Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

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Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija (hr)
Horvát-Szlavón Királyság (hu)
Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien (de)
Constituent kingdom within Austria-Hungary
(part of the Lands of the Crown of St Stephen)

 

1868–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Lijepa naša domovino
"Our Beautiful Homeland"
Map of the Kingdom of Croatia Slavonia (red) cca. 1885. The Kingdom was a part of Transleithanian Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen). The rest of Austria-Hungary is in light gray.
Croatia-Slavonia within Austria-Hungary (number 17)
Capital Zagreb
Languages Croatian[1][2][3][4]
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Constitutional Monarchy
King
 -  1868–1916 Franz Joseph I
 -  1916–18 Charles IV
Ban (Viceroy)
 -  1868–71 Levin Rauch (first)
 -  1917–18 Antun Mihalović (last)
Legislature Parliament
Historical era New Imperialism / WWI
 -  Compromise of 1867 30 March 1867
 -  Settlement of 1868 26 September 1868
 -  Independence 29 October 1918
Area
 -  1910 42,541 km² (16,425 sq mi)
Population
 -  1880 est. 1,892,499 
 -  1910 est. 2,621,954 
     Density 61.6 /km²  (159.6 /sq mi)
Currency Gulden,
(1868–92)
Krone
(1892–1918)
Today part of  Croatia
 Serbia
Area source:[5] Population source:[6]
Part of a series on the
History of Slavonia
Coat of Arms of Slavonia
Antiquity
Medieval
Ottoman Empire
Habsburg Monarchy
20th century
Croatian War of Independence

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska i Slavonija; Hungarian: Horvát-Szlavón Királyság; German: Königreich Kroatien und Slawonien) was a nominally autonomous kingdom within the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It was associated with the Hungarian Kingdom within the dual Austro-Hungarian state, being within the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen or Transleithania. The kingdom was ruled by the Habsburg Emperor-King of Austria-Hungary (Kaiser und König), under his title as King of Hungary. The monarch's title was "King of Croatia and Slavonia". The King's appointed steward was the Ban of Croatia and Slavonia.

Name[edit]

Main article: Triune Kingdom
Ivan Mažuranić, Ban (viceroy) of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (in office 1873-1880)

The kingdom used the formal title of the Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia, thereby pressing its claim on the Kingdom of Dalmatia, but Dalmatia was a Kronland within the imperial Austrian part of Austria-Hungary (also known as Cisleithania). The claim was, for most of the time, supported by the Hungarian government, which backed Croatia-Slavonia in an effort to increase its share of the dual state. The union between the two primarily Croatian lands of Austria-Hungary never took place, however.[7] According to the Article 53 of the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, governing Croatia's political status in the Hungarian-ruled part of Austria-Hungary, the ban's official title was "Ban of Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia".[8][9] The laws passed in Croatia-Slavonia used the phrase "Kingdom of Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia".[10]

In Hungarian, Croatia is referred to as Horvátország and Slavonia as Szlavónia. The combined polity was known by the official name of Horvát-Szlavón Királyság. The short form of the name was Horvát-Szlavónország and, less frequently Horvát-Tótország,[11][12] the latter name based on Tót, an archaic name for Slavs.

The order of mentioning Dalmatia was a contentious issue, as it was ordered differently in the Croatian and Hungarian language versions of the 1868 Settlement.[13]

History[edit]

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was created in 1868, when the former kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia were joined into one single kingdom. The Croatian parliament, elected in a questionable manner, confirmed the subordination of Croatia-Slavonia to Hungary in 1868 with signing of Hungarian-Croatian union constitution called the Nagodba.[14] This kingdom included parts of present-day Croatia and Serbia (eastern part of Syrmia).

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 the only remaining open question of the new state was the status of Croatia, which would be solved with the Hungarian-Croatian compromise of 1868 when agreement was reached between the Parliament of Hungary on one hand and the Parliament of Croatia-Slavonia on the other hand, with regard to the composition by a joint enactment of the constitutional questions at issue between them.[8]

With this compromise the parliament of personal union (in which Croatia-Slavonia had only twenty-nine deputies) controlled the military, the financial system, legislation and administration, Sea Law, Commercial Law, the law of Bills of Exchange and Mining Law, and generally matters of commerce, customs, telegraphs, Post Office, railways, harbors, shipping, and those roads and rivers which jointly concern Hungary and Croatia-Slavonia.[8]

Similarly to these affairs, trade matters including hawking, likewise with regard to societies which do not exist for public gain, and also with regard to passports, frontier police, citizenship and naturalization, the legislation was joint, but the executive in respect of these affairs was reserved to Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.[8] In the end, fifty-five per cent of the total income of Croatia-Slavonia were assigned to the Joint Treasury.

The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia held independent elections for Croatian Parliament in 1865, 1867, 1871, 1872, 1878, 1881, 1883, 1884, 1887, 1892, 1897, 1901, 1906, 1908, 1910, 1911, 1913.

The kingdom existed until 1918 when it joined the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which together with the Kingdom of Serbia formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The new Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom was divided into counties between 1918 and 1922 and into oblasts between 1922 and 1929. With the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, most of the territory of the former Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia became a part of the Sava Banate.

Government and politics[edit]

Political status[edit]

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 created the Dual Monarchy. Under the Compromise, Austria and Hungary each had separate parliaments that passed and maintained separate laws. Each region had its own government, headed by its own prime minister. The "common monarchy" consisted of the emperor-king and the common ministers of foreign affairs, defense and finance in Vienna. The Compromise confirmed Croatia-Slavonia's historic, eight-centuries-old relationship with Hungary and perpetuated the division of the Croat lands, for both Dalmatia and Istria remained under Austrian administration.[15]

At Franz Joseph's insistence, Hungary and Croatia reached the Compromise (or Nagodba) in 1868, giving the Croats a special status in Hungary. The agreement granted the Croats autonomy over their internal affairs. The Croatian ban would now be nominated by the Hungarian prime minister and appointed by the king. Areas of "common" concern to Hungarians and Croats included finance, currency matters, commercial policy, the post office, and the railroad. Croatian became the official language of Croatia's government, and Croatian representatives discussing "common" affairs before the Hungarian diet were permitted to speak Croatian.[16] A ministry of Croatian Affairs was created within the Hungarian government.[17]

Although the Nagodba provided a measure of political autonomy to Croatia-Slavonia, it was subordinated politically and economically to Hungary.[15]

Autonomous Government[edit]

The Autonomous Government or Land Government (Croatian: Zemaljska vlada) was established in 1868 with its seat in Zagreb. Until 1914 it possessed three departments:

  • Department of internal affairs (Croatian: Odjela za unutarnje poslove);
  • Department of religion and education (Croatian: Odjel za bogoštovlje i nastavu);
  • Department of justice (Croatian: Odjel za pravosuđe).

In 1914 a fourth department was added for national economy (Croatian: Odjel za narodno gospodarstvo).[15]

At the head of the Autonomous Government in Croatia-Slavonia stood the Ban, who was responsible to the Croatian-Slavonian-Dalmatian Diet.[18]

Ban (viceroy)[edit]

Main article: Ban of Croatia
Banski dvori (Ban's Court), the palace of the Ban of Croatia, in Zagreb.

The Ban was appointed by the King, on the proposal and under the counter-signature of the Joint Hungarian minister-president.[18]

List of bans (viceroys) from 1868 until 1918:

Law[edit]

The supreme court of kingdom was the Stol sedmorice (Table of Seven), while the second-level court was the Banski stol (Ban's Table) headed by the ban.[19]

Counties[edit]

Counties of Croatia-Slavonia within the Austro-Hungary

In November 1874, under Croatian ban Ivan Mažuranić, Croatia-Slavonia was divided into eight counties (known as comitatus):[20]

  1. Modruš-Rijeka County
  2. Zagreb County
  3. Varaždin County
  4. Bjelovar-Križevci County
  5. Virovitica County
  6. Požega County
  7. Srijem County
  8. Lika-Krbava County

Lika-Krbava became a county after the incorporation of the Croatian Military Frontier into Croatia-Slavonia in 1881.[20] The counties were subsequently divided into a total of 77 districts, which were then divided into okrugs and municipalities.

Symbols[edit]

The Coat of Arms of Croatia-Slavonia on the building of the Croatian Parliament

According to the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement in 1868:

Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia can, within their own frontiers in their internal affairs, use their own combined colours and coat of arms, the latter, however, being surmounted by the Crown of St. Stephen.(Art. 61) The emblem of the Joint Affairs of the territories of the Hungarian Crown is formed by the combined arms of Hungary and of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia. (Art. 62) At times when Joint Affairs are being debated, the combined Croatian-Slavonia-Dalmatian flag is to be hoisted beside the Hungarian flag, upon the building in which the Joint Parliament of the territories of the Hungarian Crown is being held. (Art. 63)[21][22]

Alternate flag, used internally "for autonomic affairs" by decree of the viceroy.[23]
Sculpture symbolizing the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia in Zagreb

Demographics[edit]

Nationality[edit]

In the 1910 census, the total population numbered 2,621,954, of the following nationalities:[24]

1875 data (without the Military Frontier) [25]

Religion[edit]

Data taken from the 1910 census.[24]

Literacy[edit]

According to the 1910 census, illiteracy rate in Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was 45.9%. The lowest illiteracy was in Zagreb, Osijek and Zemun.

Illiteracy rates of Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia 1880-1910[26]
Year Total illiteracy Males Females Total population
1880 73.9% 67.8% 79.9% 1,892,449
1890 66.9% 60.1% 73.5% 2,186,410
1900 54.4% 46.8% 61.8% 2,416,304
1910 45.9% 37.6% 53.7% 2,621,954

Military[edit]

Memorial to Croatian soldiers who fought in the First World War

The Croatian Home Guard was the military of the Kingdom. Notable Croatians in the Austro-Hungarian Army included Field Marshal Svetozar Boroević, commander of the Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops Emil Uzelac, commander of the Austro-Hungarian Navy Maximilian Njegovan and Josip Broz Tito who later became Marshal and president of Jugoslavia.[27]

Culture[edit]

The modern University of Zagreb was founded in 1874. The Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts and Matica hrvatska were the main cultural institutions in the kingdom. In 1911 the main cultural institution in the Kingdom of Dalmatia, Matica dalmatinska, marged with Matica hrvatska. Vijenac was one of the most important cultural magazines in the kingdom. The building of the Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb was opened in 1895. The Croatian National Theatre in Osijek was established in 1907. The Sisters of Charity Hospital in Zagreb was the first established in the kingdom.

Religion[edit]

Catholic Church[edit]

Roughly 75% of the population were Roman Catholic, with the remaining 25% Orthodox. The Catholic Church had the following hierarchy within the kingdom:

Dioceses Croatian name Est. Cathedral
Archdiocese of Zagreb Zagrebačka nadbiskupija 1093 Zagreb Cathedral
Eparchy of Križevci (Greek-Catholic) Križevačka biskupija 1777
Diocese of Srijem Srijemska biskupija 4th century Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul
Diocese of Senj-Modruš Senjsko-modruška biskupija 1168

Judaism[edit]

In 1890, there were 17,261 Jews living in the kingdom. In 1867 the Zagreb Synagogue was built.

Transportation[edit]

Part of a series on the
History of Croatia
Coat of arms of Croatia
Timeline
Portal icon Croatia portal

The first railway line opened in the kingdom was the Zidani Most-Zagreb-Sisak route which began operations in 1862. The Zaprešić-Varaždin-Čakovec line was opened in 1886 and the Vinkovci-Osijek line was opened in 1910.

Sports[edit]

The Croatian Sports Association was formed in 1909 with Franjo Bučar as its president. While Austria-Hungary had competed in the modern Olympics since the inaugural games in 1896, the Austrian Olympic Committee and Hungarian Olympic Committee held the exclusive right to send their athletes to the games. The association organized a national football league in 1912.

Legacy[edit]

In 1918, during the last days of World War I, the Croatian parliament abolished the Hungarian-Croatian personal union, and both parts of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia and the Kingdom of Dalmatia (excluding Zadar and Lastovo), became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which together with the Kingdom of Serbia, formed the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as the Kingdom of Yugoslavia). The new Serb-Croat-Slovene Kingdom was divided into counties between 1918 and 1922 and into oblasts between 1922 and 1929. With the formation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, most of the territory of the former Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia became a part of the Sava Banovina, and most of the former Kingdom of Dalmatia became part of the Littoral Banovina.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Biondich, Mark; Stjepan Radić, the Croat Peasant Party, and the politics of mass mobilization, 1904-1928; University of Toronto Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8020-8294-7, page 9
  2. ^ Marcus Tanner, "A nation forged in war", Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09125-7, page 99
  3. ^ According to articles 56 and 57 of Nagodba only official language in Croatia is Croatian (Po čl. 56. i 57. Hrvatsko-ugarske nagodbe u Hrvatskoj je u službenoj uporabi samo hrvatski jezik), Dragutin Pavličević, "Povijest Hrvatske", Naklada Pavičić, Zagreb, 2007, ISBN 978-953-6308-71-2, page 273
  4. ^ 56. In the whole territory of Croatia-Slavonia the Croatian language is the language alike of the Legislature, the Administration and the Judicature. 57. Inside the frontiers of Croatia-Slavonia the Croatian language is prescribed as the official language for the organs of the Joint Government also. http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/nagodba2.htm - online text from Robert William Seton-Watson, "The Southern Slav Question and the Habsburg Monarchy", London, Constable and Co., 1911, ISBN 0-7222-2328-5, page 371
  5. ^ Rothschild, Joseph (1974). East Central Europe Between the Two World Wars (3rd ed.). Volume 9. University of Washington Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-295-95357-8.
  6. ^ Biondich 2000, p. 15
  7. ^ Ivo Goldstein, Nikolina Jovanović; Croatia: a history; C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 1999 ISBN 1-85065-525-1
  8. ^ a b c d Constitution of Union between Croatia-Slavonia and Hungary
  9. ^ The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise (Croatian)
  10. ^ Ines Sabotič, Stjepan Matković (April 2005). "Saborski izbori i zagrebačka izborna tijela na prijelazu iz 19. u 20. stoljeće" [Parliamentary Elections and Zagreb Electoral Bodies at the Turn of the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Drustvena istrazivanja: Journal for General Social Issues (in Croatian) (Zagreb, Croatia: Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar) 14 (1-2 (75-76)): 168. ISSN 1330-0288. Retrieved 2012-08-22. [...] Zakona o izbornom redu za kraljevinu Dalmacije, Hrvatske i Slavonije 
  11. ^ A Magyar Sz. Korona országai Magyarország, Horvát-Tótország és a Katonai Őrvidék új térképe Magyarország (map), 1877. Retrieved 25 December 2012. (Hungarian)
  12. ^ Hivatalos Statistikai Közlemények. Kiadja: A Földmivelés-, Ipar- És Kereskedelemügyi Magyar Királyi Ministerium Statistikai Osztálya. Évf. 2. Füz. 1. 1869. p. 160. 
  13. ^ Mikuláš Teich, Roy Porter, The National Question in Europe in Historical Context, 1993, p.284
  14. ^ Britannica 2009 Nagodba
  15. ^ a b c Biondich 2000, p. 9
  16. ^ History of Hungary
  17. ^ Trpimir Macan: Povijest hrvatskog naroda, 1971, p. 358-368 (full text of the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in Croatian)
  18. ^ a b http://www.h-net.org/~habsweb/sourcetexts/nagodba3.htm The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1868 (The Nagodba), III
  19. ^ Hrvatska pravna povijest 1790. - 1918., Croatian Supreme Court
  20. ^ a b Biondich 2000, p. 11
  21. ^ The Hungaro-Croatian Compromise of 1868 (The Nagodba), II
  22. ^ Croatia - Historical Flags (1848-1918), www.fotw.net
  23. ^ Ban (viceroy) Iván Skerlecz: "According to the § 61 article I from the year 1868 of Agreement and of decree of the Department of Interior of the Royal Country Government of November 16th, 1867, No. 18.307, red-white-blue tricolour is the civil flag in the Kingdoms of Croatia and Slavonia, which with the united Coat-of-Arms of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia with the crown of saint Stephen on the top is official flag for usage in autonomous affairs. Above-mentioned civil flag may be used by everyone in appropriate way." [1] [2]
  24. ^ a b Seton-Watson, Hugh (1945). Eastern Europe Between the Wars, 1918–1941 (3rd ed.). CUP Archive. p. 434. ISBN 1-00-128478-X.
  25. ^ Kroatien, Slavonien, Dalmatien Und Das Militargrenzland, p. 20.
  26. ^ Pokušaji smanjivanja nepismenosti u Banskoj Hrvatskoj početkom 20. stoljeća, p. 133-135
  27. ^ Pero Simic: Tito, tajna veka Novosti; 2nd edition (2009) ISBN 978-8674461549

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°48′N 15°58′E / 45.800°N 15.967°E / 45.800; 15.967