Kingdom of Afghanistan

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Kingdom of Afghanistan
د افغانستان واکمنان
Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān
پادشاهي افغانستان,
Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān

1926–1973  

Flag Emblem
Capital Kabul
Languages Pashto, Persian
Religion Sunni Islam
Government Constitutional monarchy
King
 -  1926–1929 Amanullah Khan
 -  1929 Inayatullah Khan
 -  1929 Habibullāh Kalakāni
 -  1929–1933 Mohammed Nadir Shah
 -  1933–1973 Mohammed Zahir Shah
Prime Minister
 -  1929–1946 Mohammad Khan (first)
 -  1972–1973 Mohammad Shafiq (last)
Legislature Loya Jirga
Historical era Interwar Period / Cold War
 -  Established 9 June 1926
 -  Disestablished 17 July 1973
Area
 -  1973 647,500 km² (250,001 sq mi)
Population
 -  1973 est. 11,966,400 
     Density 18.5 /km²  (47.9 /sq mi)
Currency Afghan afghani

The Kingdom of Afghanistan (Pashto: د افغانستان واکمنان‎, Dǝ Afġānistān wākmanān; Persian: پادشاهي افغانستان, Pādešāhī-ye Afġānistān) was a constitutional monarchy in southern central Asia established in 1926 as a successor state to the Emirate of Afghanistan. It was proclaimed by its first king, Amanullah Khan, seven years after his accession to the throne.

Background[edit]

Amanullah Khan was keen on modernizing the country, resulting in conservative forces causing social upheaval on a number of occasions. When he was visiting Europe in 1927, rebellion broke out again. He abdicated in favour of his brother Inayatullah Khan who only ruled for three days before the tribal leader Habibullah Kalakani took power and reinstated the Emirate.

After 10 months, Amanullah Khan's Minister of War, Mohammed Nadir, returned from exile in India. His British-supported armies sacked Kabul, forcing Habibullah Kalakani to discuss a truce. Instead, Mohammed Nadir's forces apprehended and subsequently executed Kalakani. Mohammed Nadir reinstated the kingdom, was proclaimed King of Afghanistan in October 1929, and went on to revert the reformist path of the last king, Amanullah Khan. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammed Zahir Shah, whose rule started in 1933 and lasted for 39 years. Mohammed Zahir Shah, the last King of Afghanistan, was eventually overthrown by his own cousin Mohammed Daoud Khan who successfully ended the centuries old monarchy and established a republican Afghan government. It was under the leadership of Zahir Shah that the Afghan government sought relationships with the outside world, most notably with the Soviet Union, United Kingdom and the United States.[1]

On 27 September 1934, during the reign of Zahir Shah, the Kingdom of Afghanistan joined the League of Nations. During World War II, Afghanistan remained neutral and pursued a diplomatic policy of non-alignment. Mohammed Daoud Khan, Prime Minister of Afghanistan at the time, worked hard for development of modern industries, and education in the country.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rubin, Barnett. "DĀWŪD KHAN". In Ehsan Yarshater. Encyclopædia Iranica (Online Edition ed.). United States: Columbia University. Retrieved January 2008. 
  2. ^ "History of Afghanistan". History of Afghanistan. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 

External links[edit]