Kingdom of Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Kingdom of
Portugal and the Algarves
Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves

 

1139–1910
 

Flag (1830–1910) Coat of arms (1640–1910)
Anthem
Hino da Carta (1834)
"Anthem of the Charter"
The Kingdom and its empire in 1800
Capital Coimbra
(1139–1255)
Lisbon[a]
(1255–1808)
Rio de Janeiro
(1808–21)
Lisbon
(1821-1910)
Languages
Religion Roman Catholic
Judaism (Crypto-Judaism / Marranos from 1492)
Government Absolute monarchy
(1139–1822; 1823-26; 1828–34)
Constitutional Monarchy
(1822–1823; 1826-28; 1834–1910)
Monarch
 -  1139–1185 Afonso I (first)
 -  1908–1910 Manuel II (last)
Prime Minister
 -  1834–1835 Pedro de Holstein (first)
 -  1910 António Teixeira (last)
Legislature Cortes
 -  Upper house Chamber of Peers
 -  Lower house Chamber of Deputies
History
 -  Battle of Ourique 26 July 1139
 -  Lisbon Regicide 1 February 1908
 -  Revolution of 1910 5 October 1910
Area
 -  1910 (metro) 92,391 km² (35,672 sq mi)
Population
 -  1910 (metro) est. 5,969,056 
     Density 64.6 /km²  (167.3 /sq mi)
Currency Portuguese dinheiro,
(1139–1433)
Portuguese real
(1433–1910)
Today part of  Portugal
 Spain
a. ^ The capital was de facto located at Rio de Janeiro from 1808 to 1821.

The Kingdom of Portugal (after 1248 also Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves, Portuguese: Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves;[1] Latin: Regnum Portugalliae et Algarbia, and United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves during 1815–1822), was a monarchy in the Iberian peninsula and its colonial empire, the predecessor state of modern Portugal, in existence from 1139 until 1910.

The nucleus of the Portuguese state was the County of Portugal (Portuguese: Condado de Portugal) established in the 9th century as part of the Reconquista, by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the King of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León (Castillian: Reino de León; Portuguese: Reino de Leão) in 1097, and the Counts of Portugal established themselves as rulers of an independent kingdom in the 12th century, following the battle of São Mamede. The kingdom was ruled by the Alfonsine Dynasty until the 1383–85 Crisis, after which the monarchy passed to the House of Aviz.

During the 15th and 16th century, Portuguese exploration established a vast colonial empire. From 1580 to 1640, the kingdom of Portugal was in personal union with Habsburg Spain.

After the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640–1668, the kingdom passed to the House of Braganza. From this time, the influence of Portugal declined, but it remained a major power due to its most valuable colony, Brazil. After the independence of Brazil, Portugal sought to establish itself in Africa, but was ultimately forced to yield to the British interests, leading to the collapse of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution and the establishment of the First Portuguese Republic.

Origins[edit]

The Kingdom of Portugal finds its origins in the County of Portugal (1093–1139). The Portuguese County was a semi-autonomous county of the Kingdom of León. Independence from León took place in three stages:

  1. The first on 26 July 1139 when Afonso Henriques was acclaimed King of the Portuguese[2] internally.
  2. The second was on 5 October of 1143, when Alfonso VII of León and Castile recognized Afonso Henriques as king through the Treaty of Zamora.
  3. The third, on 1179, was the Papal Bull Manifestis Probatum, in which Portugal's independence was recognized by Pope Alexander III.

Once Portugal was independent, D. Afonso I's descendants, members of the Portuguese House of Burgundy, would rule Portugal until 1383. Even after the change in royal houses, all the monarchs of Portugal were descended from Afonso I, one way or another, through both legitimate and illegitimate links.

An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire.

Medieval history[edit]

Renaissance and First Empire[edit]

Early modern history[edit]

Modern history[edit]

Fall of the Monarchy[edit]

With the start of the 20th century, Republicanism grew in numbers and support in Lisbon among progressive politicians and the influential press. However a minority with regard to the rest of the country, this height of republicanism would benefit politically from the Lisbon Regicide on 1 February 1908. When returning from the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa, King Carlos I and the Prince Royal Luís Filipe were assassinated in the Terreiro do Paço, in Lisbon. With the death of the king and his heir, Carlos I's second son would become king as King Manuel II of Portugal. Manuel's reign, however, would be short-lived, ending by force with the 5 October 1910 revolution, sending Manuel into exile in England and giving way to the Portuguese First Republic.

On 19 January 1919, the Monarchy of the North was proclaimed in Porto. The monarchy would be deposed a month later and no other monarchist counterrevolution in Portugal has happened since.

After the republican revolution in 1910, the remaining colonies of the empire became overseas provinces of the Portuguese Republic until the late 20th century, when the last overseas territories of Portugal were handed over (most notably Portuguese Africa which included the overseas provinces of Angola and Mozambique in 1975, and finally Macau in 1999).

After centuries of Portuguese dominion in Angola, the Kingdom of Kongo was made a vassal state of the Portuguese kingdom, its king pledging allegiance to the King of Portugal.

Rulers[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Galician-Portuguese (until 16th century)
    Modern Portuguese (16th century on)
  2. ^ Widely used for administrative and liturgical purposes. Medieval Latin replaced by Renaissance Latin by 15th century.
  1. ^ Serrão, "... pescado nos mares do Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves e ilhas adjacentes." p. 288; Mattoso, Hespanha, "Todo o território do Reino de Portugal e dos Algarves era coberto pela rede paroquial..." p. 274; Soriano, p. 307; São Miguel, da Fonseca, p. 19
  2. ^ Wilner, Hero, Weiner, p. 190

Sources[edit]

  • Joaquim Veríssimo Serrão, História de Portugal: Do mindelo á regeneração (1832-1851)
  • José Mattoso, António Manuel Hespanha, História de Portugal 4: O Antigo Regime (1620-1807), (1998) ISBN 972-33-1311-1
  • Simão José da Luz Soriano, Historia da Guerra Civil e do estabelecimento do governo parlamentar em Portugal: comprehedendo a historia diplomatica, militar e politica d'este reino desde 1777 até 1834 Volume 9 (1893)
  • Jacinto de São Miguel (Frei), Martinho Augusto Ferreira da Fonseca, Mosteiro de Belém: Relação da insigne e real casa de Santa Maria de Belém (1901)
  • Mark Willner, George Hero, Jerry Weiner, Global History Volume I: The Ancient World to the Age of Revolution (2006) ISBN 978-0-7641-5811-7
  • Douglas L. Wheeler, Republican Portugal: A Political History, 1910-1926 (1998) ISBN 978-0-299-07454-8

See also[edit]

Coordinates: 38°42′N 9°11′W / 38.700°N 9.183°W / 38.700; -9.183