Kingdom of Dalmatia

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Kingdom of Dalmatia
Kraljevina Dalmacija
Königreich Dalmatien
Regno di Dalmazia
Crown land of the Austrian Empire and of Cisleithania in Austria-Hungary

1815–1918
Flag Coat of arms
Dalmatia (red) in Austria-Hungary, 1914
Capital Zadar
Languages Croatian, Italian
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Constitutional Monarchy
King
 -  1815–1835 Francis I
 -  1835–1848 Ferdinand I
 -  1848–1916 Francis Joseph I
 -  1916–1918 Charles I
Governor
 -  1815–1831 Franjo Tomašić (first)
 -  1911–1918 Mario Attems (last)
Legislature Diet of Dalmatia
Historical era New Imperialism / WWI
 -  Congress of Vienna 22 June 1815
 -  Independence 29 October 1918
Area
 -  1910 12,831 km² (4,954 sq mi)
Population
 -  1910 est. 645,666 
     Density 50.3 /km²  (130.3 /sq mi)
Currency Gulden,
(1815–1892)
Krone
(1892–1918)
Today part of  Croatia
 Montenegro

The Kingdom of Dalmatia (Croatian: Kraljevina Dalmacija, German: Königreich Dalmatien; Italian: Regno di Dalmazia) was a crown land of the Austrian Empire (1815-1867) and the Cisleithanian half of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918). It encompassed the entirety of the region of Dalmatia with its capital at Zadar.

History[edit]

Zadar's "Kopnena vrata" (Landward Gate) in 1909

The Habsburg Monarchy had annexed the lands of Dalmatia after the Napoleonic War of the First Coalition: when Napoleon Bonaparte launched his Italian Campaign into the Habsburg duchies of Milan and Mantua in 1796, culminating in the Siege of Mantua, he compelled Emperor Francis II to make peace. In 1797 the Treaty of Campo Formio was signed, whereby the Habsburg emperor renounced the Austrian Netherlands and officially recognized the independence of the Italian Cisalpine Republic. In turn, Napoleon ceded to him the possessions of the Republic of Venice, including the Dalmatian coast and the Bay of Kotor. La Serenissima had sided with Austria in order to defend her Domini di Terraferma and was occupied by French troops on 14 May 1797. The treaty ended the centuries-long history of the Venetian Republic.

The newly acquired Habsburg crown land stretched from the Rab Island and Karlobag in the north down the Adriatic coast to Budva in the south, while the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik) retained its independence until 1808. When in 1804 Francis II created the title of an Emperor of Austria for himself (as Francis I), he also added a "King of Dalmatia" (Dalmatiae Rex) to it. The possessions were however again lost after the Austrian defeat in the Battle of Austerlitz and the 1805 Peace of Pressburg, when they temporarily formed part of the French Illyrian Provinces. Not until the Congress of Vienna in 1814-15, the Kingdom of Dalmatia was formed from the regained territories, now including the former Republic of Ragusa and stretching down to Sutomore in the southeast.

About 1850 the Austrians had the Prevlaka fortress erected to control the maritime traffic in the Bay of Kotor. Upon the Revolutions of 1848, Dalmatia was temporarily under the control of Ban Josip Jelačić of Croatia. However, the Italian-speaking élite dominating the Diet of Dalmatia urged for the autonomy of the kingdom as an Austrian crown land – against the Croatian national revival movement demanding a Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia, and Dalmatia. In the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, a unification with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was denied. While Croatia-Slawonia was incorporated into the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, and Dalmatia remained a crown land of the Cislethanian (Austrian) half of the Dual Monarchy.

The kingdom was a separate administrative division of Austria-Hungary until 1918, when its territory — except for Zadar, its territory and the island of Lastovo annexed by the Kingdom of Italy — became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia). As a result of the Vidovdan Constitution (in 1921), the majority of the Kingdom was divided into the Split Oblast and Dubrovnik Oblast, with the Bay of Kotor being administratively split to the largely Montenegrin Zeta Oblast.

Demographic history[edit]

1818–1857[edit]

According to M. Lorković, the total population of Dalmatia numbered 297,912 in 1818; 326,739 in 1825; 338,599 in 1830; 390,381 in 1840; and 393,715 in 1850.[1][2]

Based on the 1857 census, the Kingdom of Dalmatia had 415,628 inhabitants.[3] According to an analysis of the 1857 census, 318,500 (76.5%) inhabitants were Croats, 77,500 (18.5%) were Serbs, and ca. 20,000 were Italian-speakers (5%).[4] The percentage of Dalmatian Serbs had been 19.9% in the 1830–1850 period.[4] In the cities, the inhabitants were 71% Croat, 22% Italian and 7% Serb.[4] Only in Kotor, there was 745 Serbs, and in all other cities there was fewer than 400.[4] The number of Serbs in Dalmatia became lower, however, in the north it became higher.[4] Among the Orthodox, there was one priest on 400 people, while among the Catholics, there was one priest on 330 people.[4] The Catholic priests were more educated than the Orthodox.[4]

1880[edit]

The 1880 Austrian census recorded the following ethnic groups in the Kingdom:[citation needed]

1900[edit]

The 1900 Austrian census[5]

By language:[5]

1910[edit]

According to the official 1910 Austrian census, population by religion and mother language was:[6]

Cities[edit]

The major cities were (1900):[7]

Districts[edit]

Map of Kingdom of Dalmatia
Extent of the Kingdom of Dalmatia, superimposed on the modern-day internal borders of Croatia (the Bay of Kotor area is in Montenegro).

Dalmatia consisted of 13 districts, whose capitals were:[when?]

Religion[edit]

The Roman Catholic archbishop had his seat in Zadar, while the diocese of Kotor, diocese of Hvar, diocese of Dubrovnik, diocese of Šibenik and diocese of Split were bishoprics. At the head of the Orthodox community stood the bishop of Zadar.

The use of Croatian-Slavonic liturgies written in the Glagolitic alphabet, a very ancient privilege of the Roman Catholics in Dalmatia and Croatia, caused much controversy during the first years of the 20th century. There was considerable danger that the Latin liturgies would be altogether superseded by the Glagolitic, especially among the northern islands and in rural communes, where the Slavonic element is all-powerful. In 1904 the Vatican forbade the use of Glagolitic at the festival of SS. Cyril and Methodius, as likely to impair the unity of Catholicism. A few years previously the Slavonic archbishop Rajcevic of Zara, in discussing the "Glagolitic controversy", had denounced the movement as "an innovation introduced by Panslavism to make it easy for the Catholic clergy, after any great revolution in the Balkan States, to break with Latin Rome."

Governors[edit]

Part of a series on the
History of Dalmatia
Coat of Arms of Dalmatia
Antiquity
Middle Ages
Early modern period
19th century
20th century
Croatian War of Independence
  • Franjo Tomašić (1815–1831)
  • Wenzeslau Lilienberg Water (1831–1841)
  • Ivan August Turszky (1841–1847)
  • Matija Rukavina (1847)
  • Josip Jelačić (1848–1859)
  • Lazar Mamula (1859–1865)
  • Josip Filipović (1865–1868)
  • Johann Wagner (1868–1869)
  • Gottfried Auersperg (1869)
  • Julius Fluk von Leidenkron (1869–1870)
  • Gavrilo Rodić (1870–1881)
  • Stjepan Jovanović (1882–1885)
  • Ludovik Comaro (1885–1886)
  • Dragutin Blažeković (1886–1890)
  • Emil David (1890–1902)
  • Erasmus Handel (1902–1905)
  • Nicola Nardelli (1905–1911)
  • Mario Attems (1911–1918)

Politics[edit]

Dalmatian Parliament[edit]

The Kingdom of Dalmatia held elections to the Parliament of Dalmatia in 1861, 1864, 1867, 1870, 1876, 1883, 1889, 1895, 1901, 1908.

Reichsrat[edit]

In the 1907 elections, Dalmatia elected the following representatives to the Reichsrat:[8]

  • People's Party
    • Ante Dulibić
    • Vicko Ivčević
    • Frane Ivanišević
    • Ante Tresić Pavičić
    • Ante Vuković
    • Juraj Biankini

In the 1911 elections, Dalmatia elected the following representatives:[8]

  • People's Party
    • Vicko Ivčević
    • Pero Čingrija
    • Ante Tresić Pavičić
    • Juraj Biankini
  • Party of Rights
    • Ivo Prodan
    • Ante Dulibić
    • Ante Sesardić
    • Josip Virgil Perić
  • Croatian Popular Progressive Party
    • Josip Smodlaka

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Šime Peričić (1998). Gospodarska povijest Dalmacije od 18. do 20. stoljeća. Matica hrvatska. p. 98. 
  2. ^ Igor Karaman (2000). Hrvatska na pragu modernizacije, 1750-1918. Naklada Ljevak. p. 151. ISBN 978-953-178-155-8. 
  3. ^ Statistische übersichten über die bevölkerung und den viehstand von Österreich nach der zählung vom 31. october 1857, page 49
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Marino Manini (2001). Zbornik radova s Međunarodnog znanstvenog skupa Talijankska uprava na hrvatskom prostoru i egzodus Hrvata 1918-1943. Hrvatski institut za povijest. p. 312. 
  5. ^ a b Gemeindelexikon der im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder, Bd. 14 Dalmatien, p. 88
  6. ^ Spezialortsrepertorium der österreichischen Länder I-XII, Wien, 1915–1919
  7. ^ Gemeindelexikon der im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder, Bd. 14 Dalmatien
  8. ^ a b Dvije pobjede don Ive Prodana na izborima za Carevinsko vijeće u Beču

External links[edit]