King Wen of Zhou

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"King Wen" redirects here. For the ruler of Nanyue sometimes known by that name, see Zhao Mo.
Ji Chang
King Wen of Zhou.jpg
King of Zhou
Reign 1099–1050 BC (49 years)
Spouse Tai Si
Issue Boyi Kao
Ji Fa, King Wu of Zhou
Ji Xian, Marquess of Guan
Ji Dan, Duke of Zhou
Ji Du, Marquess of Chai
Ji Wu, Earl of Cheng
Ji Chu, Marquess of Huo
Ji Feng, Marquess of Wei
Ji Zheng, Earl of Mao
Ranjizai, Lord of Dan
Lord of Gao
Viscount of Yong
Ji Zhenduo, Earl of Cao
Ji Xiu, Viscount of Teng
Ji Gao, Earl of Bi
Earl of Yuan
Marquess of Feng
Marquess of Xun
Cen Zi
Posthumous name
King Wen (文王)
Emperor Wen (文皇帝)
Temple name
Shizu (始祖, lit. "First Founder")
Father King Ji of Zhou
Mother Tairen
Born 1152 BC
Died 1056 BC (aged 96)
King Wen of Zhou
Chinese 周文王
Literal meaning "The Cultured King of Zhou"

King Wen of Zhou (Chinese: 周文王; pinyin: Zhōu Wén Wáng; 1152 – 1056 BC) was king of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China. Although it was his son Wu who conquered the Shang following the Battle of Muye, King Wen was honored as the founder of the Zhou dynasty. A large number of the hymns of the Classic of Poetry are praises to the legacy of King Wen. Some consider him the first epic hero of Chinese history.[1]

Ah! Solemn is the clear temple,
reverent and concordant the illustrious assistants.
Dignified, dignified are the many officers,
holding fast to the virtue of King Wen.
Responding in praise to the one in Heaven,
they hurry swiftly within the temple.
Greatly illustrious, greatly honored,
may [King Wen] never be weary of [us] men.

"Eulogies of Zhou – Clear Temple" (Chinese: 清廟; pinyin: Qīng miào)[2]

History[edit]

Born Ji Chang (姬昌), Wen was the son of Tai Ren and Ji Jili, the king of a small state along the Wei River in present-day Shaanxi. His father was betrayed and executed by the Shang emperor Wen Ding in the late 12th century BC.

He married Tai Si and had at least ten sons.

At one point, King Zhou of Shang, fearing Wen's growing power, imprisoned him in Youli (present-day Tangyin in Henan).[3] However, many officials respected Wen for his honorable governance and they gave King Zhou so many gifts – including gold, horses, and women – that he released Wen, who subsequently planned to overthrow King Zhou but died before he could accomplish it. His second son, King Wu, followed his father's wishes and crushed the Shang at Muye, creating the imperial Zhou dynasty.

Burial[edit]

A burial mound in Zhouling town, Xianyang, Shaanxi was once thought to be the final resting place of King Wen. In the Qing dynasty the tomb was fitted with a headstone bearing Wen's name and incorporated into a temple complex in his honor, which is still open to tourists. Nearby tombs were thougth to be those of Wen's successors King Wu, King Cheng and King Kang.

Modern archeology has since concluded that the five tombs are not old enough to be from the Zhou dynasty, and are more likely to be those of Han dynasty royals. The true location of King Wen's tomb is therefore unknown, although it is likely to be in the Xianyang-Xi'an area.

Legacy[edit]

Divination[edit]

King Wen is credited with having stacked the eight trigrams in their various permutations to create the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching. He is also said to have written the judgments which are appended to each hexagram. The most commonly used sequence of the 64 hexagrams is attributed to him and is usually referred to as the King Wen sequence.

Posthumous Honors[edit]

In 196 BC, Han Gaozu gave King Wen the title "Greatest of All Kings".[4]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wang, C.H. From Ritual to Allegory. Seven Essays in Early Chinese Poetry, p. 58. The Chinese Univ. Press (Hong Kong), 1988).
  2. ^ Kern (2010), p. 23.
  3. ^ Cihai, p. 201.
  4. ^ Creel. The Origins of Statecraft, p. 42.

References[edit]

  • Ci Hai Bian Ji Wei Yuan Hui (辞海编辑委员会). Shanghai Ci Shu Chu Ban She (Shanghai), 1979. (Chinese)
  • Wu, K. C. The Chinese Heritage. Crown Publishers (New York), 1982. ISBN 0-517-54475-X.
King Wen of Zhou
Born: 1152 BC Died: 1056 BC
Regnal titles
New title King of Zhou
1099 – c. 1050 BC
Succeeded by
King Wu of Zhou