Kingdom of Toledo
In April 1065 Emir Al-Muqtadir of Zaragoza besieged Barbastro, aided by 500 Sevillian knights.[clarification needed] The governor, Count Ermengol II of Urgel, was killed in a sortie, and a few days later the city fell, whereupon the Spanish and French garrison was put to the sword, thus bringing an end to Pope Alexander II's prototype crusade.[clarification needed]
At around the same time Emir Al-Muqtadir broke off relationships with Castile, and Ferdinand I lead a punitive expedition into Zaragoza - taking Alquezar - and then into Valencia. Despite being a tributary of Castile, emir Al-Mamun of Toledo lead a force in support of his son-in-law Emir Abd al-Malik. Mamun subsequently dethroned Abd al-Malik and incorporated Valencia into the Kingdom of Toledo. Ferdinand fell dangerously ill and retired from the field. Ferdinand died in December 1065, and his empire was divided between his three sons: Sancho II in Castile, Alfonso VI in León, and Garcia in Galicia.
In May 1085, after skilfully managing to pit the several Muslim kings against each other and defeating a coalition of the taifas of Seville, Badajoz and Zaragoza, Alfonso VI was able to enter the city of Toledo; the latter's taifa was incorporated with Castile and the city was made the capital of León and Castile. The former taifa lands remained subject to a long struggle with its Muslim neighbours, at least until the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212).
The "Kingdom of Toledo" was not actually independent of the Castillan kingdom, being just an official denomination for the so-called New Castile, differentiating the recent conquest from the Muslims from the previously held lands of "Old Castile". It did represent a distinct administrative unit, having its own court officers.
See also