Kingisepp

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"Yamburg" redirects here. For other uses, see Yamburg (disambiguation).
For the town in Estonia formerly known as "Kingissepa", see Kuressaare.
Kingisepp (English)
Кингисепп (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Фотографии Кингисеппа 0002.jpg
Views of Kingisepp
Map of Russia - Leningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
Kingisepp is located in Leningrad Oblast
Kingisepp
Kingisepp
Location of Kingisepp in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°37′E / 59.367°N 28.617°E / 59.367; 28.617Coordinates: 59°22′N 28°37′E / 59.367°N 28.617°E / 59.367; 28.617
Coat of Arms of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Flag of Kingisepp (Leningrad oblast).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2013)
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative district Kingiseppsky District[1]
Settlement municipal formation Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Administrative center of Kingiseppsky District,[1] Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Municipal status (as of May 2010)
Municipal district Kingiseppsky Municipal District[2]
Urban settlement Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Administrative center of Kingiseppsky Municipal District,[2] Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 48,488 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 327th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[4]
First mentioned 1384[5]
Previous names Yam (until May 14, 1703),[6]
Yamburg (until 1922)[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 188480, 188482, 188485, 188487, 188489, 188499
Dialing code(s) +7 81375[citation needed]
Official website
Kingisepp on WikiCommons

Kingisepp (Russian: Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Finnish: Jaama[8]), formerly Yamburg (Я́мбург), Yam (Я́м), and Yama (Я́ма), is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River 138 kilometers (86 mi) southwest of St. Petersburg, 20 kilometers (12 mi) east of Narva, and 40 kilometers (25 mi) south of the Gulf of Finland. Population: 48,488 (2010 Census);[3] 50,295 (2002 Census);[9] 49,954 (1989 Census).[10]

History[edit]

14th century[edit]

The town was first documented in 1384, when the Novgorodians under Patrikas built there a fortress against the Swedes.[5] It was called Yama or Yamsky Gorodok, after the Ingrian (ethnic Finnic group) name Jaama.[8] The environs of the town are still cited as the main location of speakers of the nearly extinct Ingrian language. The citadel withstood sieges by the Swedes in 1395 and by the Teutonic Knights during the 1444-1448 war.

15-16th century[edit]

The town became the most important economic center of the Vodskaya pyatina of the Novgorod Republic. There were 201 homesteads in the 15th century in the town; its total population can only be evaluated roughly based on the estimates of three to five persons per homestead.[5] At the end of the Livonian War, it was ceded to Sweden, only to be returned twelve years later, in 1595.

17th century[edit]

Following the Treaty of Stolbovo, it again passed to the Swedes, who kept the name which in Swedish orthography became Jama or Jamo. The town was completely destroyed by Russian armies during the war of 1656–1658, after which only the citadel remained intact. It is questionable whether the town, with its exclusively Russian population, ever recovered.

18th century[edit]

First held by the Russians for a month in late 1700,[citation needed] the citadel was finally taken by the Russians in the course of the Great Northern War in 1703.[11] On May 14, 1703, Yam was renamed Yamburg[6] (a German version of the name). Five years later, Peter the Great granted the town to Alexander Menshikov[11] in his capacity of the Duke of Izhora. In the course of the administrative reform, Yamburg was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate).[citation needed] In 1780, Catherine the Great re-approved with some changes a previously existing coat of arms.[6] Uyezd town status was granted to it in 1784.[11]

20th century[edit]

Russian Civil War[edit]

Jambourg Bridge, destroyed by the White Army, 1919

Vladimir Lenin reportedly stayed in Yamburg in January 1919, when he ordered the Bolshevik troops to retake the town of Narva from Estonian forces.[12] In October 1919, the anti-Bolshevist commander, General Nikolai Yudenich captured Yamburg, which marked the beginning of the push by the Northwestern White Army towards Petrograd.[13] However, the Bolsheviks subsequently re-captured Yamburg on November 14, 1919.[14] On November 16, 1919, the forces of General Yudenich were "crowded together in a small space near Yamburg" "in a serious state of disorganization", reported The New York Times.[15]

The German form of the town name was retained until 1922, when the Bolsheviks renamed it in honor of the Estonian Communist leader Viktor Kingissepp.

Kingisepp–Gdov Offensive[edit]

During World War II, Kingisepp was occupied by German troops from August 16, 1941 until February 1, 1944, when the 109th Rifle Division captured the town, forcing the German 18th Army into new positions on the eastern bank of Narva.[16]

Administrative changes[edit]

In the beginning of the 20th century, Yamburg was the seat of Yamburgsky Uyezd of St. Petersburg Governorate (later known as Petrograd and Leningrad Governorate).[17] On May 17, 1922, Yamburgsky Uyezd was renamed Kingiseppsky, simultaneously with the town.[18]

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Kingiseppsky District, with the administrative center in Kingisepp, was established.[18] The governorates were also abolished, and the district became a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.[19] On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. Between March 22, 1935 and September 19, 1940, Kingisepp was the administrative center of Kingisepp Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. After Kingisepp Okrug was abolished on September 19, 1940, Kigisepp became a town of oblast significance on December 17, 1940.[19] In 2010, the administrative structure of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal structure[20] and Kingisepp became a town of district significance.

Administrative and municipal divisions[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Kingisepp serves as the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with the village of Porkhovo, incorporated within Kingiseppsky District as Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation.[1] As a municipal division, Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Kingiseppsky Municipal District as Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement.[2]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The economy of Kingisepp is based on chemical, glass, and food industries.

Transportation[edit]

The railway connecting St. Petersburg with Tallinn passes through Kingisepp. There is infrequent suburban service to the Baltiysky railway station in St. Petersburg and to Ivangorod.

The A180 Highway, connecting St. Petersburg and Ivangorod, passes Kingisepp as well. It coincides with the European route E20 connecting St. Petersburg via Tallinn with Shannon Airport. Kingisepp is also connected by road with Volosovo and Slantsy.

Culture[edit]

Kingisepp contains thirteen cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally seventeen objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments include the Yam Fortress, the St. Catherine Cathedral (by Antonio Rinaldi), and the complex of military barracks of the 19th century.[21]

Yamburg's St. Catherine Cathedral was built in 1764-1782 to a late Baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi

Kingisepp has a local history museum. It was open in 1960 and is located in the buildings of the St. Catherine Cathedral. In 1990, the cathedral was transferred to Russian Orthodox Church and the museum was closed until 1999, when it re-opened in the former building of the commercial school, an architecture monument.[22]

Kingisepp museum

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Kingisepp is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b c d e Law #81-oz
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b c Bernadsky, Viktor Nikolayevich (1961). Новгород и новгородская земля в XV веке (Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in the 15th century). Leningrad: published by the USSR Academy of Sciences. pp. 123–124. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - История" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Администрации. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ a b http://www.hs.fi/english/article/Last+of+the+Ingrian+grannies+hold+on/1329104265831
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 188. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  12. ^ "Allies Repulse Reds' Attack at the Dvina". New York Tribune. January 29, 1919. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Push on Petrograd Marked by Taking of Russian Town". The Democratic Banner (Columbus, OH). Ohio Historical Society. October 14, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd". New York Tribune (Washington, DC). Library of Congress. November 15, 1919. p. 4. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Yudenitch a Refuge? Bolshevist Commander Said to Have Arrived in Esthonian Capital.". The New York Times. November 23, 1919. p. 7. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  16. ^ David M. Glantz (2002). The Battle for Leningrad: 1941-1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4. 
  17. ^ "Ямбург, город" (in Russian). Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  18. ^ a b "Ямбургский уезд (1917 г. - май 1922 г.), Кингисеппский уезд (май 1922 г. - август 1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  19. ^ a b "Кингисеппский район (август 1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году" (in Russian). Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области. Retrieved March 3, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Кингисеппский историко-краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved April 3, 2013. 

Sources[edit]

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Russian Wikipedia.
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №81-оз от 28 октября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Кингисеппский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (29 ноября 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №34, 19 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #81-oz of October 28, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of Kingiseppsky Municipal District and to the Municipal Formations Comprised By It, as amended by the Oblast Law #17-oz of May 6, 2010 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation Due to the Improvement of the Organization of the Local Self-Government". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication (November 29, 2004).).

External links[edit]