Kingdom of Montenegro
|Kingdom of Montenegro|
|Краљевина Црнa Горa
Kraljevina Crna Gora
Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori
Убавој нам Црној Гори
"To Our Beautiful Montenegro"
The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1914.
|-||1910–1912||Lazar Tomanovic (first)|
|-||1917–1918||Evgenije Popovic (last)|
|Historical era||World War I|
|-||Proclamation||28 August 1910|
|-||Treaty of London||30 May 1913|
|-||Corfu Declaration||20 July 1917|
|-||Unification with Serbia||28 November 1918|
|-||Creation of Yugoslavia||1 December 1918|
|-||1910||9,475 km² (3,658 sq mi)|
|-||1912||14,442 km² (5,576 sq mi)|
Part of a series on the
|History of Montenegro|
|Middle Ages and early modern|
|Modern and contemporary|
The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнa Горa / Kraljevina Crna Gora), was a monarchy in southeastern Europe during the tumultuous years on the Balkan Peninsula leading up to and during World War I. Legally it was a constitutional monarchy, but absolutist in practice. On 28 November 1918 Montenegro was unified with the Kingdom of Serbia, then three days later, on 1 December 1918, it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Prince Nicholas of Montenegro proclaimed the Kingdom of Montenegro in Cetinje on 28 August 1910. King Nicholas I (as he became) had ruled the country as Prince since 1860, and had initiated several modernizing reforms at the beginning of the 20th century, such as introducing a constitution and a new currency, the Montenegrin perper.
Montenegro joined the First Balkan War in 1912, hoping to get a share in the last Ottoman-controlled areas of Rumelia. Montenegro did make further territorial gains by splitting Sandžak with Serbia on 30 May 1913. But the Montenegrins had to abandon the newly-captured city of İşkodra (Skadar in Serbian, subsequently Shkodër) to the new state of Albania in May 1913, at the insistence of the Great Powers, despite the Montenegrins having invested 10,000 lives into the capture of the town (April 1913) from the Ottoman-Albanian forces of Esad Pasha.
When the Second Balkan War broke out in June 1913, Serbia fought against Bulgaria, and King Nicholas sided with Serbia. Once again Montenegro found itself tossed into war, in which it won substantial additional territory.
During World War I (1914-1918) Montenegro allied itself with the Triple Entente, in line with King Nicholas' pro-Serbian policy. Accordingly, Austria-Hungary occupied Montenegro from 15 January 1916 to October 1918.
On 20 July 1917, the signing of the Corfu Declaration foreshadowed the unification of Montenegro with Serbia. On 28 November 1918, Montenegrin unification with Serbia was proclaimed. Nicholas I had staunchly supported unification with Serbia to form a great Serbian state for all Serbs, but had disputed with the kings of Serbia as to who would rule the new kingdom. The Podgorica Assembly dethroned King Nicholas on 26 November 1918; he died in exile.
Nominally, a later Kingdom of Montenegro existed during World War II. In reality, Italians and then Germans controlled the kingdom without a monarch, with all candidates having refused the crown. Italian-appointed governors ruled this puppet state from 1941 through 1943, and when Italy withdrew, the region came under the direct control of German troops. Yugoslav partisans under Josip Broz Tito took control in December 1944, terminating the ostensible second Kingdom of Montenegro.
King of Montenegro (1910–1918)
- Nicholas I of Montenegro (1910–1918)
- Nicholas I of Montenegro (1918–1921)
- Danilo, Crown Prince of Montenegro (Danilo III) (1921)
- Michael, Prince of Montenegro (Michael I) (1921–1986)
- Prince Nicholas of Montenegro (Nicholas II) (1986–Present)
- Boris of Montenegro (Heir apparent) (born 1980)
Prime Ministers (1910–1916)
- Lazar Tomanović (1910–1912)
- Mitar Martinović (1912–1913)
- Janko Vukotić (1913–1915)
- Milo Matanović (1915–1916)
Prime Ministers in-exile (1916–1922)
- Lazar Mijušković (1916)
- Andrija Radović (1916–1917)
- Milo Matanović (1917)
- Evgenije Popović (1917–1919)
- Jovan Plamenac (1919–1921)
- Anto Gvozdenović (1921–1922)
- Milutin Vučinić (1922)
- Anto Gvozdenović (1922)
- Constitution of the Principality of Montenegro, 1905, Article 40, "Paragraph 1: State religion in Montenegro is Eastern-Orthodox. Paragraph 2: Montenegrin Church is Autocephalous. It is independent from any other Church, but maintains dogmatic unity with Eastern-Orthodox Ecumenical Church. Paragraph 3: All other recognized religions are free in Montenegro." 
- Media related to Kingdom of Montenegro at Wikimedia Commons
- Kingdom of Montenegro in 1918
- Montenegro - World Statesmen