Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia

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Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Regno Lombardo–Veneto (it)
Königreich Lombardo–Venetien (de)
Österreichisches Italien ("Austrian Italy")[1]


Flag Coat of arms
Outline of the Kingdom in 1852, superimposed on modern borders.
Capital Milan and Venice
Languages Italian, German
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Absolute monarchy
 -  1815–1835 Francis I
 -  1835–1848 Ferdinand I
 -  1848–1866 Francis Joseph I
 -  1815 Heinrich XV
 -  1857–1859 Ferdinand Joseph
 -  Congress of Vienna 9 June 1815
 -  Five Days of Milan 22 March 1848
 -  Treaty of Zurich 10 November 1859
 -  Austro-Prussian War 14 June 1866
 -  Peace of Prague 23 August 1866
 -  Treaty of Vienna 12 October 1866
 -  1852 [2] 46,782 km² (18,063 sq mi)
 -  1852 est.[2] 4,671,000 
     Density 99.8 /km²  (258.6 /sq mi)
Currency Lombardy-Venetia pound,
Lombardy-Venetia florin
Today part of  Italy
Lombardy and Venetia and the main cities of the Kingdom

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, commonly called the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom (Italian: Regno Lombardo-Veneto, German: Königreich Lombardo–Venetien), was created at the Congress of Vienna in recognition of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine's rights to Lombardy and the former Republic of Venice after the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed in 1805, had collapsed.[3] The kingdom was ruled day-to-day by viceroys appointed by the Austrian Imperial Court and resident in Milan and Venice.[2][4][5][6]


The Congress of Vienna combined the territories of Lombardy (which had been ruled by the Habsburgs since the 16th century, and by the Austrian branch of the family from 1713 to 1796) and Venetia (which had been under Austrian rule intermittently since 1797) into a single unit under the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Administratively the Kingdom comprised two independent governments in the two parts. Lombardy included the provinces of Milan, Como, Bergamo, Brescia, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova, Lodi-Crema, and Sondrio. Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Verona, Padova, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno, and Udine.[7]

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was first ruled by Francis I from 1815 to his death in 1835. Ferdinand I ruled from 1835 to 1848. In Milan on 6 September 1838 he became the last king to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. The crown was subsequently brought to Vienna after the loss of Lombardy in 1859, but was restored to Italy after the loss of Venetia in 1866.

After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848 (The Five Days of Milan), the Austrians fled from Milan, which became the capital city of the Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia (Lombardy Provisional Government). The next day, Venice also rose against the Austrians, forming the Governo Provvisorio di Venezia (Venice Provisional Government). The Austrians, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza (24–25 July 1848), entered Milan (6 August) and Venice (24 August 1849), and restored Austrian rule.

Francis Joseph I ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence. His younger brother Maximilian (who later became Emperor of Mexico), served as his viceroy in Milan between 1857 and 1859.

Lombardy was annexed to the embryonic Italian state in 1859, by the Treaty of Zurich after the Second Italian War of Independence; Venetia was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866 in the aftermath of the Seven Weeks War, by the Peace of Prague.[7]



Governors of Lombardy[edit]

Governors of Venetia[edit]


Reign start
Reign end
Francis I
(1768-02-12)12 February 1768 – 2 March 1835(1835-03-02) (aged 67) 9 June 1815 2 March 1835 Habsburg-Lorraine Francis I of Austria
Ferdinand I
  • the Benign
(1793-04-19)19 April 1793 – 29 June 1875(1875-06-29) (aged 82) 2 March 1835 2 December 1848
Son of Francis I Habsburg-Lorraine Ferdinand I of Austria
Francis Joseph I
(1830-08-18)18 August 1830 – 21 November 1916(1916-11-21) (aged 86) 2 December 1848 12 October 1866
Nephew of Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine Francis Joseph I of Austria


  1. ^ Pütz, Wilhelm (1855). Leitfaden bei dem Unterricht in der vergleichenden Erdbeschreibung. Freiburg. 
  2. ^ a b c Fisher, Richard S. (1852). The book of the world: Vol.2. New York. 
  3. ^ Rindler Schjerve, Rosita (2003). Diglossia and Power. Berlin. 
  4. ^ Francis Young & W.B.B. Stevens (1864). Garibaldi: his life and times. London. 
  5. ^ Pollock, Arthur William Alsager (1854). The United service magazine: Vol.75. London. 
  6. ^ Förster, Ernst (1866). Handbuch für Reisende in Italien: Vol.1. Munich. 
  7. ^ a b Rosita Rindler Schjerve (2003) "Diglossia and Power: Language Policies and Practice in the 19th Century Habsburg Empire", ISBN 3-11-017653-X, pp. 199-200

External links[edit]