King Wu of Zhou
|King Wu of Zhou
|King Wu painted by Ma Lin|
|King of China|
|Predecessor||King Zhou of Shang|
|Successor||King Cheng of Zhou|
|Spouse||Yi Jiang (邑姜), daughter of Jiang Ziya|
|Issue||King Cheng of Zhou|
|Ancestral name: Jī (姬)
Given name: Fā (發)
|Father||King Wen of Zhou|
|King Wu of Zhou|
King Wu of Zhou or Zhou Wu Wang was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China. The chronology of his reign is disputed but is generally thought to have begun around 1046 BC and ended three years later in 1043 BC.
King Wu's ancestral name was Ji (姬) and given name Fa (發). He was the second son of King Wen of Zhou and Queen Tai Si. In most accounts, his older brother Bo Yikao was said to have predeceased his father, typically at the hands of King Zhou, the last king of the Shang dynasty; in the Book of Rites, however, it is assumed that his inheritance represented an older tradition among the Zhou of passing over the eldest son. (Fa's grandfather Jili had likewise inherited Zhou despite two older brothers.)
Upon his succession, Fa worked with his father-in-law Jiang Ziya to accomplish his father's unfinished task: overthrowing the Shang dynasty. In 1048 BC, Fa marched down the Yellow River to the Mengjin ford and met with more than 800 dukes. He constructed an ancestral tablet naming his father Chang King Wen and placed it on a chariot in the middle of the host; considering the timing unpropitious, though, he did not yet attack Shang. In 1046 BC, King Wu took advantage of Shang disunity to launch an attack along with many neighboring dukes. The Battle of Muye destroyed Shang's forces and King Zhou of Shang set his palace on fire, dying within.
King Wu – the name means "Martial" – followed his victory by establishing many feudal states under his 16 younger brothers and clans allied by marriage, but his death three years later provoked several rebellions against his young heir King Cheng and the regent Duke of Zhou, even from three of his brothers.
- Father: King Wen of Zhou
- Mother: Tai Si
- Wife: Yi Jiang (邑姜), daughter of Jiang Ziya
King Wu of ZhouDied: 1043 BC
King Wen of Zhou
|King of Zhou
c. 1050–1043 BC
King Cheng of Zhou