Kingdom of EnenKio
||This article has an unclear citation style. (September 2009)|
The Kingdom of EnenKio, or "EnenKio" for short, is a small separatist group of Marshall Islander heritage who lay claim to the United States' unincorporated territory of Wake Island. EnenKio seeks recognition as a sovereign Micronesian state in the Northern Marshall Islands. The Kingdom of EnenKio derives its name from the native name of the northernmost Marshallese atoll, Eneen-Kio, which was also written as Enen-kio. In the Marshallese language, Enen-kio means "Island of the orange flower." The nation has been infamous for alleged fraudulent purposes.[which?]
Wake Island comprises three proximate coral atolls currently known as Peale Island, Wake Island, and Wilkes Island. In aggregate they make up an area of approximately 6.5 km² and are approximately 2,300 statute miles west of the Hawaiian Islands and 2,000 miles from Japan. The nearest island neighbor is Bokak Atoll of the Marshall Islands group, some 300 miles to the south. Westerners have called Wake Island by different names throughout history, such as San Francisco, Lamira, Disclerta, Halcyon, Helsion, and Wilson.
Basis of claim
The Kingdom of EnenKio bases their claim over Wake Island upon primarily three factors.
First, indigenous Marshallese oral tradition suggests that, before European exploration, nearby Marshall Islanders travelled to what is now Wake Island, which the ancient travelers called Enen-kio after a small orange shrub-flower said to have been found on the island. In ancient Marshallese religion, rituals surrounding the tattooing of tribal chiefs, called Iroijlaplap, were done using certain fresh human bones, which required a human sacrifice. A man could save himself from being sacrificed if he obtained a wing bone from a certain very large seabird said to have existed on Enen-kio. Small groups would therefore brave traveling to the island in hope of obtaining and returning with this bone, thus saving the life of the potential human sacrifice.
Second, EnenKio's Monarch claims to be a direct descendant of ancient travelers to Wake Island, as described above.
Third, and based upon the above two factors, EnenKio bases their claim upon concepts of first-usage lands rights commonly held in Micronesian cultures and legal systems as legitimate for settling indigenous land disputes.
However, because there is no evidence of any permanent Marshall Islander settlement on Wake Atoll, the kingdom's claims have been questioned by many. Becoming a citizen requires membership in Kio Royale, a "private independent service-oriented advocacy group" that requires an initiation fee ranging from $500 to $10,000. EnenKio is characterized as a scam by Quatloos.com, whose view is shared by the Marshall Islands Journal.
To date, EnenKio is not recognized in any international forum as a sovereign state nor does any internationally recognized state recognize it. In 1997 the Dominion of Melchizedek a micronation engaged in financial fraud, reported that the two had entered into relations. On 23 April 1998 the Marshall Islands government issued Circular Note 01-98, which vigorously denied EnenKio's Wake Island claims.
The Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands condemns the claims and activities asserted by representatives of the "Kingdom of EnenKio" and the "Dominion of Melchizedek". The representatives making claims of separate sovereignty are not citizens of the Republic of the Marshall Islands and have no right to make claims on behalf of Marshallese landowners. Furthermore, these representatives are making fraudulent assertions that violate the Republic of the Marshall Islands' constitution. The area of land and ocean which the "Kingdom of EnenKio" asserts as a sovereign nation separate from the Marshall Islands and the area of land and ocean which the "Dominion of Melchizedek" is asserting control over are areas within the geographical and political boundaries of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
The Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands discourages all independent sovereign nations having diplomatic relations with the Republic from acknowledging any fraudulent claims made by representatives of the "Kingdom of EnenKio" and the "Dominion of Melchizedek".
According to a WHOIS websearch at Network Solutions, the domain "enenkio.org", which had been used for a website promoting the claims of the "Kingdom of EnenKio", was secured by the Japanese firm GMO Internet, Inc. on 6 June 2011. As of 5 December 2011, the domain links to a Japanese dating website.
- http://www.forumsec.org.fj/division/DEPD/Economic_%20Issues/Land%20Issues%20in%20the%20Pacific.pdf#search=%22land%20disputes%20first%20usage%20micronesia%22[dead link]
- http://www.forumsec.org.fj/docs/FEMM/2002/femv06.pdf#search=%22land%20disputes%20first%20usage%20micronesia%22[dead link]
- Robert Tillman (2002). Global Pirates: Fraud in the Offshore Insurance Industry. UPNE. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-55553-505-6.
- Official site (Internet Archive)
- Restraining order issued against Robert F. Moore regarding "Enenkio Gold War bonds"