Kingdom Hearts (video game)
North American cover art featuring the main characters, from top: Sora, Riku, Goofy, Kairi, and Donald
|Developer(s)||Square Product Development Division 1|
|Release date(s)||Kingdom Hearts
|Genre(s)||Action role-playing game|
Kingdom Hearts (Japanese: キングダム ハーツ Hepburn: Kingudamu Hātsu ) is an action role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) in 2002 for the PlayStation 2 video game console. The first game in the Kingdom Hearts series, it is the result of a collaboration between Square Enix and The Walt Disney Company. The game combines characters and settings from Disney animated features with those from Square's Final Fantasy series. The story follows a young boy, Sora, as he is thrown into an epic battle against the forces of darkness. He is joined by Donald Duck, Goofy, and other classic Disney characters who help him on his quest.
The game was a departure from Square's standard role-playing games, introducing a substantial action-adventure element to the gameplay. Kingdom Hearts has an all-star voice cast and includes many of the Disney characters' official voice actors. It was longtime Square character designer Tetsuya Nomura's first time in a directorial position.
Kingdom Hearts was praised for its unusual combination of action and role-playing, as well as its unexpectedly harmonious mix of Square and Disney elements. It was a dominating presence in the 2002 holiday season, receiving numerous year-end "Best" video game awards, and went on to achieve Sony "Greatest Hits" status. Since its release, Kingdom Hearts has sold over 5.6 million copies worldwide and has prompted numerous sequels. Kingdom Hearts is currently the ninth best selling PlayStation 2 game of all time and the most commercially successful entry in the series to date.
Kingdom Hearts is influenced by its parent franchise, Final Fantasy, and carries gameplay elements over into its own action-based, hack and slash system. The main battle party consists of three characters: Sora, Goofy, and Donald Duck. Sora is directly controlled by the player from a third person camera angle. All other party members are computer-controlled, though the player can customize their behavior to an extent through the pause menu. Donald and Goofy comprise the party in most areas but nearly every level features a character who may replace them. For instance, Jack Skellington can join the player's party in Halloween Town, but cannot accompany the player elsewhere. In some worlds, the party changes its appearance, has abilities unique to that world, or both; the party can fly in Neverland, acquire aquatic forms in Atlantica, which enable them to survive underwater, and gain Halloween costumes in Halloween Town to blend in with the locals.
Like traditional role-playing games, Kingdom Hearts features an experience point system that determines character development. As enemies are defeated, the player characters gain experience and grow stronger, gaining access to new abilities. Unlike other games of its type, Kingdom Hearts allows a degree of character development customization through a short tutorial found at the beginning of the game. The tutorial allows the player to select from one of three main attributes―strength, defense, or magic―for Sora to excel in and one to lack in. By choosing certain options, the player may manipulate how Sora learns abilities, grows statistically, and gains levels. Donald, Goofy, and any other additional party members are assigned specific areas of strength from the outset. Donald excels in magic, while Goofy excels in defense and special attacks.
The game progresses linearly from one story event to the next, usually presented as a cutscene, though there are numerous side quests available that provide bonus benefits to the characters. Players may also choose the order in which they tackle some areas. Most of the gameplay occurs on interconnected field maps where battles take place. Combat in Kingdom Hearts occurs in real time and involves pressing buttons to initiate attacks by the on-screen character. An action menu, similar to those found in Final Fantasy games, found at the bottom left of the screen provides other combat options such as using magic and items, although players can also assign selected magic spells that can be instantly used whilst holding the shoulder button. As players progress through the game, they can receive certain Disney characters as summons, such as Dumbo and Tinkerbell, each with their own unique abilities. There is also a context-sensitive option at the bottom of the menu, usually used for interacting with the environment or performing special attacks. This menu is manipulated by using the right analog stick or digital pad, while movement is controlled by the left analog stick, allowing the player to navigate the menu while avoiding or approaching enemies.
Sora, along with his allies, both possess a HP meter and an MP meter, which increases as they gain experience and level up. The MP meter is divided into various sections that are used up whenever that character performs magic, with more powerful magic using more MP. MP can be replenished by performing melee attacks or using items such as ether. The HP meter determines the character's health, reducing whenever a character takes damage, although it can be replenished by using potions or healing spells. If one of Sora's allies run out of health, they will be knocked out for a while until someone heals them. However, if Sora loses all of his health, the game ends and the player must resume play from the beginning of an area or boss. Defeating enemies causes various orbs to fall; green orbs which replenish health, blue orbs which restore MP and yellow orbs which represent Munny, the game's currency, which can be used to purchase new items.
Gummi Ship 
The Gummi Ship is the mode of travel between the various locations in Kingdom Hearts. The gameplay for piloting the vessel is very different from the rest of the game as it switches to a rail shooter format. The player controls the Gummi Ship from a rear third-person perspective as it travels in an outer space setting. While traveling, the player must avoid obstacles and defend against enemy ships that attempt to destroy the player's vessel by firing missiles or ramming it. Surviving the route allows access to the next world. At the beginning of the game, there are few options available to customize the vessel, but as the game progresses, new weapons, engines, and armor become available. Different pre-designed blueprints can be found throughout the game that can be used to quickly construct Gummi Ships. Geppetto also gives the player different Gummi Ship designs based on the number of Heartless defeated.
|Kingdom Hearts series chronology|
The universe of Kingdom Hearts is a collection of various levels, referred to as "worlds", through which the player must progress. Thirteen can be accessed in the game and one, Disney Castle, is shown in cutscenes. Additional worlds are mentioned by various characters, but are inaccessible because they have been destroyed by the Heartless, beings of darkness. Ten of the worlds are based on Disney fiction, primarily from the Disney animated features canon, and the other four were created by Square specifically for the game.
The graphics and characters of each world were designed to resemble the artwork style of its respective Disney film. Each Disney world is inhabited by characters from their respective film; Hercules and Philoctetes inhabit Olympus Colosseum, while Aladdin, Princess Jasmine, and Jafar inhabit Agrabah. Each world is disconnected from the others and exists separately. Most characters in the worlds are unaware of the other worlds' existence, with few exceptions. Players travel from one world to another via Gummi Ship.
The worlds created specifically for the game mirror the overall appearance of the other worlds and feature either new characters or characters from several Final Fantasy games. The new worlds include: Destiny Islands, where the story opens; Traverse Town, which serves as a launching point for most of the game; Hollow Bastion, which many of the Final Fantasy characters call home; and End of the World, a large, dark world created from the remnants of various worlds consumed by the Heartless. The main characters travel from world to world to seal each "Keyhole"; this protects the world from the Heartless and ultimately from destruction. They also try to minimize their interaction with characters of other worlds to maintain a balance of separation. This sometimes requires Sora, Donald, and Goofy to blend in with the world inhabitants by changing their physical appearance.
The collaboration between Disney and Square resulted in a mixture of familiar Disney and Square characters, as well as several new characters created and designed by Tetsuya Nomura. The primary protagonist of the game is Sora, a 14-year old boy chosen to wield the Keyblade, a large key-like weapon for battling darkness. The game also features two friends from his home world, Riku and Kairi. For most of the game, Sora is joined by Donald Duck and Goofy. Donald, the court wizard, and Goofy, captain of the royal guard, were sent from Disney Castle to find the Keyblade. The three join forces to search for King Mickey Mouse, Kairi, and Riku. The primary antagonist is Ansem, who seeks power and knowledge by using dark beings called the Heartless. The Heartless, hearts corrupted by darkness, serve as most of the enemies encountered in the game and come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
As a game meant to explore the fictional universes of various Disney films, over one hundred Disney characters are featured in various capacities. While many serve as major characters in the story, others appear in cameo roles, such as the One Hundred and One Dalmatians playing a part in a side-quest. Most worlds also feature a Disney villain whom the player must defeat. The player can summon various Disney characters to fight alongside Sora in battle, causing Donald and Goofy to withdraw from the battlefield for the duration of the summon. Available summoned characters include the Genie from Aladdin, Tinkerbell from Peter Pan, and Simba from The Lion King, among others.
Square also incorporated several characters from the Final Fantasy series into the game, though the characters were slightly altered to fit the game's back-story. On Destiny Islands, the player meets younger versions of Tidus and Wakka from Final Fantasy X and Selphie from Final Fantasy VIII. In Traverse Town, the player encounters Squall Leonhart (known in the game as "Leon") from Final Fantasy VIII as well as Aerith, Cid, and Yuffie from Final Fantasy VII. Rikku from Final Fantasy X was originally set to appear, but was replaced by Yuffie. Cloud and Sephiroth, both from Final Fantasy VII, make appearances in Olympus Coliseum, where the player can fight them in tournaments. The emphasis on characters from later Final Fantasy installments stems from Nomura's hesitation to use characters he did not design. The game also uses other Final Fantasy icons such as the Moogles who mediate item synthesis.
Kingdom Hearts begins on Destiny Islands, where Sora, Riku, and Kairi live. The three friends want to leave the islands to explore new worlds and have prepared a raft for this purpose. One night, the islands are attacked by shadow creatures—the Heartless. Sora seeks out his friends, finding Riku, who disappears into a dark portal. At the same time, Sora obtains the Keyblade, a weapon effective against the Heartless. However, the islands are destroyed and Sora drifts into space. Meanwhile, King Mickey has left his own world to deal with the increasing numbers of Heartless and left instructions for Donald and Goofy to find the "key" that will protect the worlds from the encroaching darkness.
Donald and Goofy use the Gummi Ship to reach Traverse Town, where Sora has drifted. Sora meets Leon, who explains that the Heartless are beings that consume hearts, and that the Keyblade is the only weapon capable of defeating them. A man named Ansem is said to have studied the Heartless. Sora then meets Donald and Goofy, and the three decide to travel together—Donald and Goofy to find King Mickey, and Sora to find Kairi and Riku. The three go to various worlds based on Disney films, finding that the Keyblade also locks "Keyholes", passages to the "heart" of a world which, when sealed, prevent it from being consumed by the Heartless. Meanwhile, a group of Disney villains, led by Maleficent, seek out the seven Princesses of Heart to unlock the final Keyhole that leads to "Kingdom Hearts", a repository of knowledge and power and the source of all hearts. This group includes Riku; Maleficent promises that she will help him find Kairi in exchange for his support. Maleficent sows distrust in Riku, telling him that Sora abandoned him and Kairi for new friends and the Keyblade. An increasingly antagonistic Riku finds Kairi's body, but cannot find her heart.
Sora and his friends eventually arrive at Hollow Bastion, Ansem's home world and Maleficent's current headquarters. Riku takes the Keyblade from Sora, claiming to be the true Keyblade master and that Sora only received it in his absence. Donald and Goofy, having been explicitly ordered to follow the "key", reluctantly leave Sora for Riku. Sora challenges Riku, stating that his heart derives strength from his friends; his friends return to him, as does the Keyblade. Shamed, Riku meets a cloaked man who goads him to give into the darkness. Meanwhile, the three engage and defeat Maleficent. Sora finds Kairi's body and confronts Riku, who reveals that he is possessed by Ansem. Ansem explains that Kairi is a Princess of Heart, and that her heart has been hiding within Sora's body since Destiny Islands was destroyed. After defeating Ansem, Sora impales himself with Ansem's Keyblade, releasing both his and Kairi's heart. Kairi's heart returns to her body, in turn completing the final Keyhole, while Sora becomes a Heartless. Kairi recognizes Sora's Heartless and the light in her heart restores him to human form. He resolves to confront Ansem.
Ansem is found in End of the World, the combined remnants of worlds taken by the Heartless. Ansem seeks Kingdom Hearts, hypothesizing it to be the ultimate darkness. Upon opening the door to Kingdom Hearts, however, it reveals its light, overwhelming and destroying Ansem. Beyond the door are King Mickey and Riku, and they help Sora and the others close the door, as there are many Heartless beyond it. Mickey and Sora use their Keyblades to lock the door. The worlds lost to the Heartless reconstruct themselves; as the Destiny Islands reform, Kairi returns there while Sora is forced to part with her. The game concludes as Sora, Donald, and Goofy resolve to find Riku and Mickey. 
The initial idea for Kingdom Hearts began with a discussion between Shinji Hashimoto and Hironobu Sakaguchi about Super Mario 64. They were planning to make a game with freedom of movement in three dimensions like Super Mario 64 but lamented that only characters as popular as Disney's could rival a Mario game. Tetsuya Nomura, overhearing their conversation, volunteered to lead the project and the two producers agreed to let him direct. A chance meeting between Hashimoto and a Disney executive in an elevator—Square and Disney had previously worked in the same building in Japan—allowed Hashimoto to pitch the idea directly to Disney. Nomura struck down a number of proposals from Disney in order to pursue his own concept featuring an original character not based on a Disney property. The production team consisted of over one hundred members from both Square and Disney Interactive. The game began development in February 2000 and originally focused more on the gameplay with a simple story to appeal to Disney's target age range. After executive producer Hironobu Sakaguchi told director Tetsuya Nomura the game would be a failure if it did not aim for the same level as the Final Fantasy series, Nomura began to develop the story further. When choosing the Disney worlds to include in the game, Nomura and his team tried to pick worlds that had distinctively different looks. They also tried to take into account worlds with Disney characters that would be interesting. Thanks to support from Disney's then-president Bob Iger, the team had few restrictions on which worlds they could use from the Disney franchises. However, they tried to remain within each character's boundaries set by their respective Disney films.
Additional content was added to the North American release that was absent in the initial Japanese release: new optional bosses, one of which was named after the winner of the official website's "Name-In-Game" sweepstakes, an extra difficulty level, and a teaser of Kingdom Hearts II accessible by meeting certain criteria. Nomura included the teaser in order to gauge fan reaction to the possibility of a sequel; he felt that if the idea was unpopular, then it would be best to leave certain events in the game unexplained. The new content was later added to the Japanese re-release titled Kingdom Hearts Final Mix. Final Mix also included additional content such as new items, cut scenes, and enemies. The new content further hinted at plotlines that would be explained in sequels. Some content omitted from Kingdom Hearts was later added into Kingdom Hearts II. A world based on The Lion King, for instance, was unfeasible because an additional program was required to process movement on four legs—a necessity since Sora would become a lion in that world. Due to time constraints, the developers left out an optional boss battle, similar to the Sephiroth battle, against Tifa Lockhart. She was later included in Kingdom Hearts II as a more developed character.
Kingdom Hearts was announced at the Electronic Entertainment Expo in May 2001. Initial details were that it would be a collaboration between Square and Disney Interactive and would feature worlds developed by both companies and Disney characters. New characters were designed by Nomura and included Sora, Riku, Kairi, and the Heartless. A playable demo was available at the Tokyo Game Show in 2001. The gameplay of the demo showcased many action role-playing game elements that would be included in the final product. To help market the English release of the game, Square launched the official website in April 2002, which featured trailers, a "Name-In-Game" sweepstakes, and other Internet content. On May 14, 2002, a press release announced a list of the English voice actors. The list included Haley Joel Osment, David Gallagher, and Hayden Panettiere as the three new characters introduced in the game. It also announced that many of the Disney characters would be voiced by the official voice actors from their respective Disney films. Other marketing efforts included auctions of the game and related items before the North American release and a Consumer Demo Day in San Francisco, California.
Musical score 
Yoko Shimomura composed the music of Kingdom Hearts. While there are arranged melodies derived from previous Disney films, most of the soundtrack consists of original themes written specifically for the game by Shimomura. The opening orchestration and ending credits theme were arranged and orchestrated by Kaoru Wada and performed by the New Japan Philharmonic Orchestra. The main vocal theme for the original Japanese release is titled "Hikari" (光). The English version of "Hikari", "Simple and Clean", was used in the Western releases and the Japanese re-release, Final Mix. Both versions were composed and performed by Hikaru Utada. Her involvement, along with the Japanese song title, was announced in January 2002. Utada was the only singer Nomura had in mind for the Kingdom Hearts theme song. This marked the first time Utada had produced a song for a video game. The single, "Hikari", was released in Japan on March 20, 2002 and proved to be very popular; by August 2002, it had sold over 860,000 copies in Japan. The Kingdom Hearts soundtrack was released on a two CD set on March 27, 2002 in Japan and a year later in the United States. The soundtrack was later included in the Kingdom Hearts Original Soundtrack Complete, which was released in Japan on March 28, 2007. Music from Kingdom Hearts was also included in Yoko Shimomura's best works compilation album Drammatica.
Voice cast 
Kingdom Hearts featured well-known voice actors for both the Japanese and English versions. The Japanese version featured Miyu Irino as Sora, Risa Uchida as Kairi, and Mamoru Miyano as Riku. Other notable voice actors included Kōichi Yamadera, Hideo Ishikawa, and Maaya Sakamoto. A special effort was made to preserve the official voice actors of characters from the Disney movies used in Kingdom Hearts. Some of the voice actors from the related television series or direct-to-video sequels were chosen over the original voice actors from films, where applicable (e.g. Dan Castellaneta as Genie, rather than Robin Williams). The English version featured Haley Joel Osment as Sora, David Gallagher as Riku, and Hayden Panettiere as Kairi. Other notable voice actors included Billy Zane, David Boreanaz, James Woods, and Mandy Moore.
Kingdom Hearts received positive reviews and sales figures. During the first two months of its North American release it was one of the top three highest-selling video games and was among the top selling titles during the 2002 Christmas and holiday season. In November 2002, UBS Warburg listed it as the 6th highest console game in terms of sales during the week of November 5. At the end of April 2003, Square announced that Kingdom Hearts had sold its millionth copy in the United States, which made it eligible for PlayStation's "Greatest Hits" status, and over 3.0 million worldwide. Sales reached 1.2 million in Japan in the first quarter of 2004, and broke 4.0 million worldwide. In December 2005, the NPD Group listed it as "one of the top ten best-selling PlayStation 2 titles of all time in North America". As of December 2006, Kingdom Hearts had shipped over 5.6 million copies worldwide with 1.1 million in PAL regions, 1.5 million in Japan, and 3.0 million in North America.
Critical response 
The game received high ratings among reviewers. In IGN's Best of 2002 awards, it was nominated for "PS2's Best Game of 2002 Editor's Choice Award" and was a runner up for "PS2's Best Game of 2002 Reader's Choice Award". In 2007, the website listed Kingdom Hearts as the 22nd best PlayStation 2 game of all time. Critics commended the visuals, orchestral score, voice acting, and hybrid action-adventure and role-playing feel to the game. IGN named it "Best Art Style/Direction", runner-up for "Best CG Graphics", and honorable mention for "Best Animation" in IGN's 2003 list of "Best Looking Games on PS2". GameSpy listed Kingdom Hearts twice in its "Top 25 Video Game Cinematic Moments". GamePro stated that the graphics were "gorgeous", giving them high marks. The audio was also praised, particularly the quality of the voice-overs and musical score. GamePro had positive comments on the overall audio and gave that aspect a perfect score.
Criticism about the gameplay was mixed. Many reviews complained that the camera was at times frustrating and the Gummi Ship portions were out of place. GameSpot cited "tedious" gameplay and Gummi Ship sections as "pale imitations of the Star Fox series", but stated that the combat was fun, particularly the boss fights. Dengeki Online commented on the camera controls, saying that the camera would often run into objects while being rotated by the player. GamePro compared the battle system to "old N64 Zelda games" and had positive comments about Donald and Goofy's artificial intelligence.
GameSpot commented that the concept of mixing the serious elements of Final Fantasy with the lighter elements of Disney seemed impossible, but was pulled off quite well. Because of that they awarded Kingdom Hearts "Best Crossover Since Capcom vs. SNK" in their 2002 Best and Worst of the Year awards. GameSpy noted that the periodic departure from the main plot into the Disney side stories was disappointing, and when the original plot builds to a climax, "the story fails to gel thanks to a confusing mish-mash of vague terms and symbolism that probably made more sense in the director's head than in this final product." Aside from the plot, they stated that the overall package was worth playing through to the end. G4TV awarded it "Best Story" at their 2003 G-Phoria awards show. Fan response was also positive; Kingdom Hearts was voted as the 19th best game of all-time by readers of the Japanese magazine Famitsu, 16th by the users of website GameFAQs, and 92nd by IGN users. Kingdom Hearts ranked ninth on IGN's most recent "Top 25 PS2 Games of All Time" list. It was also a nominee for the Best Game Award from the CESA Game Awards for 2001-2002.
Versions and merchandise 
Multiple versions of Kingdom Hearts have been released. The first was the original Japanese release, followed by the North American and PAL releases, which includes additional content. The game was later re-released in Japan as Kingdom Hearts Final Mix, which features the content of the North American/PAL release, as well as more new content.
Both Square and Disney also released numerous types of merchandise before and after the release of the game. Merchandise ranged from toys and figurines to clothing items and books. Like the Final Fantasy games, Square released an Ultimania book on Kingdom Hearts in Japan following the release of the game and a revised edition following the release of Final Mix. In North America, a strategy guide was released by Brady Games. It featured a comprehensive walkthrough and a sticker activity journal. A manga series based on the game was released in Japan and the United States. A novel series also based on the game was released in Japan. It was authored by Tomoco Kanemaki and illustrated by Shiro Amano. The novel series consists of two volumes and was released in North America on March 25, 2008.
Final Mix 
Released only in Japan, Kingdom Hearts Final Mix has several events and a number of gameplay tweaks that are not in previous releases. Spoken dialogue is in English, with Japanese subtitles. New scenes, clarifying certain plot points, such as Riku's journey and foreshadowing of Kingdom Hearts II, were included. A gameplay option allows the player to skip cut scenes after seeing them once. The optional bosses first included in the English version were introduced to Japanese players for the first time, along with a new fight against "Unknown Man", in an attempt to raise interest for the sequel.
In another attempt at foreshadowing, a video titled "Another Side, Another Story 【 deep dive 】" plays at the ending if the player accomplishes certain tasks. New music tracks incorporated were "Disappeared" and "Another Side". The "Night on Bald Mountain" and "One-Winged Angel" tracks from the English version were included as well. Other changes include new abilities, new weapons, new items, additional and recolored enemies, and gameplay tweaks to make the game easier for the player, along with two new levels of difficulty. When first released, Final Mix included either a deck of Kingdom Hearts cards or special music CD. A limited "Platinum Edition" version of Kingdom Hearts Final Mix was later released with an action figure of Sora, a sticker set, and sketches of some of the main characters.
The game was adapted into a manga by Shiro Amano. The story follows the events that took place in the game with a few minor differences to account for the loss of interactivity a video game provides. Some events that took place in the Final Mix version were also included. The manga was originally serialized in Japan by Enterbrain's Famitsū PS2, but has since been released worldwide in four volumes. The volumes have been published in English in the United States by Tokyopop. The first volume was released on October 11, 2005, and the fourth volume was released on July 10, 2006. The entire series was later released in a boxed set on October 10, 2006.
The manga series has had moderate success. The first volume was ranked 95th in USA Today's "Top 150 best sellers" during the week of its release. IGN praised Amano's artwork and commented on wanting to replay the game after reading. They criticized the lack of new content and stated the transition from game to print lost most of the story's appeal. The series was followed by others based on the game's sequels: Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories and Kingdom Hearts II.
HD 1.5 ReMIX 
During August 2011, Nomura expressed desire to release a high definition rerelease of the game though he had yet to confirm such plans. In September 2012, Square Enix announced Kingdom Hearts HD 1.5 ReMIX a compilation for the PlayStation 3 to include both Kingdom Hearts Final Mix and Kingdom Hearts Re:Chain of Memories in HD and trophy support. The character models from Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance are being used as a base for the game's characters. The gameplay of the original Kingdom Hearts was modified to play more like Kingdom Hearts II. Additionally, the collection will include HD cinematic scenes from Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days. It was only announced for a release in Japan for 2013. On February 25, 2013, the collection was subsequently confirmed by Square Enix for a Q3/Q4 release in Australia, North America and Europe.
Kingdom Hearts was followed by several sequels, becoming the first game in the Kingdom Hearts series. It was followed by a direct sequel, Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, on the Nintendo Game Boy Advance, which was released in Japan on November 11, 2004. Kingdom Hearts II is the third game in the series, set one year after Chain of Memories, and was released in Japan on December 22, 2005 for Sony PlayStation 2. Like the first game it was re-released as Kingdom Hearts II Final Mix alongside a PS2 remake of Chain of Memories. A Kingdom Hearts game was developed exclusively for V CAST, Verizon Wireless's broadband service, and was released on October 1, 2004 in Japan and on February 4, 2005 in the United States. In November 2008, Kingdom Hearts coded was released for mobile phones in Japan, the game takes place after the events of Kingdom Hearts II. A midquel entitled Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days was developed for the Nintendo DS and released in Japan on May 30, 2009 and in North America on September 29, 2009. A prequel was released in Japan on January 9, 2010, entitled Kingdom Hearts Birth by Sleep, for the PlayStation Portable, which takes place 10 years before the events of Kingdom Hearts. The following title in the series was Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance for the Nintendo 3DS, released in 2012.
- "Kingdom Hearts HD 1.5 ReMIX coming to Europe!". Square Enix. February 25, 2013. Retrieved February 25, 2013.
- "KINGDOM HEARTS HD 1.5 ReMIX, releasing exclusively for PS3". PS3 News. February 26, 2013. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "PlayStation 2 - Kingdom Hearts". PlayStation Underground. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- IGN Staff (2002-05-14). "Kingdom Hearts Voice Cast". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- Dengeki PlayStation staff (2007-04-27). "Small New Nomura Interview". Dengeki PlayStation. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- "GameSpot's Best and Worst of 2002". GameSpot. 2002. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- GamePro Staff (2003-04-30). "Kingdom Hearts sold how many?!". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- Square (2007-02-05). "Kingdom Hearts Series Ships over 10 Million Worldwide". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- "Tetsuya Nomura Interview". Edge (Future Publishing) (177): 80–81. July 2007.
- "Official International Kingdom Hearts Website". Square. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
- "Kingdom Hearts for PlayStation 2 (2002)". MobyGames. Retrieved 2012-10-18.
- Turner, Benjamin (2002-09-03). "Kingdom Hearts Review (PS2)". GameSpy. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- Kasavin, Greg (2002-09-09). "Kingdom Hearts for PlayStation 2 Review". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2007-05-02. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- Square Co. (2002). Kingdom Hearts Instruction Booklet. Square Co., Limited.
- Birlew, Dan (2003). Kingdom Hearts Official Strategy Guide. BradyGames Publishing. ISBN 0-7440-0198-6.
- Varanini, Giancarlo (2002-04-03). "Kingdom Hearts Preview". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
- "Kingdom Hearts Company Line". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- Fox, Fennec (2002-09-30). "Review: Kingdom Hearts for PS2 on GamePro.com". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- "IGN: Kingdom Hearts". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-12.
- Goofy: Gawrsh, is that all that's left of the worlds taken by the Heartless? Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Goofy: Oh, right... I gotcha. While we’re in the other worlds, we can’t let on where we’re from. We’ve gotta protect the world border. / Donald: "Order." Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Goofy: This sure is a spooky place. I’ll bet the people here are scary-lookin’ too. / Donald: Don’t worry. We look spooky, too. If they scare us, we’ll scare them right back! Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Gerstmann, Jeff (May 17, 2001). "E3 2001: Square announces Disney RPG for PS2". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- "Official Kingdom Hearts Website: Characters". Square Enix. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- King Mickey's Note: Donald, Sorry to rush off without sayin’ goodbye, but there’s big trouble brewin’. Not sure why, but the stars have been blinkin’ out, one by one. And that means disaster can’t be far behind. I hate to leave you all but I’ve gotta go check into it. There’s someone with a "key"—the key to our survival. So I need you and Goofy to find him, and stick with him. Got it? We need that key or we’re doomed! So go to Traverse Town and find Leon. He’ll point you in the right direction. P.S. Would ya apologize to Minnie for me? Thanks, pal. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- "Official Kingdom Hearts Website: News". Square Enix. Retrieved 2007-05-14.
- Square. "Early Kingdom Hearts Concept Art". Kingdom Hearts Ultimania.com. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- Boulette, Bryan (2005-11-27). "Nomura Divulges Kingdom Hearts II Details". RPGamer. Retrieved 2007-05-21.
- Sora: The Heartless? / Yuffie: The ones who attacked you, you remember? / Leon: Those without hearts. / Yuffie: The darkness in people’s hearts—that’s what attracts them. / Leon: And there is darkness within every heart. / ... / Leon: The Heartless have great fear of the Keyblade. That’s why they’ll keep coming after you no matter what. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Maleficent: You see? It’s just as I told you. While you toiled away trying to find your dear friend, he quite simply replaced you with some new companions. Evidently, now he values them far more than he does you. You’re better off without that wretched boy. Now, think no more of him, and come with me. I’ll help you find what you’re searching for... Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Sora: But that’s impossible. How did this happen? I’m the one who fought my way here with the Keyblade! / Riku: You were just the delivery boy. Sorry, your part’s over now. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Donald Duck: Goofy, let's go. We need to remember our mission. / Goofy: Oh! Well, I know the king told use to follow the key and all. But... / Donald Duck: Sora, sorry. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Sora: What? You... You're not Riku. / ... / Sora: Tell me. Who are you? / Ansem: It is I, Ansem, the seeker of darkness. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Ansem: The Keyhole cannot be completed so long as the last Princess of Heart still sleeps. / Sora: The princess...? Kairi's a princess? / Ansem: Yes, and without her power, the Keyhole will remain incomplete. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Ansem: Don't you see yet? The princess's heart is responding. It has been there all along. Kairi's heart rests within you! / Sora: Kairi... Kairi's inside me? Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Donald: Well, now what do we do? / Sora: We’ve gotta find Riku and King Mickey. Square. Kingdom Hearts. (Square Electronic Arts). PlayStation 2. (2002-11-15)
- Final Fantasy Retrospective Part XI (GameTrailers.com feature). GameTrailers. 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Anoop Gantayat (2004-09-23). "TGS 2004: Tetsuya Nomura Q&A". IGN. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
- "Kingdom Hearts キングダム ハーツ" (in Japanese). Final Fantasy 2000. Retrieved 2007-05-30.
- "KHU Interview w/Tetsuya Nomura". Kingdom Hearts Insider. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- "Playstation.com Europe - E3 Interview". Kingdom Hearts Ultimania. Archived from the original on April 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- "Tetsuya Nomura on the Kingdom Hearts Sequels". G4TV. Archived from the original on 2006-12-03. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- Fox, Fennec (2003-04-30). "Square Confirms Kingdom Hearts Date". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2011-12-01. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- "Kingdom Hearts II Ultimania - Tetsuya Nomura Interview". Kingdom Hearts Ultimania. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-10.
- "Nomura Dengeki Interview #3". Kingdom Hearts Ultimania. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-15.
- "Kingdom Hearts II Tetsuya Nomura interview". Video Game Blogger. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
- Gerstmann, Jeff (2001-10-12). "TGS 2001 FallKingdom Hearts hands-on". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
- IGN Staff (2002-05-14). "Square Opens Kingdom Hearts Page". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- IGN Staff. "IGN: Kingdom Hearts Voice Cast". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- Bryant, Paul (2002-08-08). "Kingdom Hearts auction now live". Gaming Age. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- Klepek, Patrick (2002-08-13). "Kingdom Hearts Consumer Demo Day". Gaming Age. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-09-25.
- Kingdom Hearts Original Soundtrack CD insert. Toshiba-Emi Limited. 2002.
- IGN Staff (2002-01-10). "Hikaru Utada Sings Kingdom Hearts Theme". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- Coleman, Stephen (2002-08-22). "Square, Disney and Japanese Pop Star Utada Hikaru Collaborate on Kingdom Hearts". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- "RELEASE - Single 光" (in Japanese). EMI Music Japan. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- "Kingdom Hearts Original Soundtrack Complete" (in Japanese). EMI Music Japan. Retrieved 2008-09-19.[dead link]
- "Drammatica -The Very Best Of Yoko Shimomura" (in Japanese). HMV Japan. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- "Full cast and crew for Kingdom Hearts (2002) (VG)". IMDB. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- Fox, Fennec (2003-04-30). "Kingdom Hearts Voice Talent Announced". GamePro. Archived from the original on 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2008-09-19.
- Sains, Alex. "Kingdom Hearts voice actors". Final Fantasy Net. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
- "Kingdom Hearts Tech Info". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
- Calvert, Justin (2002-11-18). "October video game sales". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- Stephen Coleman (2002-11-13). "UBSW Top 10 Games For the week ending Nov. 11". IGN. Retrieved 2007-08-09.
- GameSpot Staff (2004-03-17). "Kingdom Hearts tips scales at 4 million". GameSpot. Retrieved 2007-05-18.
- Coleman, Stephen (2006-02-08). "Kingdom Hearts II Gets All-Star Cast". IGN. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
- "Kingdom Hearts (PS2) Reviews". Game Rankings. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- "Kingdom Hearts (PS2) Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- "Kingdom Hearts PS2 Game". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2007-05-20.
- Mugwum (2002-12-11). "Kingdom Hearts Review". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
- プレイステーション2 - キングダム ハーツ. Weekly Famitsu. No.915 Pt.2. Pg.75. 30 June 2006.
- KK. "Highest Scoring Games in Famitsu’s History". Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Andrew Reiner. "Kingdom Hearts Review". Game Informer. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-22.
- Geoff Keighley (2002-09-20). Kingdom Hearts Review (673). Entertainment Weekly. p. 109. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
- IGN Staff (2003-07-31). "G-Phoria Report". IGN. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
- Perry, Douglass C. (2003-03-20). "IGN: The Best Looking Games on PS2". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- IGNPS2 Staff (2003-01-17). "Best of 2002: Best Game of the Year". IGN. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
- IGN PlayStation Team (2007-03-16). "The Top 25 PS2 Games of All Time". IGN. Retrieved 2007-03-18.
- Perry, Douglass C. (2003-03-20). "The Best Looking Games on PS2". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- "GameSpy's Top 25 Video Game Cinematic Moments". GameSpy. April 16, 2007. p. 2. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "GameSpy's Top 25 Video Game Cinematic Moments". GameSpy. April 16, 2007. p. 4. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "電撃オンライン編集部がオススメするソフトを個性的なレビュアーがアツく語る!" (in Japanese). Dengeki Online. Archived from the original on 2007-06-09. Retrieved 2007-07-08.
- "Famitsu Reveals Top 100 Reader-Voted Games Of All-Time". Gamasutra. 2006-03-03. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- "Fall 2005: 10-Year Anniversary Contest - The 10 Best Games Ever". GameFAQs. 2005. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- IGN Site Staff (2006). "Readers' Picks Top 100 Games: 91-100". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- IGN Site Staff (2006). "Top 25 PS2 Games of All Time". IGN. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "最優秀賞は「FF10」!! 「第6回 CESA GAME AWARDS」授賞式". GPARA.COM. Retrieved May 28, 2009.
- "Kingdom Hearts Official Strategy Guide". Brady Games. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
- "Kingdom Hearts the First Door". Indigo Books and Music. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
- "Kingdom Hearts Darkness Within". Indigo Books and Music. Retrieved 2007-10-02.
- "Kingdom Hearts Final Mix". IGN. Retrieved 2007-05-13.
- "Kingdom Hearts Insider - Final Mix". Kingdom Hearts Insider. Archived from the original on 2007-05-09. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- Studio BentStuff (2005). Kingdom Hearts Series Ultimania α ~Introduction of Kingdom Hearts II~ (in Japanese). Square Enix. ISBN 4-7575-1597-9.
- "Kingdom Hearts: Final Mix (Import)". Neoseeker. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- Robert Peeler (2013-02-26). "Announcing KINGDOM HEARTS HD 1.5 ReMIX". Square Enix. Retrieved 2012-02-26.
- Goldstein, Hilary (2002-09-12). "Kingdom Hearts Vol. 1 Review". IGN. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Kingdom Hearts, Vol. 1 (Paperback)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Kingdom Hearts, Vol. 4 (Paperback)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Kingdom Hearts Boxed Set--vols 1-4 (Paperback)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "USA Today Best-Selling Books Database - Top 150 best sellers". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-07-05.
- "Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2008-03-13.
- "Kingdom Hearts II Volume 1 (Kingdom Hearts (Graphic Novels)) (Paperback)". Amazon.com. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
- "Nomura talks KH3D and possible KH HD remake". Andriasang. August 9, 2011. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
- "Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance". Game Informer (GameStop Corporation) (230): 80. June 2012. ISSN 1067-6392.
- "Nomura Teases Kingdom Hearts II HD And Other Kingdom Hearts HD 1.5 Remix Tidbits". Siliconera. October 2, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- "Kingdom Hearts HD Collection Announced". GameInformer. September 19, 2012. Retrieved September 20, 2012.
- "Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories". IGN. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
- "Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories Info". GameFAQs. Retrieved 2007-05-24.
- "Kingdom Hearts II". IGN. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
- Anoop Gantayat (2006-09-13). "Kingdom Hearts II Update For PS2". IGN. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
- "Kingdom Hearts". IGN. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- Charles Onyett (2007-09-19). "Three New Kingdom Hearts Titles". IGN. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Anoop Gantayat (June 18, 2010). "Tetsuya Nomura on Kingdom Hearts 3D". Andriasang. Retrieved June 16, 2010.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Kingdom Hearts (video game)|
- Kingdom Hearts Japan official site
- Kingdom Hearts Final Mix Japan official site
- Kingdom Hearts Europe official site
- Kingdom Hearts North America official site
- Kingdom Hearts at the Internet Movie Database