|- Town -|
Location of Leningrad Oblast in Russia
|Administrative status (as of May 2012)|
|Federal subject||Leningrad Oblast|
|Administrative district||Kingiseppsky District|
|Settlement municipal formation||Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation|
|Administrative center of||Kingiseppsky District, Kingiseppskoye Settlement Municipal Formation|
|Municipal status (as of November 2011)|
|Municipal district||Kingiseppsky Municipal District|
|Urban settlement||Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement|
|Administrative center of||Kingiseppsky Municipal District, Kingiseppskoye Urban Settlement|
|Population (2010 Census)||48,488 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||327th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Previous names||Yam (until May 14, 1703),
Yamburg (until 1922)
|Dialing code(s)||+7 81375|
Kingisepp (Russian: Ки́нгисепп or Кингисе́пп; Finnish: Jaama), formerly Yamburg (Я́мбург), Yam (Я́м), and Yama (Я́ма), is an ancient town and the administrative center of Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located along the Luga River 110 kilometers (68 mi) west of St. Petersburg, 20 kilometers (12 mi) east of Narva, and 49 kilometers (30 mi) south of the Gulf of Finland. Population: 48,488 (2010 Census); 50,295 (2002 Census); 49,954 (1989 Census).
The town was first documented in 1384, when the Novgorodians under Patrikas built there a fortress against the Swedes. They called it Yama or Yamsky Gorodok after the Ingrian (ethnic Finnic group) name Jaama. The environs of the town are still cited as the main location of speakers of the nearly extinct Ingrian language . The citadel withstood sieges by the Teutonic Knights in 1395 and during the 1444-1448 war.
The town became the most important economic center of the Vodskaya pyatina of the republic. There were 201 homesteads in the 15th century in the town; its total population can only be evaluated roughly based on the estimates of 3-5 persons per homestead. At the end of the Livonian War, it was ceded to Sweden, only to be returned twelve years later, in 1595.
Following the Treaty of Stolbovo, it again passed to the Swedes, who kept the name which in Swedish orthography became Jama or Jamo. The township was completely destroyed by Russian armies during the war of 1656–8, after which only the citadel remained intact. It is questionable whether the township, with its exclusively Russian townspeople, ever recovered.
In 1703, the citadel was finally taken by the Russians in the course of the Great Northern War (it was first held by the Russians for a month in late 1700). On May 14, 1703, Yam was renamed Yamburg (a German version of the name). Five years later, Peter the Great granted the town to Alexander Menshikov in his capacity of the Duke of Izhora. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Yamburg was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1780, Catherine II re-approved with some changes a previously existing coat of arms. Town status was granted in 1784.
Russian Civil War
Vladimir Lenin reportedly stayed in Yamburg in January 1919, when he ordered the Bolshevik troops to retake the town of Narva from Estonian forces. In October 1919, the anti-Bolshevist commander, General Nikolai Yudenich captured Yamburg, which marked the beginning of the push by the Northwestern White Army towards Petrograd. However, the Bolsheviks consequently re-captured Yamburg on November 14, 1919. On November 16, 1919, The forces of General Yudenitch were "crowded together in a small space near Yamburg", "in a serious state of disorganization", reported The New York Times at the time.
The German form of the town name was retained until 1922, when the Bolsheviki renamed it in honor of the Estonian Communist leader Viktor Kingissepp. It should not be confused with the Estonian town of Kuressaare, formerly Kingissepa (1952-1988).
In the beginning of the 20th century, Yamburg was the center of Yamburgsky Uyezd of Saint Petersburg (later Petrograd, Leningrad) Governorate. In May 1922, Yamburgsky Uyezd was renamed Kingiseppsky, simultaneously with the town.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Kingiseppsky District, with the administrative center in Kingisepp, was established. The governorates were also abolished, and the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. Between March 22, 1935 and September 19, 1940, Kingisepp was a center of Kingisepp Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. After Kingisepp Okrug was abolished, Kigisepp became a town of oblast significance. In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, and Volkhov was made the town of district significance.
Administrative and municipal status
The economy of Kingisepp is based on chemical, glass, and food industries.
The A180 highway, connecting Saint Petersburg and Ivangorod, passes Kingisepp as well. It coincides with the European route E20 connecting Saint Petersburg via Tallinn with Shannon Airport. Kingisepp is also connected by road with Volosovo and Slantsy.
Kingisepp contains thirteen cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally seventeen objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments include the Yam Fortress, the Saint Catherine Cathedral (by Antonio Rinaldi), and the complex of military barracks of the 19th century.
Kingisepp has a local history museum. It was open in 1960 and located in the buildings of the Saint Catherine Cathedral. In 1990, the cathedral was transferred to Russian Orthodox Church, and the museum was closed until 1999, when it re-opened in the former building of the commercial school, an architecture monument.
Twin towns and sister cities
Kingisepp is twinned with:
- Grigory Spiridonovich Petrov (1868–1925), politician
- Gustav Heinrich Johann Apollon Tammann (1861–1938), scientist
- Aleksandr Kerzhakov (1982), association football player
- Mikhail Kerzhakov (1987), association football player
- Aleksei Ionov (1989), association football player
- Ivan Shpakov (1986), association football player
- Oblast Law #32-oz
- Law #81-oz
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Bernadsky, Viktor Nikolayevich (1961). Новгород и новгородская земля в XV веке (Novgorod and the Novgorod Land in 15th century). Leningrad (Saint Petersburg): published by the USSR Academy of Sciences. pp. 123–124.
- "Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - История" (in Russian). Официальный сайт Администрации. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Кингисепп - официальный сайт Администрации МО Кингисеппское городское поселение - О городе" (in Russian). Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Allies Repulse Reds' Attack At the Dvina". New York Tribune. 29 January 1919. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Push on Petrograd Marked by Taking of Russian Town". The Democratic Banner (Columbus, OH). Ohio Historical Society. 14 October 1919. p. 1. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Bolsheviki Grain Near Petrograd". New York Tribune (Washington, DC). Library of Congress. 15 November 1919. p. 4. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- "Yudenitch a Refuge? Bolshevist Commander Said to Have Arrived in Esthonian Capital.". The New York Times. 23 November 1919. p. 7. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
- David M. Glantz (2002). The Battle for Leningrad: 1941-1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.
- "Ямбургский уезд (1917 - май 1922 ), Кингисеппский уезд (май, 1922 - авг. 1927 г.)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- "Кингисеппский район (август 1927)" (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году" (in Russian). Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved April 3, 2013.
- "Кингисеппский историко-краеведческий музей" (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 3 April 2013.