliamentary elections, General Sarit Dhanarajata accused the government of Field Marshal Pibulsonggram of lèse majesté due to its conduct of the 2,500th anniversary celebration of Buddhism. On 16 September 1957, Pibulsonggram went to Bhumibol to seek support for his government. Bhumibol advised the Field Marshal to resign to avoid a coup; however, Pibulsonggram refused. That evening, Sarit Dhanarajata seized power. Two hours later Bhumibol imposed martial law throughout the Kingdom. Bhumibol issued a Proclamation appointing Sarit as "Military Defender of the Capital" without anyone countersigning the Proclamation. It included the following:
|“||Whereas it appears that the public administration by the government under the premiership of Field Marshal P. Phibunsonggram is untrustworthy, and that the government could not maintain the public order; and whereas the military, led by Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata, has successfully taken over the public administration and now acts as the Military Defender of the Capital; Now, therefore, I do hereby appoint Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata as the Military Defender of the Capital, and command that all the citizens shall remain calm whilst all the government officers shall serve the orders issued by Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajat. This Proclamation shall come into force immediately. Done this 16th Day of September, Buddhist Era 2500 (1957).||”|
Sarit Dhanarajata era
During Sarit's dictatorship, the monarchy was revitalised. Bhumibol attended public ceremonies, toured the provinces and patronised development projects. Under Sarit, the practice of crawling in front of royalty during audiences, banned by King Chulalongkorn, was revived in certain situations and the royal-sponsored Thammayut Nikaya order was revitalised. For the first time since the absolute monarchy was overthrown, a king was conveyed up the Chao Phraya River in a Royal Barge Procession to offer robes at temples.
Other disused ceremonies from the classical period of the Chakri Dynasty, such as the royally-patronised ploughing ceremony (Thai: พิธีพืชมงคล), were also revived. Bhumibol's birthday (5 December) was declared the national day, replacing the previous national day, the anniversary of the Siamese Revolution of 1932 (24 June). Upon Sarit's death in 8 December 1963, an unprecedented 21 days of mourning were declared in the palace. A royal five-tier umbrella shaded his body while it lay in state. Long-time royal adviser Phraya Srivisarn Vacha later noted that no Prime Minister ever had such an intimate relationship with Bhumibol as Sarit.
Contemporary thinkers differ in their views about the relationship between Bhumibol and Sarit. Paul Handley, writer of The King Never Smiles, views Sarit as Bhumibol's tool, whereas political scientist Thak Chaloemtiarana asserts that Sarit used Bhumibol in order to build his own credibility.
Prem Tinsulanonda era
The ensuing chaos was used as a pretext for a military coup. The junta submitted three names to the king to choose from to become the next Premier: Deputy President of the king's Privy Council Prakob Hutasingh, right-wing Bangkok Governor Thamnoon Thien-ngern and conservative Supreme Court judge Thanin Kraivixien. Bhumibol chose Thanin as the most suitable. However, Thanin proved to be very right-wing himself, causing student protesters to flee to join the communists in the jungle. Thanin was himself overthrown in a military coup in October 1977 led by General Kriangsak Chomanan. Kriangsak was succeeded in 1980 by the popular Army Commander-in-Chief, General Prem Tinsulanond, later the Privy Council President.
Bhumibol's refusal to endorse military coups in 1981 (the April Fool's Day coup) and 1985 (the Share Rebellion) ultimately led to the victory of forces loyal to the government, despite some violence – including in 1981, the seizure of Bangkok by rebel forces. The coups led many to believe that Bhumibol had misjudged Thai society and that his credibility as an impartial mediator between various political and military factions had been compromised.
Crisis of 1992
In 1992, Bhumibol played a key role in Thailand's transition to a democratic system. A coup on 23 February 1991 returned Thailand back under military dictatorship. After a general election in 1992, the majority parties invited General Suchinda Kraprayoon, a leader of the coup group, to be the Prime Minister. This caused much dissent, which escalated into demonstrations that led to a large number of deaths when the military was brought in to control the protesters. The situation became increasingly critical as police and military forces clashed with the protesters. Violence and riots spread out in many areas of the capital with rumours of a rift among the armed forces.
Amidst the fear of civil war, Bhumibol intervened. He summoned Suchinda and the leader of the pro-democracy movement, retired Major General Chamlong Srimuang, to a televised audience, and urged them to find a peaceful resolution. At the height of the crisis, the sight of both men appearing together on their knees (in accordance with royal protocol) made a strong impression on the nation, and led to Suchinda's resignation soon afterwards.
It was one of the few occasions in which Bhumibol directly and publicly intervened in a political conflict. A general election was held shortly afterward, leading to a civilian government.
2003 War on Drugs
In his 4 December 2002 speech on the eve of his birthday, King Bhumibol spoke about the rise in drug use, the high social costs and deaths caused by drugs, and called for a "War on Drugs." Privy Councillor General Phichit Kunlawanit called on the Thaksin Shinawatra government to use its majority in parliament to establish a special court to deal with drug dealers, stating that "if we execute 60,000 the land will rise and our descendants will escape bad karma".
On 14 January 2003, Thaksin launched a campaign to rid "every square inch of the country" of drugs. His War on Drugs campaign consisted of setting provincial arrest and seizure targets including "blacklists", awarding government officials for achieving targets and threatening punishment for those who failed to make the quota, targeting dealers, and "ruthless" implementation. In the first three months, Human Rights Watch reported that 2,275 people were killed, almost double the number normally killed in drug-related violence. Human rights critics claimed a large number were extrajudicially executed. The War on Drugs was widely criticized by the international community.
According to the Narcotics Control Board, the campaign was effective in reducing drug consumption, especially in schools. The War on Drugs was one of the most popular policies of the Thaksin government. Bhumibol, in a 2003 birthday speech, praised Thaksin and criticized those who counted only dead drug dealers while ignoring deaths caused by drugs.
"Victory in the War on Drugs is good. They may blame the crackdown for more than 2,500 deaths, but this is a small price to pay. If the prime minister failed to curb [the drug trade], over the years the number of deaths would easily surpass this toll."
Bhumibol also asked the commander of the police to investigate the killings. Police Commander Sant Sarutanond reopened investigations into the deaths, and again claimed that few of the deaths were at the hands of the police.
After the 2006 coup, the military junta appointed a committee led by former Attorney General Kanit Na Nakorn to investigate deaths in the War on Drugs. The committee found that over half of those killed in 2003 had no links to the drugs trade and blamed the violence on a government "shoot-to-kill" policy based on flawed blacklists. However, no one has been prosecuted, with interim Prime Minister Surayud Chulanont stating that there was insufficient evidence to take legal action.
While he was opposition leader, Abhisit Vejjajiva accused Thaksin of crimes against humanity for the War on Drugs. After he became Prime Minister, Abhisit opened an investigation led by former attorney-general Kampee Kaewcharoen, claiming that a successful probe could lead to prosecution by the International Criminal Court. As of the August 2011 parliamentary elections, Abhisit's investigation failed to find or publicize any evidence linking Thaksin or members of his Government to any extrajudicial killings.
Crisis of 2005–2006 and the September 2006 coup
Background to the coup
Weeks before the April 2006 legislative election, the Democrat Party-led opposition and the People's Alliance for Democracy petitioned Bhumibol to appoint a replacement prime minister and cabinet. Demands for royal intervention met with much criticism from the public. Bhumibol, in a speech on 26 April 2006, responded, "Asking for a Royally-appointed prime minister is undemocratic. It is, pardon me, a mess. It is irrational".
After publicly claiming victory in the boycotted April parliamentary elections, Thaksin Shinawatra had a private audience with the king. A few hours later, Thaksin appeared on national television to announce that he would be taking a break from politics.
In May 2006, the Sondhi Limthongkul-owned Manager Daily newspaper published a series of articles describing the "Finland Plot", alleging that Thaksin and former members of the Communist Party of Thailand planned to overthrow the king and seize control of the nation. No evidence was ever produced to verify the existence of such a plot, and Thaksin and his Thai Rak Thai party vehemently denied the accusations and sued the accusers.
In a rare, televised speech to senior judges, Bhumibol requested the judiciary to take action to resolve the political crisis. On 8 May 2006, the Constitutional Court invalidated the results of the April elections and ordered new elections scheduled for 15 October 2006. The Criminal Court later jailed the Election Commissioners.
On 14 July 2006, Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda addressed graduating cadets of the Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, telling them that the Thai military must serve the King – not the Government.
On 20 July, Bhumibol signed a royal decree endorsing new House elections for 15 October 2006. In an unprecedented act, the King wrote a note on the royal decree calling for a clean and fair election. That very day, Bhumibol underwent spinal surgery.
In the evening of 19 September, the Thai military overthrew the Thaksin government and seized control of Bangkok in a bloodless coup. The junta, led by the Sonthi Boonyaratglin, Commander of the Army, called itself the Council for Democratic Reform under the Constitutional Monarchy, accused the deposed prime minister and his regime of many crimes, including lèse majesté, and pledged its loyalty to Bhumibol. Martial law was declared, the Constitution repealed and the October elections cancelled. Protests and political meetings were banned.
The King's role in the coup was the subject of much speculation among Thai analysts and the international media, although publication of such speculation was banned in Thailand. The King had an audience with Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanonda at the same time as the First Special Forces were ordered mobilised. Anti-coup protesters claimed that Prem was a key mastermind of the coup, although the military claimed otherwise and banned any discussion of the topic. In a BBC interview, Thitinan Pongsudhirak of Chulalongkorn University noted, "This coup was nothing short of Thaksin versus the King... He is widely seen as having implicitly endorsed the coup." In the same interview, social critic Sulak Sivaraksa claimed, "Without his involvement, the coup would have been impossible." Sulak added that the King is "very skillful. He never becomes obviously involved. If this coup goes wrong, Sonthi will get the blame, but whatever happens, the King will only get praise." On Saturday 23 September 2006, the junta warned they would "urgently retaliate against foreign reporters whose coverage has been deemed insulting to the monarchy." The President of Bhumibol's Privy Council, General Prem Tinsulanonda, supported the coup. The junta later appointed Privy Council member General Surayud Chulanont as Prime Minister.
On 20 April 2009, Thaksin claimed in an interview with the Financial Times that Bhumibol had been briefed by Privy Councillors Prem Tinsulanonda and Surayud Chulanont about their plans to stage the 2006 coup. He claimed that General Panlop Pinmanee, a leader of the People's Alliance for Democracy, had told him of the briefing. The Thai embassy in London denied Thaksin's claims.
After the coup
The junta appointed a Constitutional Tribunal to rule on the alleged poll fraud cases concerning the Thai Rak Thai and Democrat political parties. Guilty rulings would have dissolved both parties, Thailand's largest and oldest, respectively, and banned the parties' leadership from politics for five years. The weeks leading up to the verdicts saw rising political tensions. On 24 May 2007, about a week before the scheduled verdict, Bhumibol gave a rare speech to the Supreme Administrative Court (the President of which is also a member of the Constitutional Tribunal). "You have the responsibility to prevent the country from collapsing," he warned them in the speech, which was shown on all national television channels simultaneously during the evening. "The nation needs political parties.... In my mind, I have a judgment but I cannot say," he said. "Either way the ruling goes, it will be bad for the country, there will be mistakes." The Tribunal later acquitted the Democrat Party but dissolved the Thai Rak Thai party and banned 111 of its executives from politics for five years.
The junta-appointed Constitution Drafting Assembly later tried to use the King in a propaganda campaign to increase public support for its widely criticised draft constitution. The CDA placed billboards saying, "Love the King. Care about the King. Vote in the referendum" throughout the Northeast of Thailand, where opposition to the junta was greatest.
2008 crisis and ill health
The military's constitution passed the referendum, and a general election was held in December 2007. The People's Power Party, consisting of many former Thai Rak Thai Party MPs and supporters, won the majority and formed a government. The People's Alliance for Democracy (PAD) refused to accept the election results and started protests, eventually laying siege to Government House, Don Muang Airport, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. Although the PAD claimed they were defending the monarchy, Bhumibol remained silent. However, after a PAD supporter died in a clash with police, Queen Sirikit presided over her cremation. Princess Sirindhorn, when asked at a US press conference whether the PAD was acting on behalf of the monarchy, replied, "I don't think so. They do things for themselves." Questioning and criticism over Bhumibol's role in the crisis increased, particularly from the international press. "It is more and more difficult for them to hold the illusion that the monarchy is universally adored," says a Thai academic.
In April 2008, Bhumibol appointed alleged coup plotter General Surayud Chulanont to the Privy Council of Thailand. In the weeks leading up to the 2011 general election, Bhumibol appointed Air Chief Marshal Chalit Pukbhasuk, a leader of the 2006 military coup, to his Privy Council.
Bhumibol was admitted to Siriraj Hospital in September 2009 for flu and pneumonia. Rumors about his ill-health caused Thai financial markets to tumble in October 2009. He was discharged from Siriraj Hospital to travel to his palace at Hua Hin on 2 August 2013.
- For a historical perspective on how Bhumibol's constitutional powers have changed over time, see the Constitutions of Thailand article
Bhumibol retains enormous powers, partly because of his immense popularity and partly because his powers – although clearly defined in the Thai constitution – are often subject to conflicting interpretations. This was highlighted by the controversy surrounding the appointment of Jaruvan Maintaka as Auditor-General. Jaruvan had been appointed by The State Audit Commission. However, the Constitutional Court ruled in July 2004 that her appointment was unconstitutional. Jaruvan refused to vacate her office without an explicit order from Bhumibol, on the grounds that she had previously been royally approved. When the Senate elected a replacement for Jaruvan, Bhumibol refused to approve him. The Senate declined to vote to override Bhumibol's veto. Finally in February 2006 the Audit Commission reinstated Jaruvan when it became clear from a memo from the Office of the King's Principal Private Secretary that King Bhumibol supported her appointment. Bhumibol has vetoed legislation very rarely. In 1976, when the Parliament voted 149–19 to extend democratic elections down to district levels, Bhumibol refused to sign the law. The Parliament refused to vote to overturn the King's veto. In 1954, Bhumibol vetoed parliamentary-approved land reform legislation twice before consenting to sign it. The law limited the maximum land an individual could hold to 50 rai (80,000 square metres (860,000 sq ft)), at a time when the Crown Property Bureau was the Kingdom's largest land-owner. The law was not enforced as General Sarit soon overthrew the elected government in a coup and repealed the law.
Bhumibol has the constitutional prerogative to pardon criminals, although there are several criteria for receiving a pardon, including age and remaining sentence. The 2006 pardoning of several convicted child rapists, including an Australian rapist and child pornographer, caused controversy. However under the Thailand Constitution, the King has the prerogative to grant a pardon and all laws, Royal Rescripts and Royal Commands relating to State affairs must be countersigned by a Minister unless otherwise provided in this Constitution. The pardon list is created and proposed by the government official, which was under the Shinawatra's 2006 government.
Network monarchy and extraconstitutional powers
Several academics outside Thailand, including Duncan McCargo and Federico Ferrara, have noted the active political involvement of Bhumibol through a "network monarchy," whose most significant proxy is Privy Council President Prem Tinsulanond. McCargo claimed that Bhumibol's conservative network worked behind the scenes to establish political influence in the 1990s, but was threatened by the landslide election victories of Thaksin Shinawatra in 2001 and 2005. Ferrara claimed, shortly before the Thai Supreme Court delivered its verdict to seize Thaksin Shinawatra's assets, that the judiciary was a well-established part of Bhumibol's network and represented his main avenue to exercise extra-constitutional prerogatives despite having the appearance of being constitutional. He also noted how, in comparison to the Constitutional Court's 2001 acquittal of Thaksin, the judiciary was a much more important part of the "network" than it was in the past.
The network's ability to exercise power is based partly on Bhumibol's popularity and strict control of Bhumibol's popular image. According to Jost Pachaly of the Heinrich Böll Foundation, Bhumibol "plays an important role behind the scenes. But the role is difficult to assess because nothing is reported about it and no one really knows anything specific," due to lese majeste laws forbidding discussion about Bhumibol's political activities. Bhumibol's popularity was demonstrated following the 2003 Phnom Penh riots in Cambodia, when hundreds of Thai protesters, enraged by rumors that Cambodian rioters had stomped on photographs of Bhumibol, gathered outside the Cambodian embassy in Bangkok. Photographs of the stomping were not published in Thailand, but were available on the internet. The situation was resolved peacefully only when Police General Sant Sarutanonda told the crowd that he had received a call from royal secretary Arsa Sarasin conveying Bhumibol's request for calm. The crowd dispersed.
"The development of the country must be fostered in stages. It must start with the construction of infrastructure, that is, the provision of food and basic necessities for the people by methods which are economic, cautious and conforming with principles. Once the foundation is firmly established, progress can be continually, carefully and economically promoted. This approach will prevent incurring mistakes and failures, and lead to the certain and complete achievement of the objectives."
Bhumibol has been involved in many social and economic development projects. The nature of his involvement has varied by political regime.
The government of Plaek Pibulsonggram (1951–1957) limited Bhumibol to a ceremonial role. During that period Bhumibol produced some films and operated a radio station from Chitlada Palace using his own personal funds.
In the military governments of Sarit Dhanarajata and his successors (1958–1980), Bhumibol was re-portrayed as the "Development King" and the inspiration of the economic and political goals of the regime. Royally-ordered projects were implemented under the financial and political support of the government, including projects in rural areas and communities under the influence of the Communist Party of Thailand. Bhumibol's visits to these projects were heavily promoted by the Sarit government and broadcast on the state-controlled media.
During the governments of General Prem Tinsulanond (1981–1987), the relationship between the Thai state and the monarch was at its closest. Prem, later to become President of Bhumibol's Privy Council, officially allocated government budgets and manpower to support royal projects. Most activities in this period involved the development of large-scale irrigation projects in rural areas.
During the modern period (post-1988), the structured development of the Royal Projects reached its apex. Bhumibol's Chaipattana Foundation was established, promoting his "sufficiency economy" theory, an alternative to the export-oriented policies adopted by the period's elected governments. Following the 2006 coup, establishment of a "sufficiency economy" was enshrined in the constitution as being a primary goal of the government, and government financial support for royal projects boomed.
- Rama VIII Bridge. Suggested by Bhumibol, funded by the government
- Huai Ongkod land reform project, Kanchanaburi province. Suggested by Bhumibol, using government-owned land.
- Royal Medical Team. Bhumibol's private physicians accompanying him on village tours were encouraged to provide medical care for local residents. In addition, the Royal Household sends letters of support to physicians who volunteer to serve in hospitals in provinces where royal palaces are situated.
60th Anniversary celebrations
Also called the Diamond Jubilee, the 60th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty the King's Accession to the Throne were a series of events marking Bhumibol's reign. Events included the royal barge procession on the Chao Phraya River, fireworks displays, art exhibitions, pardoning 25,000 prisoners, concerts and dance performances.
Tied in with the anniversary, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented Bhumibol with the United Nations Development Programme's first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award on 26 May 2006. National holidays were on 9 June and 12–13 June 2006. On 9 June, the King and Queen appeared on the balcony of Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall before hundreds of thousands of people. The official royal barge procession on 12 June was attended by the King and Queen and royal visitors from 26 other countries. On 13 June, a state banquet for the royal visitors was held in the newly constructed Rama IX Throne Hall at the Grand Palace, the first official function for the hall. The Chiang Mai Royal Flora Expo was also held to honour the anniversary.
On 16 January 2007, the CDRM officially declared the end of the 60th anniversary celebrations and commenced year-long celebrations of Bhumibol's 80th birthday.
the Chakri Dynasty
Bhumibol is a painter, musician, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng.
In his youth, Bhumibol was greatly interested in firearms. He kept a carbine, a Sten gun and two automatic pistols in his bedroom, and he and his elder brother, King Ananda Mahidol, often used the gardens of the palace for target practice.
There are two English language books that provide extensive detail – albeit not always verifiable – about Bhumibol's life, especially his early years and then throughout his entire reign. One is The Revolutionary King by William Stevenson, the other is The King Never Smiles by Paul M. Handley. A third and earlier work, The Devil's Discus, is also available in Thai and English. The latter two books are banned in Thailand, while the first has never been sold in the country due to its inaccuracies, despite having being written with royal patronage.
Bhumibol's creativity in, among other things, music, art and invention, was the focus of a 2-minute long documentary created by the government of Abhibisit Vejjajiva that was screened at all branches of the Major Cineplex Group and SF Cinema City, the two largest cinema chains in Thailand.
Bhumibol suffers from lumbar spinal stenosis, and received a microsurgical decompression for the condition in July 2006. Bhumibol was later admitted to hospital in October 2007 and diagnosed with a blood shortage to his brain. Bhumibol was released after three weeks, after receiving treatment for various ailments including heart problems.
Bhumibol was again admitted to hospital in September 2009, apparently suffering from flu and pneumonia. In 2011, it was revealed as part of WikiLeaks's leak of United States diplomatic cables that Bhumibol had suffered from Parkinson's disease and depression. Bhumibol was diagnosed with diverticulitis in hospital in November 2011, and was treated for the condition in January 2012. Bhumibol suffered minute subdural bleeding in the left frontal area of his brain for which he was treated in July 2012. Bhumibol left hospital in July 2013.
Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz saxophone player and composer, playing dixieland and New Orleans jazz, and also plays the clarinet, trumpet, guitar, and piano. Bhumibol has performed with Benny Goodman, Stan Getz, Lionel Hampton and Benny Carter, and Patti Page once performed Bhumibol's songs during a private audience with him. Bhumibol has written 48 compositions, including fox-trots, waltzes, and Thai patriotic music. His most popular compositions are "Candlelight Blues," "Love at Sundown", and "Falling Rain", all composed in 1946. Bhumibol's musical influences include Louis Armstrong, Sidney Bechet and fellow alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges.
Bhumibol initially received classical music training at school in Switzerland, but his elder brother, Ananda Mahidol, then King, who had bought a saxophone, sent Bhumibol in his place. King Ananda would later join him on the clarinet. On his permanent return to Thailand in 1950, Bhumibol started a jazz band, Lai Khram, whom he performed with on a radio station he started at his palace. The band grew, being renamed the Au Sau Wan Suk band and he would perform with them live on Friday evenings, occasionally taking calls and requests on a telephone phone in. Bhumibol would also perform at Thai universities, composing alma maters for the universities of Chulalongkorn, Thammasat and Kasetsart. Bhumibol performed with Benny Goodman in Bangkok's Ambara Throne Hall in 1956, and later played at Goodman's home in New York in 1960. In recent years Bhumibol has held jam sessions at Klai Kang Won, his summer palace in Hua Hin. Les Brown and His Band of Renown recorded some of Bhumibol's compositions in 1996, though the recordings can only be heard in Thailand. A 1996 documentary, Gitarajan, was made about Bhumibol's music.
Bhumibol retired from public performances in the 1980s. In 1986, he trained an amateur brass band made up of Thai rural development workers named "Development Friends". A committee screens requests for public performances of Bhumibol's compositions, believing that his music should not be rearranged or altered. In 2003, the University of North Texas College of Music awarded him an Honorary Doctorate in Music. Bhumibol was the first Asian composer awarded honorary membership of Vienna's University of Music and Performing Arts.
Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer. He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana whom he tied for points. This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles (110 km) in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1," an OK Class dinghy he built.
Like his father, a former military naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the "Mod," "Super Mod," and "Micro Mod."
Bhumibol is the only Thai monarch to hold a patent. He obtained one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana", and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.
Estimates of the post-devaluation (c. 1997–1998) wealth of the royal household and the Crown Property Bureau (CPB) range from US$10 billion to $20 billion. In August 2008, Forbes published its 2008 version of The World's Richest Royals and King Bhumibol was listed first, with an estimated wealth of US$35 billion. A few days later, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Thailand issued a statement that the Forbes report incorrectly conflated the wealth of the CPB and that of Bhumibol. In the 2009 Forbes list, the Thai government's objections were acknowledged, but Forbes justified the continued inclusion of the CPB's assets, as the Bureau is responsible for handling the Crown's property and investments. The 2009 estimate was a reduced figure of US$30 billion due to declines in real estate and stocks, and this figure was also published in April 2014 by Business Spectator, which also confirmed that the CPB is the body responsible for the management of the Crown's wealth.
The wealth and properties of Bhumibol and the royal family are managed by the Privy Purse. The CPB manages the assets of the Crown as an institution. It was established by law, but is directed without the involvement of the Thai Government and reports only to the king. The CPB receives many state privileges. Although the Minister of Finance presides over the CPB's Board of Directors, final decisions are made solely by Bhumibol. Bhumibol is the only person who can view the CPB's annual report, which is not released to the public.
Through the CPB, the Crown owns land and equity in many companies and massive amounts of land, including 3,320 acres in central Bangkok, as well as 13,200 acres of rural land. The CPB owns 32 per cent of Siam Cement (worth US$12.6 billion), 23 per cent of Siam Commercial Bank (Thailand's largest bank), and interests in Christiani & Nielsen, Deves Insurance and Shin Corporation.
The CPB also rents or leases about 36,000 properties to third parties, including the sites of the Four Seasons Hotel Bangkok, the Suan Lum Night Bazaar, Siam Paragon and the Central World Tower. The CPB spearheaded a plan to turn Bangkok's historical Ratchadamnoen Avenue into a shopping street known as the "Champs-Élysées of Asia" and in 2007, shocked longtime residents of traditional marketplace districts by serving them with eviction notices. The Crown's substantial income from the CPB, estimated to be at least five billion baht in 2004 alone, is exempt from taxes.
Although Bhumibol is held in great respect by many Thais, he is also protected by lèse majesté laws which allow critics to be jailed for three to fifteen years. The laws were toughened during the dictatorship of royalist Premier Tanin Kraivixien, such that criticism of any member of the royal family, the royal development projects, the royal institution, the Chakri Dynasty or any previous Thai king was also banned.
During his 2005 birthday speech, Bhumibol invited criticism: "Actually, I must also be criticised. I am not afraid if the criticism concerns what I do wrong, because then I know. Because if you say the king cannot be criticised, it means that the king is not human", he claimed. "If the king can do no wrong, it is akin to looking down upon him because the king is not being treated as a human being. But the king can do wrong." A widespread barrage of criticisms resulted, followed by a sharp rise in lèse majesté prosecutions. Lèse majesté cases rose from five or six a year pre-2005 to 478 in 2010.
American journalist Paul Handley, who spent thirteen years in Thailand, wrote the biography The King Never Smiles. The Information and Communications Ministry banned the book and blocked the book's page on the Yale University Press website in January 2006. In a statement dated 19 January 2006, Thai National Police Chief General Kowit Wattana said the book has "contents which could affect national security and the good morality of the people." The book provides a detailed discussion of Bhumibol's role in Thai political history and also analyzes the factors behind Bhumibol's popularity.
William Stevenson, who had access to the Royal Court and the Royal Family, wrote the biography The Revolutionary King in 2001. An article in Time says the idea for the book was suggested by Bhumibol. Critics noted that the book displays intimate knowledge about personal aspects of Bhumibol. However, the book has been unofficially banned in Thailand and the Bureau of the Royal Household warned the Thai media about even referring to it in print. An official ban was not possible as it was written with Bhumibol's blessing. The book has been criticised for factual inaccuracies, disrespecting Bhumibol (it refers to him by his personal nickname "Lek"), and proposing a controversial theory explaining the death of King Ananda. Stevenson said, "The king said from the beginning the book would be dangerous for him and for me."
Succession to the throne
Bhumibol's only son, Prince Vajiralongkorn, was given the title "Somdej Phra Boroma Orasadhiraj Chao Fah Maha Vajiralongkorn Sayam Makutrajakuman" (Crown Prince of Siam) on 28 December 1972 and made heir apparent (องค์รัชทายาท) to the throne in accordance with the Palace Law on Succession of 1924.
On 5 December 1977, Princess Sirindhorn was given the title "Siam Boromrajakumari" (Princess Royal of Siam). Her title is often translated by the English-language press as "Crown Princess", although her official English-language title is simply "Princess".
Although the constitution was later amended to allow the Privy Council to appoint a princess as successor to the throne, this would only occur in the absence of an heir apparent. This amendment is retained in Section 23 of the 1997 "People's Constitution." This effectively allowed Princess Sirindhorn to potentially be second in line to the throne, but did not affect Prince Vajiralongkorn's status as heir apparent.
Recent constitutions of Thailand have made the amendment of the Palace Law of Succession the sole prerogative of the reigning king. According to Assoc. Prof. Gothom Arya, former election commissioner, this allows the reigning king, if he so chooses, to appoint his son or any of his daughters to the throne.
Titles and styles
|Monarchical styles of
King Bhumibol Adulyadej
Rama IX of Thailand
|Reference style||His Majesty|
|Spoken style||Your Majesty|
- 5 December 1927 – 1927:His Highness Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej
- 1927 – 10 July 1935: His Royal Highness Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej
- 10 July 1935 – 9 June 1946: His Royal Highness Prince Bhumibol Adulyadej, the Prince Brother
- 9 June 1946 – present: His Majesty the King
King Bhumibol Adulyadej's Thai full title is "Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paraminthra Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitalathibet Ramathibodi Chakkrinaruebodin Sayamminthrathirat Borommanatthabophit" (Thai: พระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช มหิตลาธิเบศรรามาธิบดี จักรีนฤบดินทร สยามินทราธิราช บรมนาถบพิตร; listen (help·info)), which is referred to in the chief legal documents; and in general documents, the title is shorthened to "Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paraminthra Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Sayamminthrathirat Borommanatthabophit" or just "Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paraminthra Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej."
The literal translation of the title is as follows:
- Phra—a third person pronoun referring to the person with much higher status than the speaker, meaning "excellent" in general. The word is from Sanskrit vara ("excellent").
- Bat—"foot," from Sanskrit pāda.
- Somdet—"lord," from Khmer samdech ("excellency").
- Paraminthra—"the great," from Sanskrit parama ("great") + indra ("leader")
- Maha—"great," from Sanskrit, maha
- Bhumibol—"Strength of the Land," from Sanskrit bhūmi ("land") +bala ("strength")
- Adulyadej—"Incomparable power," from Sanskrit atulya ("incomparable") +teja ("power")
- Mahitalathibet—"Son of Mahidol"
- Ramathibodi—"Rama, the Avatar of God Vishnu to become the great ruler"; from Sanskrit rāma + adhi ("great") + patī ("president")
- Chakkrinaruebodin—"Leader of the People who is from the House of Chakri", from Sanskrit cakrī + naṛ ("men") + patī ("president")
- Sayamminthrathirat—"the Great King of Siam," from Sanskrit Siam (former name of Thailand) + indra ("leader") + adhi ("great") + rāja ("king)
- Borommanatthabophit— "the Royalty who is the Great Shelter", from Sanskrit parama ("great") + nātha ("the one who others can depend on" or "Power/Right") + "pavitra" ("royalty")
Date | Spouse
|Their Children||Their Grandchildren|
|Princess Ubolratana Rajakanya||5 April 1951||29 July 1981
|Peter Ladd Jensen||Ploypailin Jensen||Maximus Wheeler
|Crown Prince Maha Vajiralongkorn||28 July 1952||3 January 1977
Divorced 12 August 1991
|Soamsawali Kitiyakara||Princess Bajrakitiyabha|
|Yuvadhida Polpraserth||Prince Juthavachara Mahidol|
|Prince Vacharaesorn Mahidol|
|Prince Chakriwat Mahidol|
|Prince Vatchrawee Mahidol|
|Princess Sirivannavari Nariratana|
|10 February 2001
Divorced 11 December 2014
|Srirasmi Suwadee||Prince Dipangkorn Rasmijoti|
|Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn||2 April 1955||Never married|
|Princess Chulabhorn Walailak||4 July 1957||1982
|Virayudh Tishyasarin||Princess Siribhachudhabhorn|
|Ancestors of Bhumibol Adulyadej|
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Tongdaeng. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 2004. ISBN 974-272-917-4
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Mahajanaka: Cartoon Edition. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1999. ISBN 974-272-074-6
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Mahajanaka. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1997. ISBN 974-8364-71-2
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand, Chaturong Pramkaew (Ed.). My Country Thailand...land of Everlasting Smile. Amarin Book, Bangkok. 1995. ISBN 974-8363-53-8
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. His Majesty the King's Photographs in the Development of the Country. Photographic Society of Thailand & Thai E, Bangkok. 1992. ISBN 974-88805-0-8
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. Paintings by his Majesty the King: Special exhibition for the Rattanakosin Bicentennial Celebration at the National Gallery, Chao Fa Road, Bangkok, 1 April – 30 June 1982. National Gallery, Bangkok. 1982. ASIN B0007CCDMO
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2011). King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work: Thailand's Monarchy in Perspective. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-981-4260-56-5.
- (Review by Michael J. Montesano, Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 34/1 (Apr 2012), pp. 128–132)
- Paul M. Handley (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-10682-4.
- Golden Jubilee Diamond, the largest faceted diamond in the world, presented to Bhumibol Adulyadej on the 50th anniversary of his coronation
- Constitution of Thailand, describing the evolution of Bhumibol's constitutional rights and responsibilities
- History of Thailand (1932–1973)
- History of Thailand since 1973
- Public holidays in Thailand
- Thai royal and noble titles
- List of longest-reigning monarchs
- Royal Flags of Thailand
- "A Royal Occasion speeches". Journal. Worldhop. 1996. Archived from the original on 12 May 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Aphornsuvan, Thanet (2004), "Bhumibol Adulyadej", Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, From Angkor Wat to East Timor (ABC-CLIO): 232
- Nimanandh, Kongphu; Andrews, Tim G. (2009), "Socio-cultural context", The Changing Face of Management in Thailand (Taylor & Francis): 73
- "News". UK: BBC. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press. pp. 136–137. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- Thak Chaloemtiarana (1979). Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism. Social Science Association of Thailand. p. 98.
- "Royal Birthday Address: 'King Can Do Wrong'". National Media. 5 December 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- Serafin, Tatiana (17 June 2009). "The World's Richest Royals". Forbes.
- Tatiana Serafin, "The world's richest royals", Forbes, 7 July 2010.
- "The World's Richest Royals". Forbes. Forbes LLC. 29 April 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Joshua Kurlantzick (24 January 2012). "Forbes Looks into the King of Thailand's Wealth". Council on Foreign Relations. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "The Top 10 Richest Royals in the World". The Richest. CelebrityNetWorth.com. 25 August 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Chris Kohler (24 April 2014). "The business of royalty: The five richest monarchs in the world". Business Spectator. Business Spectator Pty Ltd. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- Simon Mortland (20 January 2012). "In Thailand, A Rare Peek at His Majesty's Balance Sheet". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "Biography of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej".
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2012), King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work, pp. 46–47
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2012), King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work, p. 62
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2012), King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work, p. 67
- Nicholas Grossman; Dominic Faulder, eds. (2012), King Bhumibol Adulyadej – A Life's Work, pp. 73–74
- "Biography of His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej". The Golden Jubilee Network. Kanchanapisek Network. 1999. Archived from the original on 15 August 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2006.
- Paul M. Handley (2006), The King Never Smiles, pp. 76–77
- Paul M. Handley (2006), The King Never Smiles, p. 87
- Paul M. Handley (2006), The King Never Smiles, pp. 77–78
- Paul M. Handley (2006), The King Never Smiles, p. 88
- Paul M. Handley (2006), The King Never Smiles, pp. 91–93
- Bhirom Bhakdi, Soravij. "Queens of the Chakri Dynasty". Archived from the original on 14 July 2006. Retrieved 1 August 2006.
- "The Making of a Monarch". Bangkok Post. 5 December 2005. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 12 July 2006.
- Handley, Paul M (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press, p. 104. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- "Khun Poom Jensen, Son of Princess Ubolratana". Soravij.com. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- Lui, Caitlin; Tony Perry (29 December 2004). "Thais Saddened by the Death of Young Prince". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
Though the young man was autistic and attended special university classes while in Thailand, he often accompanied his mother, Princess Ubolratana, to official and social functions.
- "Royal Power Controversy". 2Bangkok.com. Retrieved 4 January 2007.
- Royal Regalia and Royal Utensils of Siam + images
- "Thailand Monarchy". Thailand Travel and Tours. 2006. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- Head, Jonathan. Why Thailand's king is so revered, BBC News, 5 December 2007. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press. pp. 129–130, 136–137. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- Suwannathat-Pian, Kobkua (1995). Thailand's Durable Premier. Oxford University Press. p. 30. ISBN 967-65-3053-0.
- "The Proclamation Imposing Martial Law throughout the Kingdom". The Government Gazette of Thailand 74 (76). 16 September 1957.
- "The Proclamation Appointing the Military Defender" (PDF). The Government Gazette of Thailand 74 (76). 16 September 1957.
- Evans, Dr. Grant; citing Christine Gray (1998). "The Politics of Ritual and Remembrance: Laos since 1975". Laosnet.org. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Evans, Dr. Grant (1998). The Politics of Ritual and Remembrance: Laos since 1975. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 89–113. ISBN 0-8248-2054-1.
- Klinkajorn, Karin. "Creativity and Settings of Monuments and Sites in Thailand: Conflicts and Resolution" (PDF). International Council on Monuments and Sites. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง ให้ถือวันพระราชสมภพ เป็นวันเฉลิมฉลองของชาติไทย, ราชกิจจานุเบกษา เล่ม 77 ตอน 43 24 พฤษภาคม 2503 หน้า 1452
- Thongthong Chandrangsu, A Constitutional Legal Aspect of the King's Prerogatives (M.A. thesis) Chulalongkorn University, 1986, page 160
- ใจ อึ๊งภากรณ์, บทความ รศ.ใจ อึ๊งภากรณ์ วิจารณ์ : The King Never Smiles, 14 ธันวาคม 2549
- ทักษ์ เฉลิมเตียรณ, การเมืองระบบพ่อขุนอุปถัมภ์แบบเผด็จการ, สำนักพิมพ์มหาวิทยาลัยธรรมศาสตร์ 2525
- "His Gracious Majesty". The Nation. 2 February 2007. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Michael Schmicker, Asian Wall Street Journal, 23 December 1982
- สุลักษณ์ ศิวรักษ์, "ลอกคราบสังคมไทย", กรุงเทพฯ: หนังสือไทย, 2528
- Anonymous, "The Chakri Dynasty and Thai Politics, 1782–1982", cited in Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press. p. 298. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- "Development Without Harmony". Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization. 2000. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- "BIOGRAPHY of Chamlong Srimuang". The 1992 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Government Service. Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation. 2000. Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- The Royal Jubilee Network, พระราชดำรัส พระราชทานแก่คณะบุคคลต่างๆ ที่เข้าเฝ้าฯ ถวายชัยมงคล ในโอกาสวันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษา ณ ศาลาดุสิดาลัย สวนจิตรลดา พระราชวังดุสิตฯ วันพุธที่ ๔ ธันวาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๕ (ฉบับไม่เป็นทางการ)
- Michael K. Connors, Ambivalent About Rights: "Accidental" Killing Machines, Democracy and Coups D'etat., Draft paper presented to Human Rights in Asia Workshop, University of Melbourne, 1–2 October 2009.
- Anucha Yuwadee, Bangkok Post, 15 January 2003
- National News Bureau of Thailand, Academics call for law to prosecute Thaksin in World Court, 28 June 2010
- "A Wave of Drug Killings Is Linked to Thai Police" By Seth Mydans, 8 April 2003 New York Times 
- Amnesty International report: Thailand: Grave developments – Killings and other abuses
- March 2003 "DRUG-RELATED KILLINGS: Verify the toll, say diplomats". The Nation. 4 March 2003.
- Thailand: Public Senses War On Drugs Futile 20 March 2005
- "พระราชดำรัส พระราชทานแก่คณะบุคคลต่างๆ ที่เข้าเฝ้าฯ ถวายชัยมงคล ในโอกาสวันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษา ณ ศาลาดุสิดาลัย สวนจิตรลดา พระราชวังดุสิตฯ วันพฤหัสบดีที่ ๔ ธันวาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๔๖ (ฉบับไม่เป็นทางการ)". The Golden Jubilee Network. 2003.[dead link]
- Asia Sentinel The Long Wait for Justice in Thailand, 10 August 2007
- (Thai) Royal Jubilee Network, 2003 Birthday Speech of King Bhumibol Adulyadej
- "Kanit to chair extrajudicial killings probe" Bangkok Post, 3 August 2007[dead link]
- "Thailand's drug wars. Back on the offensive" 24 January 2008 The Economist
- Thailand Times, Thaksin's 'Drug Murders' investigated, 10 June 2010
- Extra-juridical killing cases by Thaksin government investigated again in Thailand
- "HM the King's 26 April speeches". The Nation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- "Constitution Court invalidate the April election and order new election". The Nation. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- "EC Commissioners arrive at Bangkok Remand Prison". The Nation. Archived from the original on 5 August 2006. Retrieved 25 July 2006.
- "EC Guilty in Historic Ruling". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 25 July 2006.
- Tinsulanonda, General Prem (14 July 2006). "A special lecture to CRMA cadets". Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Kosajan, Worranaree (22 July 2006). "King urges fair poll". The Nation. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 5 April 2007.
- "Thai Military Launches Coup to Remove PM Thaksin". Fox News. Associated Press. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 20 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.[dead link]
- "Coup as it unfolds". The Nation. 20 September 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- McGeown, Kate (21 September 2006). "Thai king remains centre stage". BBC News. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Thai junta vows action against foreign media". ABC News. 23 September 2006. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- The Malaysian Insider, Feared Thai ex-general warns of bloodshed, 1 September 2008
- Financial Times, Thaksin claims Thailand's king knew of coup plot, also available at this and this page, 20 April 2009
- Ahuja, Ambika (25 May 2007). "Thai king urges firm, clear verdict in key case". China Post. Taiwan (ROC). Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Thai king against dissolving parties". Gulf Times. 25 May 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- "Thai king warns over court ruling". BBC News. 25 May 2007. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- Schuettler, Darren (13 August 2007). "Academic accused of insulting Thai king in exam paper". Reuters News. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- The Economist, Fuelling the pyre, 16 October 2008
- ABC News, Thai power base useless in bridging social divide, 28 November 2008
- IHT, Thai protesters gird for a crackdown, 28 November 2008
- Reuters, Q+A-Thailand's intractable political crisis, 27 November 2008
- Asia Times, More turmoil in beleaguered Bangkok, 25 November 2008
- Reuters, Welcome to Bangkok airport – no passport needed, 29 November 2008
- The Australian, Embarrassed citizens plan retaliation, 1 December 2008
- MSNBC, THAILAND'S POLITICAL MAZE – A BEGINNERS GUIDE, 26 November 2008
- The Economist, A right royal mess, 4 December 2008
- "Former Air Force chief Chalit appointed privy councillor". The Nation (Thailand). 19 May 2011.
- "King Bhumibol to remain in hospital". UK: Female First. 12 August 2010.
- Marshall, Andrew (16 October 2009). "Why the Thai king's health can panic markets". Reuters.
- "Thailand's King Bhumibol Adulyadej leaves hospital". UK: BBC News. 2 August 2013.
- "'My govt serves His Majesty'". The Nation. 9 September 2005. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- "Senate steers clear of motion on Jaruvan". The Nation. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 28 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press. p. 233. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles: A Biography of Thailand's Bhumibol Adulyadej. Yale University Press. p. 126. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- "Aussie pedophile free on royal pardon". The Nation. 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- McDonald, Phillipa (30 June 2006). "Campaigners condemn paedophile's release". ABC News Online. Archived from the original on 2 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Bathersby, Damien (2 July 2006). "Royal pardon for child predator". Sunshine Coast Daily. Retrieved 5 July 2006.[dead link]
- Duncan McCargo, Network monarchy and legitimacy crises in Thailand, The Pacific Review, Volume 18, Issue 4 December 2005
- Federico Ferrara, Thailand Unhinged: unraveling the myth of a Thai-style democracy, Equinox Publishing 2010
- DW.de, Thai monarchy a hindrance to democracy?, 28 January 2013
- "The Burning of the Thai Embassy in Cambodia". The Nation, 2Bangkok.com. 2003. Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- "Sufficiency Economy :implications and applications" (PDF). NESDB. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Chitbundid, Chanida (2003). /2546_ANTH.htm "The Royally-initiated Projects: The Making of Royal Hegemony (B.E. 2494–2546)". Thammasat University. Retrieved 6 July 2006.
- "The Projects". Office of the Royal Development Projects Board. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- Pinyorat, Rungrawee C. (2006). "Millions of Thai honor king". Boston.com News, Associated Press. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- "Govt launches commemorative events for HM the King's 80th birthday". The Nation. 16 February 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- HM King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand. The Story of Tongdaeng. Amarin, Bangkok. 2004. ISBN 974-272-917-4
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press. p. 70. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- Handley, Paul M. (2006). The King Never Smiles. Yale University Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-300-10682-3.
- MCOT, Commerce Ministry launches film to honour creative King Bhumibol, 10 February 2010
- "Doctors to Perform Surgery on Thai king, 78". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 20 July 2006.[dead link]
- "Doctors to perform surgery to cure lumbar spine stenosis for His Majesty". Breaking News. The Nation. Retrieved 20 July 2006.[dead link]
- "Thailand's king taken to hospital". BBC News Online. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
- "Thai King sparks pink shirt craze". BBC News Online. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 30 November 2007.
- WikiLeaks cables reveal scandal and disease in Thai royal family The Australian, 24 June 2011
- "Household Bureau: The King incurs diverticulitis". Manager Online. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Thai king suffers brain bleeding". 13 July 2012.
- "Thailand peaceful for king's birthday". The Guardian. 28 May 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Alisa Tang (13 June 2006). "Thailand's monarch is ruler, jazz musician". Associated Press via Washington Post. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "The Jazzy King". Bangkok Post. 10 January 2006. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "The Heart for Art". Bangkok Post. 6 February 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- Cummins, Peter (December 2004). "His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej The Great: Monarch of Peace and Unity". Chiang Mai Mail. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- "H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej". Minsitry of Foreign Affairs, Kingdom of Thailand. Retrieved 4 March 2008.[dead link]
- "Long Live The King!". Bangkokker. 9 June 2006. Retrieved 17 August 2006.
- "H.M. Biography". Assumption University. 9 June 2006. Archived from the original on 15 July 2006. Retrieved 17 August 2006.
- "Thai king's patent to make rain". BBC News. 27 March 2003. Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- "Weather Modification by Royal Rainmaking Technology". 60th Celebrations. 17 June 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- "Thai King gets rainmaking patent". 60th Celebrations. 9 June 2006. Archived from the original on 30 June 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.
- Horn, Robert (6 December 1999). "The Banker Who Saved A King". Time Asia. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Horn, Robert (20 August 2008). "Forbes The world's richest royals". Forbes. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- "Forbes Says Bhumipol Richest Person in World" (in Thai). ASTV. 23 August 2008. Retrieved 2 May 2020. Check date values in:
- Pendelton, Devon; Tatiana Serafin (30 August 2007). "The World's Richest Royals". Forbes. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
- "Thailand's Royal Wealth: How Thailand's Royals Manage to Own All the Good Stuff". Asia Sentinel. 1 March 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
- AFP, "King Bhumibol as world's wealthiest royal", 22 August 2008
- "Royal Assets Structuring Act of 1936". Section 8 (in Thai). The Crown Property Bureau. 2007. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2007. (พระราชบัญญัติ จัดระเบียบทรัพย์สิน ฝ่ายพระมหากษัตริย์)
- Champion, Paul (25 September 2007). "Professor in lese majeste row". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
- FT, High time to concede the Thai king can do wrong, 20 July 2011
- Warrick-Alexander, James (6 February 2006). "Thailand Bars Univ. Website". Yale Daily News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Stevenson, William (2001). The Revolutionary King. Constable and Robinson. ISBN 1-84119-451-4.
- McCarthy, Terry (6 December 1999). "The King and Ire". Time Asia. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- The Royal Gazette, 28 December 1972
- "Biography of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn". The Golden Jubilee Network. 2004. Archived from the original on 2 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.
- Aryan, Gothan (16 September 2004). "Thai Monarchy" (PDF). International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 June 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006. presented in Kathmandu, Nepal
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rama IX.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Sixtieth Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty's Accession to the Throne – official website for the Diamond Jubilee
- A Visionary Monarch – provides a lot of insights on his visions and contributions to the country.
- Songs composed by Bhumibol
- The Golden Jubilee Network – has many subjects on Bhumibol, including his projects, speeches, and his royal new year card.
- Supreme Artist – see works of art created by Bhumibol.
- The King's Birthplace
- Thai monarchy
- Thailand's Guiding Light
- Thailand: How a 700-Year-Old System of Government Functions – article by David Lamb (LA Times staff writer) on Bhumibol
- "'The King Never Smiles': L'etat, c'est moi", Sreeram Chaulia, worldpress.org, 4 October 2006
- Far Eastern Economic Review, "The King's Conglomerate", June 1988. Contains an interview with Chirayu Isarangkun Na Ayuthaya, Crown Property Bureau
- King of Thailand
Bhumibol AdulyadejBorn: 5 December 1927
|King of Thailand